Surrey, British Columbia

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Surrey
City
City of Surrey
Surrey skyline on a foggy day
Surrey skyline on a foggy day
Flag of Surrey
Flag
Coat of arms of Surrey
Coat of arms
Motto: "The future lives here."
Location of Surrey
Location of Surrey
Coordinates: 49°11′N 122°51′W / 49.183°N 122.850°W / 49.183; -122.850Coordinates: 49°11′N 122°51′W / 49.183°N 122.850°W / 49.183; -122.850
Country Canada
Province British Columbia
Regional District Greater Vancouver Regional District
Incorporation 1879 (municipality status)
  1993 (city status)
Government
 • Mayor Dianne Watts
 • City Council
 • MLAs
 • MPs
 • School Trustees
Area
 • Total 316.41 km2 (122.17 sq mi)
Highest elevation 134 m (440 ft)
Lowest elevation 0 m (0 ft)
Population (2011)[1]
 • Total 468,251
 • Rank 12th
 • Density 1,500/km2 (3,800/sq mi)
Demonym Surreyite[2]
Time zone PST (UTC-08)
 • Summer (DST) PDT (UTC-07)
Postal code span V3R–V3X, V4A, V4N, V4P
Area code(s) 604, 778
Website www.surrey.ca

Surrey is a city in the province of British Columbia, Canada. It is a member municipality of Metro Vancouver, the governing body of the Greater Vancouver Regional District. It is the province's second-largest city by population after the city of Vancouver.

The six "town centres" the City of Surrey comprises are: Fleetwood, Whalley/City Centre, Guildford, Newton, Cloverdale, and South Surrey.[3]

History[edit]

Surrey became incorporated in 1879, and encompasses land formerly occupied by a number of Halqemeylem-speaking aboriginal groups. When Englishman H.J. Brewer looked across the Fraser River from New Westminster and saw a land reminiscent of his native County of Surrey in England, the settlement of Surrey was placed on the map. The area then comprised forests of douglas-fir, fir, red cedar, hemlock, blackberry bushes, and cranberry bogs. A portion of present-day Whalley (named after Harry Whalley, who owned and operated a gas bar at the bend in King George Blvd, (formerly King George Highway) at 108 Avenue, "Whalley's Corner") was used as a burial ground by the Kwantlen (or Qw’ontl’en) Nation.

The Peace Arch on the Canadian side is located in Surrey

Settlers arrived first in Cloverdale and parts of South Surrey, mostly to farm, fish, harvest oysters, or set up small stores. Once the Pattullo Bridge was erected in 1937, the way was open for Surrey to expand. In the post-war 1950s, North Surrey's neighbourhoods filled with single family homes and Surrey (not yet a city) became a bedroom community, absorbing commuters who worked in Burnaby or Vancouver.

In the 1980s and 1990s, Surrey witnessed unprecedented growth, as people from different parts of Canada and the world, particularly Asia, began to make the municipality their home. Surrey is projected to surpass the city of Vancouver as the most populous city in BC by 2020–2030.[citation needed]

Government and politics[edit]

Surrey City Hall in 2009

Surrey is governed by an eight-member city council. The current mayor of Surrey is Dianne Watts. The last elections were held in November 2011.

In the recent 2009 provincial elections, the British Columbia New Democratic Party won four of Surrey's seats, all of them in the more urbanized north and centre of the city, while the BC Liberal Party won four seats in the more rural east and south.

Following the 2011 federal election, the Conservative Party of Canada holds two of Surrey's four seats (Fleetwood—Port Kells and South Surrey—White Rock—Cloverdale) in the Canadian House of Commons, while the other two seats (Surrey North and Newton—North Delta) are held by the New Democratic Party.

Demographics[edit]

City of Surrey's 'The Future Lives Here' logo.

As of 2006, the population of Surrey was 394,976, a 13.6% increase from 2001. The non-minorities population is 211,445, or 53.9% of the city's population. The foreign-born population is 150,235, constituting 30.3% of the city's population. Visible minorities number 181,005, or 46.1% of the population, while Aboriginal people constitute 1.9% of the population.[4][5] The City of Surrey estimated that 502,000 residents lived within its municipality in 2013.[6]

As of 2006, the racial makeup in Surrey is as follows:[4]

Canada 2011 Census Population  % of Total Population
Visible minority group
Source:[7]
South Asian 142,445 30.7%
Chinese 28,480 6.1%
Filipino 26,480 5.7%
Other Southeast Asian 13,080 2.8%
Korean 8,385 1.8%
Black 6,150 1.3%
Latin American 5,340 1.2%
Arab 3,265 0.7%
West Asian 2,350 0.5%
Japanese 2,405 0.5%
Other visible minority 1,090 0.2%
Mixed visible minority 4,295 0.9%
Total visible minority population 243,760 52.6%
Aboriginal group
Source:[8]
First Nations 6,135 1.3%
Métis 4,225 0.9%
Inuit 175 0%
Total Aboriginal population 10,955 2.4%
White 208,625 45%
Total population 463,340 100%

Crime[edit]

In 2002, Surrey was named the car theft capital of North America.[9]

Geography and climate[edit]

The city is characterized by low population density urban sprawl, typical of North American cities, which includes areas of residential housing, light industry and commercial centres and is prone to strip development and malls. Approximately 35 percent of the land is designated as part of the Agricultural Land Reserve.[citation needed] The city is mostly hills and flatland, with most of the flatland in Tynehead, Hazelmere, south of Cloverdale, and Colebrook.

The climate is typically inter-coastal Pacific-Northwest: rainy, wet winters, often with heavy rainfall lasting into early spring, with mild, sunny summers and cool autumns.

Climate data for Surrey
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 15.5
(59.9)
19.4
(66.9)
25
(77)
29
(84)
34.5
(94.1)
33.3
(91.9)
35
(95)
34.5
(94.1)
34.5
(94.1)
29
(84)
21
(70)
16.7
(62.1)
35
(95)
Average high °C (°F) 6.0
(42.8)
8.4
(47.1)
11.1
(52)
14.3
(57.7)
17.6
(63.7)
20.0
(68)
23.0
(73.4)
23.2
(73.8)
20.5
(68.9)
14.5
(58.1)
8.7
(47.7)
6.1
(43)
14.5
(58.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) 3.1
(37.6)
4.8
(40.6)
7.0
(44.6)
9.6
(49.3)
12.6
(54.7)
15.2
(59.4)
17.6
(63.7)
17.7
(63.9)
15.1
(59.2)
10.3
(50.5)
5.7
(42.3)
3.3
(37.9)
10.2
(50.4)
Average low °C (°F) 0.2
(32.4)
1.3
(34.3)
2.8
(37)
4.9
(40.8)
7.6
(45.7)
10.3
(50.5)
12.1
(53.8)
12.2
(54)
9.6
(49.3)
6.0
(42.8)
2.7
(36.9)
0.5
(32.9)
5.9
(42.6)
Record low °C (°F) −17.2
(1)
−13.5
(7.7)
−8.3
(17.1)
−2.8
(27)
−1.1
(30)
2.2
(36)
2.8
(37)
−1.1
(30)
−2.2
(28)
−6.5
(20.3)
−15.0
(5)
−18.9
(−2)
−18.9
(−2)
Precipitation mm (inches) 185.7
(7.311)
136.1
(5.358)
128.7
(5.067)
100.5
(3.957)
81.6
(3.213)
68.0
(2.677)
50.0
(1.969)
48.7
(1.917)
64.2
(2.528)
131.4
(5.173)
212.3
(8.358)
202.1
(7.957)
1,409.2
(55.48)
Rainfall mm (inches) 166.0
(6.535)
126.4
(4.976)
126.2
(4.969)
100.3
(3.949)
81.6
(3.213)
68.0
(2.677)
50.0
(1.969)
48.7
(1.917)
64.2
(2.528)
131.1
(5.161)
209.1
(8.232)
187.0
(7.362)
1,358.5
(53.484)
Snowfall cm (inches) 19.7
(7.76)
9.7
(3.82)
2.5
(0.98)
0.2
(0.08)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0.3
(0.12)
3.2
(1.26)
15.1
(5.94)
50.7
(19.96)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm) 18.9 16.7 17.7 15.3 13.3 12.0 7.8 8.0 8.9 15.4 20.6 19.6 174.3
Avg. rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm) 17.3 15.6 17.5 15.3 13.3 12.0 7.8 8.0 8.9 15.3 20.4 18.0 169.6
Avg. snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm) 2.9 1.8 0.73 0.10 0 0 0 0 0 0.10 0.61 2.8 9.0
Source: Environment Canada[10]
Partial view of Surrey from a plane

Religion[edit]

A predominant religion in Surrey is Christianity. The 2001 census indicates that nearly 50% of the population self-identifies as Christian, including Protestant, Catholic, other Christian, and Orthodox.[5] The next largest religious group are Sikhs with 16.3% self-identifying.[5] Just over 25% identifying no religious affiliation.[5]

Education[edit]

Central City Tower. Surrey's Simon Fraser University occupies a portion of "the podium".

Schools[edit]

School District 36 Surrey oversees 100 public elementary and 21 public secondary schools, making it the largest public school district in British Columbia.[citation needed] Private schools in Surrey include Calvary Christian Academy, Holy Cross Regional High School, Pacific Academy, Regent Christian Academy, White Rock Christian Academy, Surrey Christian School, and Southridge School. There are no public middle schools in Surrey, so a typical elementary school includes kindergarten through grade 7, and secondary school starts at grade 8 and continues through grade 12. There are around 65,000 students enrolled in public and private schools.[citation needed]

Universities and colleges[edit]

Surrey is home to the third campus of Simon Fraser University (SFU), which opened in 2002. SFU took over the space and programming that was initially built for TechBC, a technical university proposed for south of the Fraser River by the then-NDP led provincial government. SFU Surrey offers a number of cutting-edge programs, including TechOne and Explorations; first-year cohort options; and studies in Applied Sciences, Criminology, World Literature, Business Administration, and Interactive Arts and Technology.

Surrey is also the home of Kwantlen Polytechnic University. Kwantlen opened its doors in the Newton Town Centre of Surrey in 1981. Since then, it has expanded to provide satellite campuses in Richmond, Langley, a trades and technology centre in the Cloverdale Town Centre of Surrey. The Surrey campus focuses on sciences, business, arts, and health, including a publicly accessible wellness centre, while the new Cloverdale campus trains apprentices for the skilled trades industries.

Surrey also has many private post-secondary institutions to choose from including; Sprott Shaw College, CDI College, Academy of Learning and Vancouver Career College, among others.

Culture[edit]

Attractions[edit]

Surrey Cenotaph
Surrey Museum in the Cloverdale area of Surrey
The Surrey Arts Centre street sign at Bear Creek Park.
The Bell Performing Arts Centre in Surrey Newton.

The Surrey Museum is affiliated with CMA, CHIN, and Virtual Museum of Canada.

The historic Surrey Municipal Hall complex includes the Cenotaph in Heritage Square, the Surrey Museum, and Cloverdale Library.

"REMEMBRANCE" by André Gauthier (sculptor) in Heritage Square, is an oversized bronze statue depicting a WWI kneeling soldier, helmet in hand, in remembrance of his fallen comrade.[11]

Events[edit]

Attracting 15,000 people every February since 2004, WinterFest is a day of live music, sporting activities, food, and fireworks, held at the Central City Plaza.

Since 1888, the town centre of Cloverdale has hosted the annual Cloverdale Rodeo and Country Fair at the Cloverdale Fairgrounds every May long weekend. The Fair is Canada's second largest rodeo,[citation needed] and it features 150 acres (0.61 km2) of family-oriented entertainment including agricultural/horticultural exhibits, a western tradeshow, parade, community stages, and the Pacific Northwest Firefighter Combat Challenge.

Due in part to having one of British Columbia's youngest populations, with nearly one-third of all citizens under 18,[citation needed] Surrey has become known for its annual Children's Festival,[citation needed] which began 2004. The free, multi-day festival features circus and clay arts, world rhythm music and movement, popular children's performers, storytelling sessions, and a parade.

Every year on April 13, the Sikh community celebrates Vaisakhi, which often includes a nagar kirtan, or parade, and free food is often handed out. Roughly 100,000 people attended in 2008.[12]

Surrey has the largest Canada Day event of its kind in Western Canada.[citation needed] Presented every July 1 at Cloverdale's Millennium Amphitheatre Park, the event includes amusement rides, a tea ceremony, booths, musicians and performers, and a fireworks show at night.

In 2008, the City, thanks to the federal government's designation of Surrey as Canada's Cultural Capital for the year,[citation needed] put on a three-day multicultural festival. The Fusion Festival celebrated over 60 different cultures through food, music, and dance. The event attracted 60,000 attendees,[citation needed] and will return for 2009. It is expected that the Fusion Festival will become an annual event for Surrey.[citation needed]

Following the success of the Surrey Regional Economic Summit, held in September 2008 at the Sheraton Vancouver Guildford Hotel, in Guildford Town Centre, it is anticipated that this too will become an annual event.[citation needed] The first summit featured BC Premier Gordon Campbell and VANOC CEO John Furlong as speakers and a keynote speech by former New York City Mayor Rudy Giuliani. The event attracted 400 business and community leaders for a day-long conference to discuss issues including public safety, transportation, and sustainability. The second summit is being planned, and will feature former British Prime Minister Tony Blair as keynote speaker.[citation needed]

Every October since 1991, Surrey has hosted the Surrey International Writers' Conference. This event brings established writers, agents, editors and publishers from all over the world to the Comfort Inn & Suites Surrey Hotel and Sheraton Vancouver Guildford Hotel in Guildford Town Centre.

The Surrey Festival of Dance, an annual event since 1966, is one of the largest dance competitions held in North America, with over 10,000 dancers participating in the multi-week festival.[citation needed]

There are presently 3 live theatre venues in the City of Surrey in British Columbia as of January 2013: the Bell Centre for Performing Arts, the Chandos Pattison Auditorium and the Surrey Arts Centre.[13]

The Surrey RCMP hold an annual basketball tournament with participation from all the city's secondary schools. The event is the city's largest annual sports tournament.[citation needed]

One of the lesser-known events in Surrey is the annual Nicomekl River Race. Every year, in early June, teams of four meet at Nicomekl Park in Langley, British Columbia to begin the race. Unlike most traditional boat races, the Nicomekl River Race requires that all boats be made by the participants. The racecourse extends from Nicomekl Park to Blackie Spit Park at Crescent Beach. The first team to reach the mouth of the river is awarded a prize of $1,000. Additional prizes are awarded to the most creative boat and costume. All proceeds go towards the BC Cancer society.

News media[edit]

In addition to news media from Vancouver, the community is served by The Surrey Now newspaper, the Surrey Leader newspaper, and the Peace Arch News newspaper (for South Surrey).

Sports[edit]

Every summer, Surrey hosts the Canada Cup International Women's Fastpitch Tournament. It began in 1993 as an international women's fastpitch developmental tournament to help teams prepare for the Olympics by facing top-calibre competition. The event continues to be a fan favourite with gate attendance reaching 93,000 for the nine-day tournament in 2004.

The BCHL Surrey Eagles hockey team plays at the South Surrey Arena in Surrey. The Eagles won the BCHL championship, the Fred Page Cup, in 1997, 1998, 2005 and 2013; the western championship, the Doyle Cup, in 1997 and 1998; and the national championship, the Royal Bank Cup, in 1998.

Surrey hosted the Canadian national qualifying tournament in 2006, and sends a local team to compete for a spot in the Little League World Series in Williamsport, Pennsylvania.

Surrey is also home to Canada's first kabaddi-specific stadium.[14]

Transportation[edit]

History[edit]

The first settlement of Surrey was Crescent Beach, in South Surrey, and Bridgeview/Brownsville, in North Surrey. Early trails and roads helped to encourage the settlement of Surrey. The first trail built by a settler was the 1861 the Kennedy Trail. James Kennedy built the trail to provide a route between New Westminster and the natural pasture land on the Mud Bay Flats next to the Serpentine River.[15] The Semiahmoo Wagon Road was built in 1873 between Brownsville opposite New Westminster and Semiahmoo (Blaine).[16] The first regular ferry service across the Fraser River started in 1882 on the steam ferry K de K with the point of departure at Brownsville.[17] The ferry landed on the Surrey side at the start of the Old Yale Road, which connected directly inland to Yale, and was a major gold rush trail.

The New Westminster Rail Bridge was opened in 1904, allowing personal vehicles to cross the Fraser River on the upper deck. The lower deck, for rail, enabled BC Electric Railway to finally construct the Interurban line, an electric suburb commuter rail route connecting Chilliwack to Vancouver. It opened for service in 1910, and ran through Kennedy, Newton, Sullivan, and Cloverdale. Currently, two of the BCER cars (1225 & 1304) are nearly finished being restored for operation on the mainline between Cloverdale and Sullivan. New car barns and museum currently under construction in Cloverdale(as of 2012)[18]

In 1937, the then two-lane Pattullo Bridge linking New Westminster and Surrey was opened.

In the early 1950s, BC Electric Railways ceased operating its interurban line, thus increasing the number of vehicles on Surrey roads. Highway 10 was built in 1953, and Highway 15 in 1957. In 1964, the provincial government completed Highway 401 and the Port Mann Bridge; that section of roadway would later be renamed Highway 1. In 1959, the George Massey Tunnel was opened, along with what is known as Highway 99. With the completion of the new Highways 1 and 99, the Fraser Highway and King George Boulevard became major arteries.

In the early 1990s, Surrey saw the return of rail transit with the SkyTrain Expo Line expansion into Surrey. The four stations added were Scott Road, Gateway, Surrey Central (and bus loop) and King George.

A panorama of the Cloverdale Fairgrounds in Surrey, British Columbia.

Current transportation network[edit]

The Canadian National Railway, Canadian Pacific Railway, BNSF Railway, and Southern Railway of British Columbia have trackage running through Surrey.

Public transport, operated by TransLink, connects some of Surrey's centres to each other and to other Lower Mainland municipalities. The SkyTrain Expo Line provides 35-minute service to Downtown Vancouver via four stations: Scott Road, Gateway, Surrey Central (also a bus loop), and King George.

Vancouver International Airport is located 28 kilometres (17 mi) west of Surrey. Vancouver International Airport offers direct daily service to destinations in Canada, North America, Europe, and Asia.

Bellingham International Airport is located 32 kilometres (20 mi) south of Surrey, and offers connections to Seattle, Las Vegas, and Hawaii.

Abbotsford International Airport is located 24 kilometres (15 mi) east of Surrey, and offers daily flights to Calgary and Edmonton.

Sustainable Development[edit]

In 2008, Surrey city council created and adopted the Surrey Sustainability Charter:[19] a comprehensive document spanning 72 pages that takes a comprehensive look at all facets of society and creates an overarching document to guide the urban development of the city for the next 50 years. In 2011, the city council released the second update to the 2008 document indicating the progress made in the three years since the inception of the report.[20]

Origins[edit]

Since the 1960s, Metro Vancouver has been involved in green advocacy, most prominently by the founding of Greenpeace and advocate David Suzuki. When the Brundtland Report was published in 1987, it laid the groundwork for the convening of the 1992 Earth Summit and the adoption of Agenda 21, the Rio Declaration and to the establishment of the Commission on Sustainable Development.

Metro Vancouver has taken steps to introduce initiatives to help reduce the ecological impact with a 1996 report "Liveable Region Plan" and also a 2001 update titled "Sustainable Region Initiative" (SRI for short). While the SRI was not met without criticism, it provided a useful baseline and foundation for Surrey to construct an encompassing plan that includes not only environmental issues, but economic and social issues as well.

Components[edit]

Circles of Sustainability image (assessment - Melbourne 2011)

The Charter is broken down into multiple layers, with high level conceptual goals, a framework for action and low level details such as the implementation strategy. The charter follows the basic structure inspired by the Brundland Commission.

The report heavily incorporates the Triple Bottom Line Accounting methodology and breaks down the facets of Sustainable development onto the three sides of a cube. On one face of the cube, there are the three pillars to sustainability–Socio-Cultural, Economic and Environmental. On the second facet, is the political domain, and lastly, three time frames: short, medium and long term goals.

  • Socio-Cultural Pillar:

"To promote a safe, caring, engaged, and liveable community, with a sense of place, that is inclusive of all aspects of diversity and provides a range of educational, recreational, cultural and employment opportunities, affordable and appropriate housing, transportation options and personal, health and social services that are accessible to all."

  • The Socio-Cultural Pillar contains 13 goals inclusive of safety, multiculturalism, family-oriented and population growth
  • Economic Pillar:

"To create a local economy that builds on Surrey’s natural advantages, and uses the land base and human resources efficiently to create a broad range of well located, transit accessible and environmentally friendly businesses that provide attractive local employment opportunities and a sustainable revenue base for the City. "

  • The Economic Pillar contains 14 goals describing how to protect and expand tax base, protect Agricultural Reserve Lands and fostering community economic development
  • Environmental Pillar:

"To demonstrate good stewardship of the land, water, air and built environment, protecting, preserving and enhancing Surrey’s natural areas and ecosystems for current and future generations while making nature accessible for all to enjoy."

  • The Environmental Pillar contains 22 goals inclusive of habitat, water quality, air quality and built environment

Hurdles[edit]

Being an all inclusive plan requires an interplay of many complex and sometimes wicked problems. Trying to account for all problems is ambitious, and as the report admits, being at the municipal level reduces the funding, power and resources to implement the vision. The report acknowledges the political hurdle and notes that the city needs to influence players with more power such as the provincial or federal government in order for the vision to be successful. Some other hurdles that have arisen since the inception of the charter include the following:

Suburban Sprawl and the Gateway Program[edit]

Surrey currently faces the problem of Urban Sprawl, the phenomenon that is characterized by the low density residential, with almost no commercial or industrial zoning. This results in a heavy outflow of traffic in the morning, and inflow in the evening.

The announcement of the Gateway Program in 2005 by the British Columbia Ministry of Transportation meant a large expenditure in transportation infrastructure. Despite the oppositions by the Metro Vancouver and several mayoral councils,[21][22] the project went ahead to create the South Fraser Perimeter Road and the Port Mann Bridge, both which pass through major portions of Surrey. It has been criticized to be contradictory to not only Metro Vancouver's Sustainable Region Initiative,[23] but also Surrey's Sustainability Charter. Studies have shown that with an increase in road capacity, generated traffic increases, that is traffic that is diverted (shifted in time and route) and induced travel (increased total motor vehicle travel).[24] With the construction of the 10 lane Port Mann Bridge, the problem of suburban sprawl is exacerbated not only with the additional capacity, but RapidBus service was also cancelled despite expectations of a stop in Surrey.[25]

Transportation and Land Use[edit]

The Sustainability Charter hinges on a large reduction on automobile dependancy requiring a well established transit infrastructure to the multiple districts of Surrey. In 2008, Gordon Campbell announced the extension of the Expo Line beyond the current terminus to as far as Langley.[26] However, financial shortfall came upon Translink shortly after, and many of the announced plans came to a halt. Plans to expand northward via the Evergreen Line came to fruition prior the vision of extending light rail out to Guildford, Newton and Langley. Trying to make ends meet, Mayor Watts attempts to impose equal tolling across the region to assist with funding transit to reduce car reliance.[27]

Protecting agricultural land reserves also play an important part in the charter of sustainability. The idea behind the agricultural land reserves is to encourage and increase the role of urban agriculture thus reducing the reliance of food transport and increasing the quality and availability of food to local people. The Charter takes the idea one step further by bringing in value adding food processing agribusiness to complete the supply chain circle.[28]

In a case study of Toronto completed by Pierre Filion, he claims that while transit and natural area conservation are successful at achieving their respective immediate objectives, they "do not modify metropolitan-wide relations between transportation and land use...in a fashion that is consistent with smart growth". Filion identifies that the largest obstacles are NIMBY reactions from the public and the limited finances from the public sector.[29]

Notable people[edit]

Affiliated cities and municipalities[edit]

Surrey has two sister cities:

Country City Province Date
 Japan Kōtō Tokyo 1989
 People's Republic of China Zhuhai Guangdong 1989

Surrey also has two Friendship Cities:

Country City Province Date
 People's Republic of China Ningbo Zhejiang
 People's Republic of China Taicang Jiangsu

References[edit]

  1. ^ "City of Surrey Population Estimates & Projections". City Of Surrey. 2010. Retrieved November 27, 2011. 
  2. ^ "Demonyms—From coast to coast to coast". Language Portal of Canada. Government of Canada. Retrieved March 30, 2012. 
  3. ^ http://www.surrey.ca/Visiting+Surrey/About+Surrey/Surrey+Is.htm[dead link]
  4. ^ a b "Community Profiles from the 2006 Census, Statistics Canada - Census Subdivision". 2.statcan.ca. June 12, 2010. Retrieved August 28, 2012. 
  5. ^ a b c d "Statistics Canada: 2001 Community Profiles". 2.statcan.ca. March 12, 2002. Retrieved March 9, 2011. 
  6. ^ City of Surrey: Population Estimates & Projections
  7. ^ "Community Profiles from the 2011 Census, Statistics Canada - Census Subdivision". 2.statcan.gc.ca. 2010-12-06. Retrieved 2013-04-13. [dead link]
  8. ^ "Aboriginal Peoples - Data table". 2.statcan.ca. 2010-10-06. Retrieved 2013-04-13. 
  9. ^ "Surrey named car theft capital of North America". CTV News. September 7, 2002. Retrieved August 28, 2012. 
  10. ^ Environment CanadaCanadian Climate Normals, accessed April 5, 2012
  11. ^ Remembrance
  12. ^ "100,000 in Vaisakhi parade". Surrey Now. Retrieved May 29, 2008. 
  13. ^ Kelly Sinoski, The New Surrey: Developing six cities at once: Surrey must built and link town centres while maintaining their unique traits, Vancouver Sun, January 26, 2013, p.A12
  14. ^ "Premier Officially Opens Surrey Kabaddi Stadium" (Press release). Government of British Columbia. September 9, 2006. Retrieved January 12, 2008. 
  15. ^ Early Trails and Roads in the Lower Fraser Valley, W. N. Draper, British Columbia Historical Quarterly, January, 1943, Vol. 7, p. 49-56.
  16. ^ The Semiahmoo Trail: Myths Makers Memories by Ron Dowle, Surrey Historical Society, 1998.
  17. ^ "Surrey History". Members.shaw.ca. September 11, 1993. Retrieved March 9, 2011. 
  18. ^ "Fraser Valley Heritage Railway Society". Fvhrs.org. Retrieved August 1, 2012. 
  19. ^ "Sustainability Charter: a commitment to sustainability" (PDF). City of Surrey. Retrieved 13 February 2013. 
  20. ^ "Sustainability Charter update 2011" (PDF). City of Surrey. Retrieved 13 February 2013. 
  21. ^ "Burnaby Public Consultation on Provincial Gateway Program" (PDF). City of Burnaby. Retrieved 13 February 2013. 
  22. ^ "Standing Committee Minutes" (PDF). City of Vancouver. Retrieved 13 February 2013. 
  23. ^ "Proposed twinning of the Port Mann Bridge and Highway 1 expansion" (PDF). David Suzuki Foundation. Retrieved 13 February 2013. 
  24. ^ Litman, Todd (10 September 2012). "Generated Traffic and Induced Travel Implications for Transport Planning" (PDF). Victoria Transport Policy Institute. Retrieved 11 February 2013. 
  25. ^ "Dianne Watts angry Surrey dropped from RapidBus plans". News1130. 23 November 2012. Retrieved 13 February 2013. 
  26. ^ "More Skytrains for Surrey". Surrey, BC: The Leader. 16 January 2008. Retrieved 11 February 2013. 
  27. ^ "A better Surrey hinges on halted transit plans". The Globe and Mail. 15 June 2012. Retrieved 13 February 2013. 
  28. ^ "Sustainability Charter: a commitment to sustainability" (PDF). City of Surrey. p. 20. Retrieved 13 February 2013. 
  29. ^ Vojnovic, edited by Igor. Urban sustainability : a global perspective. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press. pp. 509–523. ISBN 9781611860559. 

External links[edit]

Media related to Surrey, British Columbia at Wikimedia Commons