Surgeon

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In medicine, a surgeon is a specialist in surgery. Surgery is a broad category of invasive medical treatment that involves the cutting of a body, whether that of a human or other animal, for a specific reason such as the removal of diseased tissue or to repair a tear or breakage. Surgeons may be physicians, dentists, podiatrists, or veterinarians.

In the U.S., surgeons train for longer than other specialists; only after 9 years of training do they qualify. These years include 4 years of medical school and a minimum of 5 years of residency.

History

In early recorded history, surgery was mostly associated with barber surgeons who were both haircutting who also used their cutting tools to undertake surgical procedures, often at the battlefield and also for their royal paymasters. With advances in medicine and physiology, the professions of barbers and surgeons diverged from each other and by the 19th century barber surgeons had virtually disappeared. Military surgeons continued, although the title Surgeon General also came to refer to government public health officers. Prehistoric evidence has also shown the use of trepanning, a surgical intervention in which a hole is drilled or scraped into the human skull.

Titles

In 1950, the Royal College of Surgeons of England (RCS) in London began to offer surgeons a formal status via RCS membership. The title Mister became a badge of honour, and today after someone graduates from medical school with the degrees MBBS or MB ChB, (or variants thereof) in these countries they are called "Doctor" until they are able, after at least four years' training, to obtain a surgical qualification: formerly Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons but also Member of the Royal College of Surgeons or a number of other diplomas, they are given the honour of being allowed to revert to calling themselves Mr, Miss, Mrs or Ms in the course of their professional practice, but this time the meaning is different. Patients in the UK may assume that the change of title implies Consultant status (and some mistakenly think non-surgical consultants are Mr too), but the length of postgraduate medical training outside North America is such that a Mr (etc.) may be years away from obtaining such a post: many doctors used to obtain these qualifications in the Senior House Officer grade, and remain in that grade when they began sub-specialty training. The distinction of Mr (etc.) is also used by surgeons in the Republic of Ireland, Australia, Barbados, New Zealand, South Africa and some other Commonwealth countries.[1]

Specialties

Some physicians who are general practitioners or specialists in family medicine or emergency medicine may perform limited ranges of minor, common, or emergency surgery. Anesthesia often accompanies surgery, and anesthesiologists and nurse anesthetists may oversee this aspect of surgery. First assistants, surgical nurses, surgical technologists and operating department practitioners are trained professionals who support surgeons.

Pioneer surgeons

Russian surgeon Nikolay Pirogov - a pioneer of field surgery
Victor Horsley pioneered neurosurgery

Organizations and fellowships

References

  1. ^ Mr. Keith Mutimer
  2. ^ Ira D. Papel, John Frodel, Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
  3. ^ A. Martin-Araguz, C. Bustamante-Martinez, Ajo V. Fernandez-Armayor, J. M. Moreno-Martinez (2002)
  4. ^ US Patent 4,840,175, "METHOD FOR MODIFYING CORNEAL CURVATURE", granted June 20, 1989