# Survivorship curve

An illustration of the three idealized types of curve

A survivorship curve is a graph showing the number or proportion of individuals surviving at each age for a given species or group (e.g. males or females). Survivorship curves can be constructed for a given cohort (a group of individuals of roughly the same age) based on a life table.

There are three generalized types of survivorship curves:

• Type I survivorship curves are characterized by high survival in early and middle life, followed by a rapid decline in survivorship in later life. They are typical of species that produce few offspring but care for them well, including humans and many other large mammals.
• Type II curves are an intermediate between Types I and III, where roughly constant mortality rate is experienced regardless of age. Some birds and some lizards follow this pattern.
• In Type III curves, the greatest mortality is experienced early in life, with relatively low rates of death for those surviving this bottleneck. This type of curve is characteristic of species that produce a large number of offspring (see r/K selection theory). This includes most marine invertebrates. For example, oysters produce millions of eggs, but most larvae die from predation or other causes; those that survive long enough to produce a hard shell live relatively long.

The number or proportion of organisms surviving is plotted on the y-axis, generally with a logarithmic scale starting with 1000 individuals, while their age, often as a proportion of maximum life span, is plotted on the x-axis.

In mathematical statistics, the survival function is one specific form of survivorship curve and plays a basic part in survival analysis.

## References

Reece, Jane B.; Meyers, Noel; Urry, Lisa A.; Cain, Michael L.; Wasserman, Steven A.; Minorsky, Peter V.; Jackson, Robert B.; Cooke, Bernard N. (2012). Campbell Biology. Australian Version (9th ed.). Pearson. p. 1204. ISBN 978-1-4425-3176-5.