Surfing

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This article is about stand-up ocean surfing. For other uses, see Surfing (disambiguation).
A surfer at the Cayucos Pier, Cayucos, California
A surfer rides down a wave as it breaks

Surfing is a surface water sport in which the wave rider, referred to as a surfer, rides on the forward or deep face of a moving wave, which is usually carrying the surfer towards the shore. Waves suitable for surfing are primarily found in the ocean, but can also be found in lakes or in rivers in the form of a standing wave or tidal bore. However, surfers can also utilize man-made waves such as those from boat wakes and the waves created in artificial wave pools.

The term surfing refers to the act of riding a wave, regardless of whether the wave is ridden with a board or without a board, and regardless of the stance used (goofy or regular stance). The native peoples of the Pacific, for instance, surfed waves on alaia, paipo, and other such craft, and did so on their bellies and knees. The modern-day definition of surfing, however, most often refers to a surfer riding a wave standing up on a surfboard; this is also referred to as stand-up surfing.

One variety of stand-up surfing is paddle boarding. Another prominent form of surfing is body boarding, when a surfer rides a wave on a bodyboard, either lying on their belly, drop knee, or sometimes even standing up on a body board. Other types of surfing include knee boarding, surf matting (riding inflatable mats), and using foils. Body surfing, where the wave is surfed without a board, using the surfer's own body to catch and ride the wave, is very common and is considered by some to be the purest form of surfing.

Three major subdivisions within standing-up surfing are long boarding, short boarding, and stand up paddle surfing (SUP), and these three have several major differences, including the board design and length, the riding style, and the kind of wave that is ridden.

In tow-in surfing (most often, but not exclusively, associated with big wave surfing), a motorized water vehicle, such as a personal watercraft, tows the surfer into the wave front, helping the surfer match a large wave's higher speed, which is generally a higher speed than a self-propelled surfer can produce. Surfing-related sports such as paddle boarding and sea kayaking do not require waves, and other derivative sports such as kite surfing and windsurfing rely primarily on wind for power, yet all of these platforms may also be used to ride waves. Recently with the use of V-drive boats, Wakesurfing, in which one surfs on the wake of a boat, has emerged. The Guinness Book of World Records recognized a 78 feet (23.8 m) wave ride by Garrett McNamara at Nazaré, Portugal as the largest wave ever surfed.[1]

Origins and history[edit]

For centuries, surfing was a central part of ancient Polynesian culture. Surfing may have first been observed by Europeans at Tahiti in 1767 by Samuel Wallis and the crew members of the Dolphin who were the first Europeans to visit the island in June of that year. Another candidate is the botanist Joseph Banks[2] being part of the first voyage of James Cook on the HMS Endeavour, who arrived on on Tahiti on 10 April 1769. Lieutenant James King was the first person to write about the art of surfing on Hawaii when he was completing the journals of Captain James Cook upon Cook's death in 1779.

When Mark Twain visited Hawaii in 1866 he wrote,

In one place we came upon a large company of naked natives, of both sexes and all ages, amusing themselves with the national pastime of surf-bathing.[3]

References to surf riding on planks and single canoe hulls are also verified for pre-contact Samoa, where surfing was called fa'ase'e or se'egalu (see Augustin Krämer, The Samoa Islands[4]) and Tonga far pre-dating the practice of surfing by Hawaiians and eastern Polynesians by over a thousand years.

George Freeth (8 November 1883 – 7 April 1919) is often credited as being the "Father of Modern Surfing". He is thought to have been the first modern surfer.

In 1907, the eclectic interests of the land baron Henry Huntington brought the ancient art of surfing to the California coast. While on vacation, Huntington had seen Hawaiian boys surfing the island waves. Looking for a way to entice visitors to the area of Redondo Beach, where he had heavily invested in real estate, he hired a young Hawaiian to ride surfboards. George Freeth decided to revive the art of surfing, but had little success with the huge 16-foot hardwood boards that were popular at that time. When he cut them in half to make them more manageable, he created the original “Long board", which made him the talk of the islands. To the delight of visitors, Freeth exhibited his surfing skills twice a day in front of the Hotel Redondo.

Surf waves[edit]

Photo of surfer catapulted from now-inverted board
A surfer wipes out
Photo showing surfer inside the curl of a breaking wave in turbulent waters
A surfer inside the curl of a wave that is breaking
Photo of taller-than-human-sized wave breaking with several watching surfers in foreground
A large wave breaking

Swell is generated when wind blows consistently over a large area of open water, called the wind's fetch. The size of a swell is determined by the strength of the wind and the length of its fetch and duration. Because of this, surf tends to be larger and more prevalent on coastlines exposed to large expanses of ocean traversed by intense low pressure systems.

Local wind conditions affect wave quality, since the surface of a wave can become choppy in blustery conditions. Ideal conditions include a light to moderate "offshore" wind, because it blows into the front of the wave, making it a "barrel" or "tube" wave. Waves are Left handed and Right Handed depending upon the breaking formation of the wave.

Waves are generally recognized by the surfaces over which they break.[5] For example, there are Beach breaks, Reef breaks and Point breaks.

The most important influence on wave shape is the topography of the seabed directly behind and immediately beneath the breaking wave. The contours of the reef or bar front becomes stretched by diffraction. Each break is different, since each location's underwater topography is unique. At beach breaks, sandbanks change shape from week to week. Surf forecasting is aided by advances in information technology. Mathematical modeling graphically depicts the size and direction of swells around the globe.

Swell regularity varies across the globe and throughout the year. During winter, heavy swells are generated in the mid-latitudes, when the North and South polar fronts shift toward the Equator. The predominantly Westerly winds generate swells that advance Eastward, so waves tend to be largest on West coasts during winter months. However, an endless train of mid-latitude cyclones cause the isobars to become undulated, redirecting swells at regular intervals toward the tropics.

East coasts also receive heavy winter swells when low-pressure cells form in the sub-tropics, where slow moving highs inhibit their movement. These lows produce a shorter fetch than polar fronts, however they can still generate heavy swells, since their slower movement increases the duration of a particular wind direction. The variables of fetch and duration both influence how long wind acts over a wave as it travels, since a wave reaching the end of a fetch behaves as if the wind died.

During summer, heavy swells are generated when cyclones form in the tropics. Tropical cyclones form over warm seas, so their occurrence is influenced by El Niño & La Niña cycles. Their movements are unpredictable. They can move Westward as in 1979, when Tropical Cyclone Kerry wandered for three weeks across the Coral Sea and into Queensland before dissipating.

Surf travel and some surf camps offer surfers access to remote, tropical locations, where tradewinds ensure offshore conditions. Since winter swells are generated by mid-latitude cyclones, their regularity coincides with the passage of these lows. Swells arrive in pulses, each lasting for a couple of days, with a few days between each swell.

The availability of free model data from the NOAA has allowed the creation of several surf forecasting websites.

Wave intensity[edit]

Drawing showing cross-section of a wave with the top curling from left to right over an air-filled region known as its tube. The tube contains one double-headed arrow pointing to the lower left and upper right labeled width and a second point to upper left and lower right labeled length.
The geometry of tube shape can be represented as a ratio between length and width. A perfectly cylindrical vortex has a ratio of 1:1, while the classic almond-shaped tube is nearer 3:1. When width exceeds length, the tube is described as "square".

Classification parameters

  • Tube shape defined by length to width ratio
    • Square: <1:1
    • Round: 1-2:1
    • Almond: >2:1
  • Tube speed defined by angle of peel line
    • Fast: 30°
    • Medium: 45°
    • Slow: 60°
Wave intensity table
Fast Medium Slow
Square The Cobra Teahupoo Shark Island
Round Speedies, Gnaraloo Banzai Pipeline
Almond Lagundri Bay, Superbank Jeffreys Bay, Bells Beach Angourie Point

Artificial reefs[edit]

The value of good surf in attracting surf tourism has prompted the construction of artificial reefs and sand bars. Artificial surfing reefs can be built with durable sandbags or concrete, and resemble a submerged breakwater. These artificial reefs not only provide a surfing location, but also dissipate wave energy and shelter the coastline from erosion. Ships such as Seli 1 that have accidentally stranded on sandy bottoms, can create sandbanks that give rise to good waves.[6]

An artificial reef known as Chevron Reef was constructed in El Segundo, California in hopes of creating a new surfing area. However, the reef failed to produce any quality waves and was removed in 2008. In Kovalam, South West India, an artificial reef has, however, successfully provided the local community with a quality lefthander, stabilized coastal soil erosion, and provided good habitat for marine life.[7] ASR Ltd., a New Zealand based company, constructed the Kovalam reef and is working on another reef in Boscombe, England.

Even with artificial reefs in place, a tourist's vacation time may coincide with a "flat spell", when no waves are available. Completely artificial Wave pools aim to solve that problem by controlling all the elements that go into creating perfect surf, however there are only a handful of wave pools that can simulate good surfing waves, owing primarily to construction and operation costs and potential liability. Most wave pools generate waves that are too small and lack the power necessary to surf. The Seagaia Ocean Dome, located in Miyazaki, Japan, was an example of a surfable wave pool. Able to generate waves with up to 10-foot faces, the specialized pump held water in 20 vertical tanks positioned along the back edge of the pool. This allowed the waves to be directed as they approach the artificial sea floor. Lefts, Rights, and A-frames could be directed from this pump design providing for rippable surf and barrel rides. The Ocean Dome cost about $2 billion to build and was expensive to maintain.[8] The Ocean Dome was closed in 2007.

Surfers and surf culture[edit]

Main article: Surf culture

Surfers represent a diverse culture based on riding the waves. Some people practice surfing as a recreational activity while others make it the central focus of their lives. Within the United States, surfing culture is most dominant in Hawaii and California because these two states offer the best surfing conditions. However, waves can be found wherever there is coastline, and a tight-knit yet far-reaching subculture of surfers has emerged throughout America. Some historical markers of the culture included the woodie, the station wagon used to carry surfers' boards, as well as boardshorts, the long swim shorts typically worn while surfing. Surfers also wear wetsuits in colder regions.

The sport of surfing now represents a multi-billion dollar industry especially in clothing and fashion markets. The Association of Surfing Professionals (ASP) runs the world tour, hosting only the best competitors in some of the best surf spots around the globe. Other people make a career out of surfing by receiving corporate sponsorships and performing for photographers and videographers in far-flung destinations; they are typically referred to as freesurfers.

When the waves were flat, surfers persevered with sidewalk surfing, which is now called skateboarding. Sidewalk surfing has a similar feel to surfing and requires only a paved road or sidewalk. To create the feel of the wave, surfers even sneak into empty backyard swimming pools to ride in, known as pool skating. Eventually, surfing made its way to the slopes with the invention of the Snurfer, later credited as the first snowboard. Many other board sports have been invented over the years, but all can trace their heritage back to surfing.

Maneuvers[edit]

A surfer at Mavericks

Surfing begins when the surfer paddles toward shore in an attempt to match the speed of the wave. Once the wave begins to carry the surfer forward, the surfer stands up and proceeds to ride the wave. The basic idea is to position the surfboard so it is just ahead of the breaking part (white water) of the wave. A common problem for beginners is being able to catch the wave at all.

Surfers' skills are tested by their ability to control their board in difficult conditions, riding challenging waves, and executing maneuvers such as strong turns and cutbacks (turning board back to the breaking wave) and carving (a series of strong back-to-back maneuvers). More advanced skills include the floater (riding on top of the breaking curl of the wave), and off the lip (banking off the breaking wave). A newer addition to surfing is the progression of the air whereby a surfer propels off the wave entirely up into the air, and then successfully lands the board back on the wave.

Riding a small tube.

The tube ride is considered to be the ultimate maneuver in surfing. As a wave breaks, if the conditions are ideal, the wave will break in an orderly line from the middle to the shoulder, enabling the experienced surfer to position themselves inside the wave as it is breaking. This is known as a tube ride. Viewed from the shore, the tube rider may disappear from view as the wave breaks over the rider's head. The longer the surfer remains in the tube, the more successful the ride. This is referred to as getting tubed, barreled, shacked or pitted. Some of the world's best known waves for tube riding include Pipeline on the North shore of Oahu, Teahupoo in Tahiti and G-Land in Java. Other names for the tube include "the barrel", and "the pit".

Hanging ten and Hanging five are moves usually specific to long boarding and is considered[9] one of the most impressive and iconic stunts one can perform. Hanging Ten refers to having both feet on the front end of the board with all of the surfer's toes off the edge, also known as [nose-riding]. Hanging Five is having just one foot near the front, with five toes off the edge.

Cutback: Generating speed down the line and then turning back to reverse direction.

Floater: Suspending the board atop the wave. Very popular on small waves.

Top-Turn: Turn off the top of the wave. Sometimes used to generate speed and sometimes to shoot spray.

Air / Aerial: Launching the board off the wave entirely, then re-entering the wave. Various airs include ollies, lien airs, method airs, and other skateboard-like maneuvers.

Terms[edit]

See Glossary of surfing
Photo of surfer at bottom of wave, attempting to let tube envelop him
A surfer going for the tube

Learning[edit]

Many popular surfing destinations have surf schools and surf camps that offer lessons. Surf camps for beginners and intermediates are multi-day lessons that focus on surfing fundamentals. They are designed to take new surfers and help them become proficient riders. All-inclusive surf camps offer overnight accommodations, meals, lessons and surfboards. Most surf lessons begin with instruction and a safety briefing on land, followed by instructors helping students into waves on longboards or "softboards". The softboard is considered the ideal surfboard for learning, due to the fact it is safer, and has more paddling speed and stability than shorter boards. Funboards are also a popular shape for beginners as they combine the volume and stability of the longboard with the manageable size of a smaller surfboard.[10] New and inexperienced surfers typically learn to catch waves on softboards around the 7-8 foot funboard size. Due to the softness of the surfboard the chance of getting injured is substantially minimized. Costco's alaia design Wavestorm surfboard is a cheap and cost efficient option; unlike many surfboards, this one comes with rubber fins, stock leash, pre-installed traction.[11]

Typical surfing instruction is best performed one-on-one, but can also be done in a group setting. The most popular surf locations offer perfect surfing conditions for beginners, as well as challenging breaks for advanced students. The ideal conditions for learning would be small waves that crumble and break softly, as opposed to the steep, fast-peeling waves desired by more experienced surfers. When available, a sandy seabed is generally safer.

Surfing can be broken into several skills: Paddling strength, Positioning to catch the wave, timing, and balance. Paddling out requires strength, but also the mastery of techniques to break through oncoming waves (duck diving, eskimo roll). Take-off positioning requires experience at predicting the wave set and where they will break. The surfer must pop up quickly as soon as the wave starts pushing the board forward. Preferred positioning on the wave is determined by experience at reading wave features including where the wave is breaking.[12] Balance plays a crucial role in standing on a surfboard. Thus, balance training exercises are a good preparation. Practicing with a Balance board or swing boarding helps novices master the art.

Equipment[edit]

Photo of woman bent over surfboard rubbing bar of solid wax against the board with palm trees and ocean in background
Waxing a surfboard
Photo of dozens of surfboards on rack. Each board is perpendicular to the ground and parallel to the other boards. Ocean in background.
Longboards at Waikiki beach

Surfing can be done on various equipment, including surfboards, longboards, Stand Up Paddle boards (SUP's), bodyboards, wave skis, skimboards, kneeboards, surf mats and macca's trays. Surfboards were originally made of solid wood and were large and heavy (often up to 12 ft or 3.7 m long and 150 lb or 68 kg). Lighter balsa wood surfboards (first made in the late 1940s and early 1950s) were a significant improvement, not only in portability, but also in increasing maneuverability.

Most modern surfboards are made of fiberglass foam (PU), with one or more wooden strips or "stringers", fiberglass cloth, and polyester resin (PE). An emerging board material is epoxy resin and Expanded Polystyrene foam (EPS) which is stronger and lighter than traditional PU/PE construction. Even newer designs incorporate materials such as carbon fiber and variable-flex composites in conjunction with fiberglass and epoxy or polyester resins. Since epoxy/EPS surfboards are generally lighter, they will float better than a traditional PU/PE board of similar size, shape and thickness. This makes them easier to paddle and faster in the water. However, a common complaint of EPS boards is that they do not provide as much feedback as a traditional PU/PE board. For this reason, many advanced surfers prefer that their surfboards be made from traditional materials.

Other equipment includes a leash (to stop the board from drifting away after a wipeout, and to prevent it from hitting other surfers), surf wax, traction pads (to keep a surfer's feet from slipping off the deck of the board), and fins (also known as skegs) which can either be permanently attached (glassed-on) or interchangeable. Sportswear designed or particularly suitable for surfing may be sold as boardwear (the term is also used in snowboarding). In warmer climates, swimsuits, surf trunks or boardshorts are worn, and occasionally rash guards; in cold water surfers can opt to wear wetsuits, boots, hoods, and gloves to protect them against lower water temperatures. A newer introduction is a rash vest with a thin layer of titanium to provide maximum warmth without compromising mobility.

There are many different surfboard sizes, shapes, and designs in use today. Modern longboards, generally 9 to 10 feet (2.7 to 3.0 m) in length, are reminiscent of the earliest surfboards, but now benefit from modern innovations in surfboard shaping and fin design. Competitive longboard surfers need to be competent at traditional walking manoeuvres, as well as the short-radius turns normally associated with shortboard surfing. The modern shortboard began life in the late 1960s and has evolved into today's common thruster style, defined by its three fins, usually around 6 to 7 feet (1.8 to 2.1 m) in length. The thruster was invented by Australian shaper Simon Anderson.

Midsize boards, often called funboards, provide more maneuverability than a longboard, with more flotation than a shortboard. While many surfers find that funboards live up to their name, providing the best of both surfing modes, others are critical.

"It is the happy medium of mediocrity," writes Steven Kotler. "Funboard riders either have nothing left to prove or lack the skills to prove anything."[13]

There are also various niche styles, such as the Egg, a longboard-style short board targeted for people who want to ride a shortboard but need more paddle power. The Fish, a board which is typically shorter, flatter, and wider than a normal shortboard, often with a split tail (known as a swallow tail). The Fish often has two or four fins and is specifically designed for surfing smaller waves. For big waves there is the Gun, a long, thick board with a pointed nose and tail (known as a pin tail) specifically designed for big waves.

Famous locations[edit]

In Australia[edit]

Margaret River – Yallingup and Prevelly Park, WA (Western Australia)[edit]

260 km south of Perth, the tiny resort village of Yallingup marks the beginning of the famed Margaret River winery region, where wine enthusiasts and ‘waxheads’ (board-riders) have long converged in equal numbers. With several breaks that range from mild to monstrous depending on the swell, Yallingup is considered the best all-round surfing destination on Australia’s west coast.

Further south, Prevelly Park is the heart of serious Margaret River surfing territory, where swells up to six metres get spun into perfect barrels across the treacherous offshore reef. No place for beginners or the faint-of-heart, “Surfers Point” at Prevelly even attracts the big-name big-wave lunatics from the US and Hawaii, and it’s one of the few places in Australia where board-riders wear helmets and nobody laughs at them.

Crescent Head, NSW[edit]

The coastline beginning just north of Port Macquarie through to Crescent Head is accessed via Point Plomer Road, which ribbons the coast for 25 km. Along this route are four perfect right-hand point-breaks, tailor-made for long-board riders, grommets and beginners and capable of generating miracle rides of 200 metres. The point break at Crescent Head itself is revered by long-boarders the world over, and some of the sport’s best have been filmed here “Hanging Ten” or cross-stepping the length of their 10-foot planks. Halfway between Crescent Head and Point Plomer is the brilliantly named Delicate Nobby, a wedge-shaped rock formation that starts just off the beach and spears out into the Pacific, creating beach breaks on either side.

Northern Beaches, NSW[edit]

Beginning at Manly Beach and running 20 km north to Palm Beach, Sydney’s northern peninsula offers a succession of surf beaches unmatched by a city environment anywhere else on earth. Manly itself has playful beach breaks and punchy barrels, plus the offshore Queenscliff “Bommie” (bombora), joy for big wave riders. Neighbouring Freshwater Beach is much loved by bodysurfers and youngsters on body-boards; this is also where surfboard-riding was first introduced to Australia by Hawaiian surfer Duke Kahanamoku, on 15 January 1915. Continuing north, the 6 km coastal corridor between Dee Why Beach and North Narrabeen is widely considered Sydney’s blue-ribbon surfing belt, with the legendary Long Reef bombora (known locally as “Butter-box”) situated smack in the middle. The surfing tribes of Mona Vale Beach, Newport Beach, Whale Beach and Avalon Beach can all make a good case for choosing their own local breaks over their neighbours’, or you could try all four beaches in a lazy half-day. Finally, the distinctive burnt-orange sands of Palm Beach mark the end of the peninsula, its 1.5 km procession of beach breaks offering thrills and spills for surfers, body-boarders and wave-ski paddlers.

Seal Rocks and Pacific Palms, NSW[edit]

Lighthouse Beach and Treachery Beach at Seal Rocks are south-facing and known for generating epic waves when a south swell rolls in. Just 22 km up the road at Pacific Palms, Boomerang Beach and Bluey’s Beach are blessed with their own postcard waves shaped by prominent headlands, and often visited by cheeky dolphins that love showing the rest of us how surfing should really be done. This part of the NSW coast has remained miraculously undeveloped too; there’s nary a high-rise, nightclub or casino in sight, making it the perfect place for a true ‘soul surfer’ experience.

Snapper Rocks, QLD[edit]

Snapper Rocks is a sand bottom point break considered as a world renowned surfing spot on the Gold Coast. Snapper, located at Rainbow Bay, is home to the world-famous ‘Super Bank’, regarded in surfing circles as the longest, most consistent and most hollow wave in the world. The swell here often reaches six to eight feet, and one good, clean wave can transport you from Snapper to Kirra, a distance of almost two kilometres. Snapper Rocks hosts elite international surfing events such as the Quiksilver and Roxy Pro, Rip Curl Masters, and MP Classic. It is also a favourite surfing spot of local world champs, Mick Fanning, Joel Parkinson and Stephanie Gilmore, who enjoy nothing more than surfing their own ‘local’ break when they’re at home.

Noosa – Point Break, QLD[edit]

One of the best and most photogenic long-board breaks in the world, the point at Noosa is capable of producing a genuine 200 metre ride on its best days. In a decent swell especially there’s always a big crew of locals riding it who really know how to “walk the plank”, but when it’s smaller it’s perfect for beginners – a long, easy-rolling cruise.

North Coast – Angourie to Byron Bay, NSW[edit]

When the surfing counter-culture took hold in Australia in the late 1960s, the NSW north coast quickly became the promised land for anyone with a board and a hankering for an alternative lifestyle communing with the waves. “Discovered” in the early 1970s, the point break at Angourie remained relatively unheralded for the next two decades, but it’s world famous nowadays as home break of Aussie surfing legend Nat Young. Endlessly filmed and fawned over, the right-hand point-break at Lennox Head rates a mention in any discussion of Australia’s best wave.

Bells Beach, Victoria[edit]

Although the final scene of the film Point Break is supposedly set at Bells Beach, the scene was not filmed there. Bells Beach is a straight stretch and the beach in the film is a cove with spruce trees atop a hill. The actual location of the film was a beach called Indian Beach, in Ecola State Park, located in Cannon Beach, Oregon, USA. Bells Beach is visited in the 1966 documentary film The Endless Summer.

Bells Beach is the home of the world's longest-running surfing competition – the Rip Curl Pro Surf & Music Festival. The event was formerly known as the Bells Beach Surf Classic. The competition was first held in January 1961 and then at Easter every year since although occasionally, when conditions at Bells are unsuitable, the competition has been transferred to other breaks such as Johanna.

As early as 1939, surfers from Torquay made their way to Bells, but access was a considerable problem until 1960 when Torquay surfers and Olympic wrestler Joe Sweeney hired a bulldozer and cleared a road along the Bells cliff [1] from the Cobb & Co Road, where the concrete wave now stands, down to the beach. He charged one pound per surfer to recover his expenses. This is now part of the Torquay to Anglesea walking track.

Nearby surf breaks include "Southside", "Centreside", "Rincon", "Winki Pop", (Uppers and Lowers), Boobs and Steps. Although Bells is known internationally as one of the best breaks in Victoria, "Winki Pop" often works better under more diverse conditions than the other nearby breaks.[citation needed]

In 1988, a group of local surfers who were concerned about the human impact that tourism was having on the Bells Beach Surfing Reserve started a group called Surfers Appreciating the Natural Environment. Since 1988 they have met monthly to revegetate the reserve in an effort to bring it back to its original state. They have planted over 100,000 plants there.

In Asia[edit]

Arugam Bay, Ullae (Pottuvil, Sri Lanka)[edit]

Arugam Bay is a small fishing village that was, for many years, only known to a small group of surfers, who considered the area to be Asia's surfing "mecca" ever since the 1960s. Due to Sri Lanka's long-running civil war, this remote half-moon-shaped bay was mostly unknown to visitors and tourists. The consistent swell; shark-free, permanently warm (28 °C (82 °F)), clear water; and budget accommodation brought Arugam Bay to the attention of international surfers.[citation needed]

In June 2010, the ASP held an international competition—the "6-Star SriLankan Airlines Pro"—at Arugam Bay that was won by Australian Julian Wilson.[14] Prior to the commencement of the inaugural ASP event, the location's warm waters and "high performance sand bottom point waves" were highlighted.[15]

Following a tsunami in 2004, most of the hotels in Arugam Bay were destroyed. By 2008, most of the tourism infrastructure was restored and the Community Eco-Guide Association (CEGA)—a thirteen-member collaboration between local community based organizations (CBOs), cooperatives and associations—promotes sustainable community based tourism in the area.[16]

In the South Pacific[edit]

Teahupoʻo (Tahiti)[edit]

Main article: Teahupo'o

Teahupoʻo (pronounced cho-po) is a world-renowned surf spot off the South West of the island of Tahiti, French Polynesia, southern Pacific Ocean. It is known for its heavy, glassy waves, often reaching 2 to 3 m (6.6 to 9.8 ft) and higher. It is the site of the annual Billabong Pro Tahiti surf competition, part of the World Championship Tour (WCT) of the ASP World Tour professional surfing circuit.

In South Africa[edit]

Jeffreys Bay (Eastern Cape)[edit]

The break is regarded as one of the best right-hand point breaks in the entire world, in both consistency and quality, in season. It has been divided up into several sections, including, from the top of the point, Kitchen Windows, Magna tubes, Boneyards, Supertubes, Impossibles, Tubes, the Point, and Albatross. "Supertubes", which itself breaks for about 300m or more, is regarded as the best part of the wave. On rare occasions (large wave sizes, wide-breaking waves, and even swells), Boneyards can link up all the way to the Point for a ride over one kilometer long. The most consistent waves occur between about May to mid September, also often coinciding with offshore winds, although good waves can occasionally occur at other times of the year.[citation needed]

The initial discovery and promotion of the wave is curious. Another nearby right-hand point wave at St Francis Bay (Bruce's Beauty) was first idolised and promoted in the cult classic surf movie The Endless Summer in the 1960s (although both Jeffreys Bay and St. Francis Bay had probably been surfed much earlier). Surfers who travelled to the area soon stumbled upon the nearby Jeffreys Bay surf break, which was found to be not only a faster, more powerful, and hollower wave, but also much more consistent.

In Central America[edit]

Zicatela Beach (Mexican Pipeline)[edit]

Zicatela is a beach located in the town of Puerto Escondido, Oaxaca. Nicknamed the "Mexican Pipeline" due to the similar power and shape of the Banzai Pipeline on the North Shore of Oahu, the wave that breaks on Zicatela Beach draws an international crowd of surfers, bodyboarders and their entourages. Mid to late summer is low season for tourists, but a prime time for waves and international tournaments. A number of international competitions such as the ESPN X Games, and the MexPipe Challenge have taken place.

La Libertad (El Salvador)[edit]

Surfers in La Libertad. El Salvador is considered a surfers' paradise, having the best waves in the continent, and is considered one of the top ten beaches in the world.

El Puerto is home to one of the best right points in Central America, known for its fast hollow, pulsing, over 30-second ride waves. Punta Roca (also called "La Punta" by local surfers) has been the perfect spot for many known surfers who back in the 1970s discovered the point with only a few local surfers brave enough to venture into its rocky bottom plane. It is known that legend Gerry Lopez, travelled frequently to this surf spot back in the 1970s encouraging a new wave of locals to get into the sport.

By the 1980s, El Salvador went through a civil war, and getting to the point was rather dangerous slowing visitors, and with that, a scarcity of surf boards to the locals whose only means of getting a surf board was by travelers leaving them behind in exchange of guidance and accommodations. Local legend, "Yepi" was one of the first of his generation to take on full self-support and help maintain the sport, a popular activity among locals. Locals have also been increasing the popularity of the sport throughout the country by offering custom surf tours to tourists and visitors in the region.

The main wave extends from La Punta to the township, a distance of about 800m, although single rides do not normally connect along this whole distance. On a good 6 to 8 feet day (Hawaiian scale), the top part of the point produces the best waves, giving a ride of about 300m or more. The wave features a relatively easy takeoff with long, fast, powerful walls, with longer hollow barrels on the best days. This wave works from about 3 to 12 feet (Hawaiian scale), and can barrel anywhere along the point, but most often closest to the takeoff area. The main takeoff is close to a dangerous rock which often sticks out of the water, and has caused injuries. It works on all tides, although low tide probably has more barrels. The wave is unusual in that it often breaks at a slight angle to the shoreline, hitting it slightly squarely, creating powerful and fast walls. It can be difficult to get out the back in large swells, and the rocky shoreline is notorious for its rather difficult entry.

Further down the point are a few other breaks, including next to the cemetery and in the town itself. These are less crowded and can produce waist-high waves on occasions, but the world-class section of the point is way on the outside. Other surf spots around the region include: Conchalio, La Paz, San Diego, El Tunco, El Zunzal, La Bocana, El Zonte.

In South America[edit]

Chicama (La Libertad-Peru)[edit]

This is the longest wave in the world with 1 km of left wave and more than 3 sections to surf.

In the USA[edit]

Mavericks (California)[edit]

Main article: Mavericks (location)
The famous break at Mavericks

Maverick's or Mavericks is a world-famous surfing location in Northern California. It is located approximately one-half mile (0.8 km) from shore in Pillar Point Harbor, just North of Half Moon Bay at the village of Princeton-By-The-Sea. After a strong winter storm in the Northern Pacific Ocean, waves can routinely crest at over 25 feet (7.6 m) and top out at over 50 feet (15 m). The break is caused by an unusually-shaped underwater rock formation.

Sunset on Sunday, 9/7/14 at Huntington Beach Pier

Trestles (Southern California)[edit]

Located at the northern end of San Diego County, Trestles is the name given to a series of breaks known for their unique quality (wave shape), particularly Lowers (also called Lower Trestles). Each break is popular depending on swell direction, season, and each surfer's preferred riding style. Lowers is frequently the venue of world-class surfing events, including the top-level of professional surfing. Lowers is often considered the best summertime high-performance wave in California.

Pipeline (Hawaii)[edit]

Main article: Banzai Pipeline

Pipeline is a surf reef break located in Hawaii, off Ehukai Beach Park in Pupukea on O'ahu's North Shore. The spot is notorious and famous for its huge waves breaking in shallow water just above its sharp and cavernous reef, forming large, hollow and thick curls of water that surfers can ride inside of. There are three reefs at Pipeline in progressively deeper water further out to sea that activate at various power levels applied by ocean swells.

In Europe[edit]

Costa da Caparica (Almada, Portugal)[edit]

Main article: Costa da Caparica
A surfer at Caparica Beaches in Portugal

Caparica Beaches are popular Atlantic beaches located on Portugal's Almada coast, near Lisbon. The Caparica Coast, with part of the Protected Landscape of the Ancient Beach of Costa da Caparica, is visible the Convent of the Capuchos. The beach has preferred surfing conditions and is also popular for windsurfing, and kitesurfing. The International Surf Center is based in Caparica.

Supertubos (Peniche, Portugal)[edit]

The little fishing town of Peniche is probably the most renowned surfing area in Portugal. Originally an island, Peniche became one with the mainland due to the silting up of the shallow channel that divided it from the rest of the country. Today that short and narrow spit of land contains an obscene amount of wave variety that can provide the goods in almost any conditions. Most famous is Supertubos, regarded by many as one of Europe’s best beach breaks, but there are plenty of other barrels to pull into around Peniche. Peniche is a year round destination with swell exposure on the north side of the town and shelter on the south. The town also sits at the dividing point between the cooler and wetter north and the dry, sunny south meaning that summers are long but tempered by cool sea breezes and the winters mild though occasionally stormy. Supertubos is considered the best wave in Portugal and one of the best in Europe. It is a fast and tubular wave which breaks on a hollow sand bank. It works best with SW swells and N, NE or NW winds. Andy Irons, Kelly Slater and Mick Fanning made frequent appearances in the Supertubos surf competitions.

Nazaré (Portugal)[edit]

Nazaré has become a popular tourist attraction, advertising itself, internationally, as a picturesque seaside village. Located on the Atlantic coast, it has long sandy beaches (considered by some to be among the best beaches in Portugal), with lots of tourists in the summer.Nazaré is where the largest wave ever surfed, in 2011, by the American surfer Garrett McNamara. The town used to be known for its traditional costumes worn by the fishermen and their wives who wore a traditional headscarf and embroidered aprons over seven flannel skirts in different colours. These dresses can still occasionally be seen.

Dangers[edit]

Drowning[edit]

Surfing, like all water sports, carries the inherent danger of drowning. Anyone at any age can learn to surf, but should have at least intermediate swimming skills. Although the board assists a surfer in staying buoyant, it can become separated from the user.[17] A leash, attached to the ankle or knee, can keep a board from being swept away, but does not keep a rider on the board or above water. In some cases, possibly including the drowning of professional surfer Mark Foo, a leash can even be a cause of drowning by snagging on a reef or other object and holding the surfer underwater.[18] By keeping the surfboard close to the surfer during a wipeout, a leash also increases the chances that the board may strike the rider, which could knock him or her unconscious and lead to drowning. A fallen rider's board can become trapped in larger waves, and if the rider is attached by a leash, he or she can be dragged for long distances underwater.[18] Surfers should be careful to remain in smaller surf until they have acquired the advanced skills and experience necessary to handle bigger waves and more challenging conditions. However, even world-class surfers have drowned in extremely challenging conditions.[19]

Collisions[edit]

Photo of surfer catapulted into the air with feet higher than head at 45 degree angle to surface
A surfer exiting a closeout

Under the wrong set of conditions, anything that a surfer's body can come in contact with is potentially a danger, including sand bars, rocks, small ice, reefs, surfboards, and other surfers.[20] Collisions with these objects can sometimes cause injuries such as cuts and scrapes and in rare instances, death.

A large number of injuries, up to 66%,[21] are caused by collision with a surfboard (nose or fins). Fins can cause deep lacerations and cuts, as well as bruising. While these injuries can be minor, they can open the skin to infection from the sea; groups like Surfers Against Sewage campaign for cleaner waters to reduce the risk of infections. Local bugs and disease can be a dangerous factor when surfing around the globe.[22]

Falling off a surfboard or colliding with others is commonly referred to as a wipeout.

Marine life[edit]

Sea life can sometimes cause injuries and even fatalities. Animals such as sharks,[23] stingrays, Weever fish, seals and jellyfish can sometimes present a danger.[24] Warmer-water surfers often do the "stingray shuffle" as they walk out through the shallows, shuffling their feet in the sand to scare away stingrays that may be resting on the bottom.[25]

Rip currents[edit]

Rip currents are water channels that flow away from the shore. Under the wrong circumstances these currents can endanger both experienced and inexperienced surfers. Since a rip current appears to be an area of flat water, tired or inexperienced swimmers or surfers may enter one and be carried out beyond the breaking waves. Although many rip currents are much smaller, the largest rip currents have a width of forty or fifty feet. However, by paddling parallel to the shore, a surfer can easily exit a rip current. Alternatively, some surfers actually ride on a rip current because it is a fast and effortless way to get out beyond the zone of breaking waves.[26]

Seabed[edit]

The seabed can pose dangers for surfers. If a surfer falls while riding a wave, the wave tosses and tumbles the surfer around, often in a downwards direction. At reef breaks and beach breaks, surfers have been seriously injured and even killed because of a violent collision with the sea bed, the water above which can sometimes be very shallow, especially at beach breaks or reef breaks during low tide. Cyclops, Western Australia, for example is one of the biggest and thickest reef breaks in the world, with waves measuring up to 10 metres high, but the reef below is only about 2 meters (6.6 feet) below the surface of the water.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Surfer rides World Record 78-foot wave". BBC News. 12 May 2012. Retrieved 29 January 2013. 
  2. ^ Fleming, F. (2005?). Off the Map: Tales of Endurance and Exploration, p. 154. Atlantic Monthly Press.
  3. ^ Twain, Mark (2007). Roughing It. Lawrence, Kansas: Digireads.com Publishing. p. 264. ISBN 9781420930283. 
  4. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=LHyUEUwaUdAC
  5. ^ The Bluffer's Guides, The Bluffer's Guide to Surfing, Oval Books, 2008.
  6. ^ Clayton Truscott (23 September 2009). "Seli 1: One Year On". ZigZag. Online Publishers Association South Africa. Retrieved 25 May 2012. 
  7. ^ TNN (20 May 2010). "India's first artificial reef to protect Kovalam". The Times Of India. Retrieved 25 May 2012. 
  8. ^ Duncan Scott (8 November 2000). "MADE IN JAPAN Unlike its counterparts, Miyazaki's Ocean Dome wavepool is for real". Surfline. Surfline/Wavetrak, Inc. Retrieved 25 May 2012. 
  9. ^ J. Bone (15 November 2007). "1. hanging ten". Urban Dictionary. Urban Dictionary. Retrieved 25 May 2012. 
  10. ^ John Dang. "Learn To Surf". surfscience.com. Retrieved 11 March 2010. 
  11. ^ JOSH T. SAUNDERS. http://www.surfermag.com/features/taken-by-wavestorm/. Retrieved 4 October 2014.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  12. ^ The quick guide on how to surf
  13. ^ Kotler, Steven (13 June 2006). West of Jesus: Surfing, Science, and the Origins of Belief. Bloomsbury. ISBN 1-59691-051-8. 
  14. ^ "Julian Wilson Takes Down First Ever ASP 6-Star SriLankan Airlines Pro Arugam Bay". ASP. ASP World Tour – The Association of Surfing Professionals. 25 June 2010. Retrieved 5 November 2013. 
  15. ^ "SriLankan Airlines Pro Set at World Famous Arugam Bay Point in Sri Lanka". ASP. ASP World Tour – The Association of Surfing Professionals. 19 May 2010. Retrieved 5 November 2013. 
  16. ^ Sanath Weerasuriya; Nilan Maligaspe (29 June 2008). "Arugam Bay: It’s back to dancing on the waves". The Sunday Times. Retrieved 5 November 2013. 
  17. ^ Ocean Safety
  18. ^ a b Sony Pictures Classics: Riding Giants
  19. ^ Borte, Jason. "Mark Foo Biography". Surfline. Retrieved 12 July 2012. 
  20. ^ "Dangers - Hard Bottoms". Surfing San Diego. Site Tutor Inc. Retrieved 26 September 2012. 
  21. ^ "Dangers of Surfing". Surfboard Shack. Surfboard Shack. 2011. Retrieved 26 September 2012. 
  22. ^ Mike Lewis (2 November 2010). "ANDY IRONS PASSES AWAY, CAUSE UNDER INVESTIGATION". Transworld Business. Bonnier Corporation. Retrieved 26 September 2012. 
  23. ^ "Unprovoked White Shark Attacks on Surfers". Shark Research Committee. Retrieved 20 September 2010. 
  24. ^ "Surf Dangers Animals". 
  25. ^ Doing the 'Stingray Shuffle' – ABC News
  26. ^ "Surfing's hidden dangers". BBC News. 7 September 2001. Retrieved 24 May 2010. 

External links[edit]