Susan B. Anthony List

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Susan B. Anthony List
Type 501(c)(4) non-profit
Founded February 4, 1993
Reorganized 1997
Founder(s) Rachel MacNair[1][2]
Key people Marjorie Dannenfelser (President)
Emily Buchanan (Executive Director)
Area served United States
Focus(es) Pro-life political advocacy
Members c. 365,000
Motto Advancing Pro-Life Women

The Susan B. Anthony List (SBA List) is a 501(c)(4) non-profit[3] organization that seeks to eliminate abortion in the U.S.[4] by supporting pro-life politicians, primarily women,[5] through its SBA List Candidate Fund political action committee.[6][7] In 2011, it reported it had 333,000 members.[8]

Founded in 1993 by sociologist and psychologist Rachel MacNair, the SBA List was a response to the success of the pro-choice group EMILY's List, which was partly responsible for bringing about the 1992 "Year of the Woman" in which a significant number of women, all pro-choice, were elected to Congress. MacNair wished to help pro-life women gain high public office. She recruited Marjorie Dannenfelser and Jane Abraham as the first experienced leaders of SBA List. Dannenfelser is now president of the organization and Abraham is chairman of the board.

Named for suffragist Susan B. Anthony, SBA List identifies itself with Anthony and several 19th-century women's rights activists; SBA List believes Anthony and other early feminists were opposed to abortion. Regarding Anthony's abortion beliefs, SBA List has been challenged by scholars and pro-choice activists; Anthony scholar Ann D. Gordon and Anthony biographer Lynn Sherr write that Anthony "spent no time on the politics of abortion".[9]


The formation of the SBA List was catalyzed in March 1992 when Rachel MacNair, head of Feminists for Life, watched a 60 Minutes television documentary profiling IBM-heiress Ellen Malcolm and the successful campaign-funding activities of her Democratic pro-choice group EMILY's List.[10][11] MacNair, a peace activist and pro-life Quaker, was motivated to organize the Susan B. Anthony List for the purpose of countering EMILY's List by providing early campaign funds to pro-life women candidates.[1][10] Led by FFL and MacNair, 15 pro-life groups formed an umbrella organization, the National Women's Coalition for Life (NWCL), which adopted a joint pro-life statement on April 3, 1992.[12]

Also inspired by EMILY's List, in 1992 the WISH List was formed to promote pro-choice candidates who were members of the opposing Republican Party.[13] In November 1992 after many of the pro-choice candidates won their races to create the "Year of the Woman", MacNair announced the formation of the SBA List, describing its purpose as endorsing and supporting women who held pro-life beliefs without regard to party affiliation.[14] MacNair determined to challenge the EMILY's List and the WISH List notion that the top female politicians were primarily pro-choice.[15][16] She said the SBA List would not support right-wing political figures such as Phyllis Schlafly.[14] The NWCL sponsored the SBA List with $2,485 to create it as a political action committee (PAC)[17][18][19] on February 4, 1993, listing MacNair as the first secretary; the group operated out of MacNair's office inside a crisis pregnancy center on East 47th Street in Kansas City, Missouri.[19][20][21] The first SBA List public event was held the same month at the Washington, D.C., headquarters of the National Woman's Party.[22] Organized by founding board member Susan Gibbs, the "kickoff" event raised "more than $9000".[23]

Susan B. Anthony and early feminist connection

MacNair named the SBA List after the famous suffragist, Susan B. Anthony.[24][25] The early leaders of the SBA List believed that Anthony was "passionately pro-life".[26][27] This topic has been subject to a modern-day dispute about Anthony's views on abortion, with scholars and pro-choice activists "concerned that their heroine is being appropriated."[28] While Anthony deplored abortion, she never worked against it.[9][29] Anthony scholar Ann D. Gordon and Anthony biographer Lynn Sherr say the quotes SBA List cites are misattributed or taken out of context. Gordon said that Anthony "never voiced an opinion about the sanctity of fetal life ... and she never voiced an opinion about using the power of the state to require that pregnancies be brought to term."[28]

The SBA List also cites other early feminists, such as Elizabeth Cady Stanton, who wrote a letter saying, "When we consider that women are treated as property, it is degrading to women that we should treat our children as property to be disposed of as we see fit."[26] The SBA List notes that Victoria Woodhull, the first female presidential candidate in the U.S., told the Wheeling, West Virginia, Evening Standard newspaper in 1875 that "Every woman knows that if she were free, she would never bear an unwished-for child, nor think of murdering one before its birth."[26] The SBA List refers to a fourth early feminist, Elizabeth Blackwell, the first woman to receive a medical degree in the United States, who recorded in her diary her thoughts about Madame Restell, an early 19th-century abortionist: "The gross perversion and destruction of motherhood by the abortionist filled me with indignation, and awakened active antagonism. That the honorable term 'female physician' should be exclusively applied to those women who carried on this shocking trade seemed to me a horror. It was an utter degradation of what might and should become a noble position for women."[26] Finally, the organization also cites suffragist Alice Paul,[27] author of the original Equal Rights Amendment, who said, "Abortion is the ultimate exploitation of women."[30]


Early activities and reorganization

The early SBA List did not have much skill at furthering its mission. Founding board member Susan Gibbs, later the communications director for the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Washington, said "None of us had political experience. None of us had PAC experience. We just had a passion for being pro-life."[22] Shortly after its founding, experienced political activists Marjorie Dannenfelser and then Jane Abraham were brought on board—Dannenfelser served as executive director, leading the organization from her home in Arlington, Virginia.[31] In 1994, the SBA List was successful in helping 8 of its 15 selected candidates gain office.[22] In 1996, only two challengers who were financially backed were elected, while five SBA-List-supported incumbents retained their positions; a disappointing election for the group.[10][22]

In 1997 the SBA List was reorganized by Dannenfelser and Abraham into its current form as a 501(c)(4) non-profit organization with a connected PAC, the SBA List Candidate Fund.[6] Abraham became president and Dannenfelser held the position of Chairman of the Board.[32] The rules for endorsing and financially supporting candidates were tightened: in addition to the politician having to be female, she must have demonstrated a pro-life record (a simple declaration was not enough), and she must be seen as likely to win her race.[10] In 1998, the SBA List began backing male pro-life candidates as well, endorsing three men in a pilot program.[22] One of the three gained office: the SBA List gave millionaire Republican Peter Fitzgerald $2,910 to assist him in his $12.3 million win over pro-choice Democrat Carol Moseley Braun in a battle for the U.S. Senate seat in Illinois.[33][34][35] Abraham served as president from 1997 until 2006 when Dannenfelser became president.

The election year 2000 was another disappointment for the SBA List, with the group contributing $25,995 to endorsed pro-life candidates in contrast to the pro-choice candidates funded with $608,273 from the WISH List or with $20 million from the EMILY's List.[36][37]

Recent history

Contributions from supporters grew by 50% from 2007 to 2009.[38] As of December 2009, the SBA List had outspent one of its pro-choice counterparts, the National Organization for Women, in every election cycle since 1996.[39]

In April 2003, Representative Marilyn Musgrave (left) received an award from SBA List President Jane Abraham.

Former Congresswoman Marilyn Musgrave joined the SBA List in March 2009 and works as a project director and spokesperson.[40] Musgrave had previously been given a pro-life award in 2003 by the SBA List.

The organization was involved in trying to keep abortion coverage out of health care reform legislation in 2009 and 2010.[41] It had targeted Senator Bob Casey to ensure abortion was not covered in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA),[42][43] and lobbied for the Stupak-Pitts Amendment to H.R. 3962[44] The group criticized Senator Ben Nelson for what it called a fake compromise on abortion in the PPACA[45] and condemned the Christmas Eve passage of the Senate bill.[46]

The group had planned to honor Rep. Bart Stupak (D-MI) at its March gala, but after Stupak's deal with President Obama in which Obama would issue an executive order banning federal funding for abortion under the bill,[47] Stupak was stripped of his "Defender of Life Award" three days before the gala because of Dannenfelser's doubts, shared by the most prominent pro-life groups, about the effectiveness of the Executive Order.[48][49] Stupak had told Dannenfelser, "They [the Democratic leadership] know I won't fold. There is no way."[50] On the day of the vote, Dannenfelser said she promised Stupak that the SBA List was "going to be involved in your defeat."[50] In a statement, Dannenfelser said, "We were planning to honor Congressman Stupak for his efforts to keep abortion-funding out of health care reform. We will no longer be doing so...Let me be clear: any representative, including Rep. Stupak, who votes for this health care bill can no longer call themselves 'pro-life.'"[47] No one received the award in his place, and Dannenfelser instead used the occasion to condemn Stupak.[51] The group also dropped its plans to help Stupak fend off a primary challenge[51] from Connie Saltonstall, who was running on a pro-choice platform.[52] Stupak later dropped out of the race, announcing his retirement from Congress.[53]

In 2010, the SBA List hosted events featuring prominent pro-life political figures as speakers, including Sarah Palin, Minnesota Governor Tim Pawlenty and Rep. Michele Bachmann.[54][55]

In August 2010, to commemorate the 90th anniversary of the ratification of the 19th Amendment, which granted women the right to vote, the SBA List held a colloquium at the Yale Club of New York City, billed as "A Conversation on Pro-Life Feminism".[56][57] The event featured a panel of five scholars in the fields of law, philosophy, history, political science and sociology, who discussed various concepts of feminism and the possibility of broadening the spectrum of pro-life political candidates to include those with more centrist fiscal views.[56][58]

An SBA List project, "Votes Have Consequences", was headed by former Congresswoman Marilyn Musgrave and was aimed at defeating vulnerable candidates in 2010 who did not vote pro-life on key issues, such as health care reform.[59] Under this project, the group endorsed Dan Coats of Indiana for Senate against Rep. Brad Ellsworth, who had voted for the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.[60]

In January 2011, along with Americans for Tax Reform and The Daily Caller, the organization sponsored a debate between candidates for chairman of the Republican National Committee.[61]

Peter Roff writing for U.S. News and World Report credited the SBA List for the passage in the House of an amendment to defund Planned Parenthood of federal dollars for fiscal year 2011.[62] Writing for In These Times, social media activist Sady Doyle wrote that in striving against Planned Parenthood, the SBA List registered its priority as ending abortion rather than helping women prevent unwanted pregnancies.[63]

In March 2011, the SBA List teamed with Live Action for a bus tour through 13 congressional districts either thanking or condemning their representatives for their votes to defund Planned Parenthood of tax dollars in the Pence Amendment. In response, Planned Parenthood launched its own tour to follow the SBA List bus.[64] The SBA List also bought $200,000 in radio and television ads backing six Republicans who voted to defund Planned Parenthood in response to a $200,000 ad buy by Planned Parenthood against the Pence Amendment.[65]

In July 2011, the SBA List held a rally in New Hampshire supporting the New Hampshire Executive Council's decision to cut off state funding for Planned Parenthood.[66] Spokeswoman Marilyn Musgrave said the Council's decision "really will save unborn lives."[66]


The SBA List Candidate Fund primarily endorses pro-life women, and pro-life men running against pro-choice women.[67]

2008 presidential election

Sarah Palin on the campaign trail in 2008

The SBA List gained renewed attention during the 2008 presidential election following Sarah Palin's nomination for Vice President. They had endorsed her 2006 run for governor of Alaska.[68] In 2008, the SBA List also started a social networking site and blog called "Team Sarah", which is "dedicated to advancing the values that Sarah Palin represents in the political process."[69]

Palin headlined the organization's 2010 "Celebration of Life" breakfast fundraiser, an event which got extensive media coverage and in which she coined the term "mama grizzly".[70][71][72][73]

According to Politico, Palin's criteria for endorsing candidates is whether they have the support of the Tea Party movement and whether they have the support of the SBA List.[74]

2009 elections

In September 2009, in a special election to fill an empty House seat in upstate New York, the group endorsed the pro-life third-party Conservative candidate Doug Hoffman over the pro-choice Republican candidate, Dede Scozzafava, on the stated basis that Scozzafava was an "abortion radical who does not represent the views of the growing majority of pro-life American women."[75][76] The SBA List joined forces with the National Organization for Marriage in support of Hoffman, spending over $100,000[77] printing literature, making phone calls, and flooding the district with volunteers from across the country.[78]

2010 elections

For the 2010 elections, the SBA List planned to spend $6 million[79] (including $3 million solely on U.S. Senate races[80]) and endorsed several dozen candidates.[81] The SBA List spent nearly $1.7 million on independent expenditure campaigns for or against 50 candidates.[82]

The SBA List conducted a 23-city bus tour to the Congressional districts of self-described pro-life Democrats in Ohio, Indiana and Pennsylvania who voted for the health care reform bill and to rally supporters to vote them out.[83][84][85] The bus tour attracted counterprotests at some stops, such as one in Pennsylvania where a group called Catholics United accused the SBA List of lying about health care reform.[86]

The organization launched a "Life Speaking Out" petition to urge the Republican Party to include opposition to abortion in its Pledge to America.[87][88] The petition was sent with over 20,000 signatures on it.[89][90]

The organization especially focused on the California Senate race where Carly Fiorina challenged incumbent Senator Barbara Boxer.[91] The group spent $200,000 in support of Fiorina's campaign during the Republican primary and expected to spend another $1 million for the general election campaign against Boxer.[92] The SBA List partnered with the National Organization for Marriage to air Spanish language TV commercials attacking Boxer's positions on abortion and gay marriage.[93] The two groups bought $200,000 worth of airtime for the commercial to air in the markets of Los Angeles, Fresno, and San Diego.[94] However, Boxer prevailed over Fiorina in the November 2010 election.[95]

Other notable endorsements included Sharron Angle, who unsuccessfully[96] challenged incumbent Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid in Nevada; the SBA List endorsed Angle despite having previously endorsed Angle's primary opponent, Sue Lowden.[97][98] In September 2010, the SBA List launched a $150,000 campaign on behalf of New Hampshire Senate candidate Kelly Ayotte for the Republican primary.[99] Ayotte won the primary to become the nominee,[100] and later prevailed in the general election.[101] In October 2010, the SBA List endorsed Joe Miller, Republican nominee for the U.S. Senate in Alaska.[102] The SBA List endorsed Miller after Sen. Lisa Murkowski decided to stage a write-in campaign after losing the Republican primary to Miller, and they launched a $10,000 radio campaign to air ads attacking Murkowski for turning a "deaf ear" to the will of voters who voted her out in the primary.[103] Murkowski defeated Miller, who conceded after two months of court battles over contested ballots.[104]

36 of SBA List's 2010 endorsed candidates were elected.[105]

Driehaus political ad litigation

In the 2010 campaign, the organization purchased billboard advertisements in the district of Rep. Steve Driehaus of Ohio that showed a photo of Driehaus and said, "Shame on Steve Driehaus! Driehaus voted FOR taxpayer-funded abortion"[106] The advertisement referred to Driehaus's vote in favor of the health care overhaul bill.[107][108] The SBA List takes the position that the health care legislation allows for taxpayer-funded abortion, a claim which was ruled by a judge to be factually incorrect.[109] In response, Driehaus, who represented the heavily pro-life[106] 1st congressional district of Ohio, filed a complaint with the Ohio Elections Commission (OEC), stating that the advertisements were false and violated Ohio election law.[110] The OEC ruled in Driehaus' favor in a probable cause hearing on October 14, 2010.[111] In response, the SBA List asked a federal judge to issue an injunction against the OEC on the grounds that the law at issue stifles free speech[110][112] and that its ads were based on the group’s own interpretation of the law.[109] The American Civil Liberties Union of Ohio filed an 18-page amicus brief on the SBA List's behalf, arguing that the Ohio law in question is "unconstitutionally vague" and has a "chilling" effect on the SBA List's right to freedom of speech.[113][114] A federal judge rejected the SBA List's federal lawsuit on abstention grounds and allowed Driehaus's OEC complaint to move forward.[107][115]

After the OEC complaint was filed, the SBA List began airing a radio ad in Driehaus's district in which Dannenfelser stated that the group "[would] not be silenced or intimidated" by Driehaus's legal action.[116] Driehaus was able persuade the billboard company to withdraw the SBA List's advertisement, which was never erected.[108] Driehaus ended up losing his seat to Steve Chabot in the November election. Driehaus then sued the SBA List in a second case on December 3, 2010, accusing the organization of defamation that caused him a "loss of livelihood",[117] arguing that the "First Amendment is not and never has been an invitation to concoct falsehoods aimed at depriving a person of his livelihood."[108] The SBA List countered by stating that the organization would "continue to defend the truth and the right to criticize our elected officials."[108] The SBA List continued seeking to have the law in question overturned; the ACLU joined in the organization's fight against the law.[118]

On August 1, 2011, judge Timothy Black dismissed the SBA List's challenge to the Ohio law, holding that the federal court lacked jurisdiction since the billboards were never erected and the OEC never made a final ruling[119] and denied a motion for summary judgment by SBA List in the defamation case, allowing Driehaus's defamation claims regarding other SBA List statements to go forward.[120] Black also required that SBA List stop claiming on its website that the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act subsidized abortion, because it did not directly mention abortion.[121] SBA List argued that its statements were opinions and were thus protected, but the court rejected this argument given that SBA List itself had claimed that this was a "fact."[122][123] On August 19, 2011, the SBA List appealed the decision on the Ohio law to the Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals.[124] In May 2013, the Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that the SBA List could not challenge the law under the First Amendment.[125]

On August 9, 2013, the SBA List petitioned the United States Supreme Court to review the law.[126][127] On January 10, 2014, the Supreme Court accepted the case. The Court is scheduled to hear the case April 22, 2014[128] and a decision is expected by June 2014.[129]

2011 elections

In October 2011, the SBA List announced it was getting involved in the 2011 Virginia state Senate elections, endorsing challengers Bryce Reeves against Edd Houck, Caren Merrick against Barbara Favola for an open seat, Patricia Phillips against Mark Herring, and incumbent Sen. Jill Vogel in an effort to give control of the Senate to pro-lifers to stop the state Senate from being a "graveyard for pro-life legislation."[130] It also announced it was spending $25,000 against Sen. Edd Houck to expose his "extreme record on abortion."[131] Merrick and Phillips lost, but Vogel won re-election and Reeves defeated Houck by just 222 votes.[132]

2012 presidential election

In June 2011, the SBA List unveiled a pro-life pledge for 2012 Republican presidential candidates in which signers commit to appointing only pro-life judicial nominees and cabinet members, preventing taxpayer funding of abortion, and supporting legislation to ban abortions after 20 weeks of pregnancy based on the fetal pain concept.[133] Candidates Rick Perry, Tim Pawlenty, Michele Bachmann, Newt Gingrich, Rick Santorum, Thaddeus McCotter, Herman Cain, and Ron Paul all signed the pledge, but Mitt Romney, Jon Huntsman, Jr., and Gary Johnson declined. Romney's refusal (he said the pledge might have "unintended consequences") sparked heated criticism from the SBA List, some of the other candidates, and political observers given Romney's past support for legalized abortion.[134][133][135] Huntsman said he would not sign any pledges from political groups during the campaign[136] and was criticized by the SBA List as well.[136] Cain initially said he agreed with the first three parts, but objected to the wording in the pledge which said he would have to "advance" the fetal pain bill; he said he would sign it but Congress would have to advance it.[137] Cain later signed the pledge in November 2011.[138] Johnson declined because he is pro-choice.

The SBA List embarked on a Values Voter Bus Tour in Iowa with the Family Research Council and National Organization for Marriage from August 9-12, 2011, ending the day before the critical Iowa Straw Poll.[139] The tour visited 22 cities and was joined by Pawlenty, Bachmann, and Santorum as well as Iowa Lt. Gov. Kim Reynolds and Reps. Steve King and Louie Gohmert, among other "state and national leaders".[140][139]

The SBA supported Rick Santorum in the 2012 Republican Party Presidential Nomination by buying $150,000 of advertising for the candidate in Michigan, and organizing a bus tour for the Santorum and his campaign throughout Michigan. [141] After Mitt Romney became the presumptive nominee for the Republican Party, the SBA List declared that former Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice was unqualified for Vice President due to her describing herself as "mildly pro-choice."[142][143]

In August, SBA released an ad featuring pro-life activist Melissa Ohden who says she survived an abortion in 1977. The ad criticized Barack Obama, claiming that while serving in the Illinois Senate, he voted four times to deny medical care to infants born alive during failed abortion procedures.[144][145] In a 2008 analysis, FactCheck said that assertions about Obama's voting record were misleading.[146][144]

See also


  1. ^ a b Kennedy, Angela (1997). Swimming against the tide: feminist dissent on the issue of abortion. Open Air. p. 117. ISBN 1-85182-267-4. "Rachel MacNair the founder of the Susan B. Anthony List..." 
  2. ^ "People At". Susan B. Anthony List. Archived from the original on January 30, 1998. Retrieved August 23, 2011. 
  3. ^ GuideStar: Susan B. Anthony List non-profit status
  4. ^ "SBA List Mission: Advancing, Mobilizing and Representing Pro-Life Women". Susan B. Anthony List. 2008. Retrieved October 18, 2010. "To accomplish our ultimate goal of ending abortion in this country..." 
  5. ^ Electing - Susan B. Anthony List
  6. ^ a b SBA List History
  7. ^ SBA List endorsement process
  8. ^ A feminine face for the anti-abortion movement
  9. ^ a b Gordon, Ann D.; Sherr, Lynn (May 21, 2010). "Sarah Palin is no Susan B. Anthony"., "On Faith" blog. Retrieved October 22, 2010. 
  10. ^ a b c d Crisis (Brownson Institute) 15 (1): 30–33. 1997. "The list has its origins in a 1992 CBS Sixty Minutes program on EMILY's List ("EMILY" stands for Early Money Is Like Yeast), which funds pro-abortion women candidate. After watching the program, Rachel MacNair, a pro-life Quaker and head of Feminists for Life, grabbed the telephone and began calling her friends in the pro-life movement. They all agreed: The time had come to counter EMILY's List with a pro-life version." 
  11. ^ Alexander, Herbert E.; Corrado, Anthony (1995). Financing the 1992 election. American political institutions and public policy 9. M.E. Sharpe. pp. 212–213. ISBN 1-56324-437-3. 
  12. ^ "National Women's Coalition for Life Statement of Commitment". Priests for Life. April 3, 1992. Retrieved August 23, 2011. 
  13. ^ Felder, Deborah G. (2003). "A Century of Women: The Most Influential Events in Twentieth-Century Women's History". Citadel Press. p. 304. 
  14. ^ a b "Feminist launches PAC for pro-lifers – Sees lopsided 'Year of the Woman'". The Washington Times (San Francisco). November 7, 1992. "As a feminist who opposes abortion, Rachel MacNair could find only one flaw in Tuesday's 'Year of the Woman' electoral triumph. All the women newly elected to the House and Senate were pro-choice. That's no accident, she says, since women's fund-raising organizations like EMILY's List and WISH List refuse to support pro-life candidates." 
  15. ^ Day, Christine L.; Hadley, Charles D. (2005). Women's PACs: abortion and elections. Pearson Prentice Hall. p. 21. ISBN 0-13-117448-7. "When listed together, the three PACs will generally be listed in the order in which they were founded: EMILY's List in 1986, The WISH List in 1992, and the Anthony List in 1993." 
  16. ^ Stange, Mary Zeiss; Oyster, Carol K.; Sloan, Jane E. (2011). Encyclopedia of Women in Today's World. SAGE. p. 474. ISBN 1-4129-7685-5. 
  17. ^ The Susan B. Anthony List was formed as a political action committee with the Federal Election Commission identification number C00280057.
  18. ^ "Feminist Launches Pro-Life Political Action Committee (PAC)". Life Communications 3 (19). September 1993. 
  19. ^ a b Zuckerman, Ed (1994). Almanac of federal PACs. Amward Publications. p. 354. ISBN 0-939676-11-7. 
  20. ^ "Page by Page Report Display (Page 1 of 2)". Federal Election Commission. Retrieved August 23, 2011. 
  21. ^ "Page by Page Report Display (Page 6 of 13)". Federal Election Commission. Retrieved August 23, 2011. 
  22. ^ a b c d e Esposito, Joseph (November 22, 1998). "Efforts to Elect Pro-Life Women Are Paying Off: In short time, political neophytes' initiative has become a growing force". National Catholic Register. Retrieved August 23, 2011. 
  23. ^ Groer, Anne (May 1993). Working Woman (MacDonald Communications) 18: 10. 
  24. ^ Flynn, Tom; Dawkins, Richard (2007). The New Encyclopedia of Unbelief. Prometheus Books. p. 825. ISBN 1-59102-391-2. 
  25. ^ "Commentary". Fidelity (Wanderer Forum Foundation) 12: 24. 1992. "To counter the influx of prochoice women who have just entered Congress, Rachel MacNair, head of Feminists for Life, has formed a political action committee ... To the consternation of feminist prochoicers, she's named it the Susan B. Anthony List." 
  26. ^ a b c d "Susan B. Anthony: Pro-life Feminist", Washington Post, May 2010
  27. ^ a b SBA List – Early Suffragists
  28. ^ a b Stevens, Allison (2006-10-06). "Susan B. Anthony's Abortion Position Spurs Scuffle". Women's eNews. Retrieved 2009-11-21. 
  29. ^ Schiff, Stacy (October 13, 2006). "Desperately Seeking Susan". New York Times. Retrieved July 2, 2013. 
  30. ^ BBC Abortion and the early feminists
  31. ^ Ertelt, Steve (July 1994). "Announcements: Susan B. Anthony List Seeks Support". Life Communications 4 (10). 
  32. ^ "Leadership". Susan B. Anthony List. Archived from the original on August 15, 2000. Retrieved August 23, 2011. 
  33. ^ "Susan B. Anthony List Contributions to Federal Candidates – 1998". Influence & Lobbying: PACs. Retrieved September 6, 2011. 
  34. ^ Morris, Dwight (December 7, 1998). "The Bogeyman Unmasked: TV in the '98 Senate Races". Washington Post. Retrieved September 6, 2011. 
  35. ^ Stevens, Allison (September 22, 2006). "Election Victories Reveal a PAC's Rising Influence". Women's eNews. Retrieved August 23, 2011. 
  36. ^ Swers, Michele L. (2002). The difference women make: the policy impact of women in Congress. University of Chicago Press. p. 155. ISBN 0-226-78647-1. 
  37. ^ Wayne, Stephen J.; Wilcox, Clyde (2002). The election of the century and what it tells us about the future of American politics. M.E. Sharpe. p. 118. ISBN 0-7656-0743-3. 
  38. ^ "Health Bill Revives Abortion Groups", New York Times, Nov. 24, 2009
  39. ^ Under Obama, Abortion Rights Advocates Try To Build Steam
  40. ^ Former Rep. Musgrave Takes Job With Susan B. Anthony List
  41. ^ "Abortion Foes Aren't Buying Obama's Assurances", Los Angeles Times
  42. ^ "The Abortion Hurdle: Can a Pro-Life Dem Bridge the Health Care Divide?" Time
  43. ^ "Group Runs Anti-Abortion Ad Against Casey"
  44. ^ "Pro-Life Groups Applaud Passage of Stupak Amendment to Stop Abortion Funding", LifeNews
  45. ^ "Pro-Life Group Blasts Nelson Compromise", Politico, Dec. 2009
  46. ^ "Reaction from Across Political Spectrum to Health Vote", Boston Globe, Dec. 2009
  47. ^ a b "Choice, Life Groups Slam Obama Order on Abortion Funding", Fox News, Mar. 21, 2010
  48. ^ "Stupak Award Rescinded", CNN, Mar. 22, 2010
  49. ^ "Stupak Stripped of 'Defender of Life' Award He Was to Receive this Week", The Hill
  50. ^ a b Woman who supported abortion rights experienced evolution that changed her mind
  51. ^ a b "Without Stupak, Anti-Abortion Group's Dinner Goes On", New York Times, Mar. 24, 2010
  52. ^ Why I Decided to Challenge Bart Stupak in the Democratic Primary
  53. ^ Davey, Monica (2010-04-09). "Under Fire for Abortion Deal, Stupak to Retire". The New York Times. Retrieved April 26, 2010. 
  54. ^ "Tim Pawlenty, Michele Bachmann Headline Anti-Abortion Fundraiser" Politico, March 2010]
  55. ^ "Susan B. Anthony Gala" The Hill
  56. ^ a b "Reaching Out to the Woman in the Yellow Sweater", Slate, The XX Factor Blog, Aug. 26, 2010
  57. ^ "Susan B. Anthony Revived", Accuracy In Media blog, Sept. 1, 2010
  58. ^ "A Conversation on Pro-life Feminism", SBA List website
  59. ^ "Musgrave to Pilot Pro-Life Push", Politico, Mar. 2009
  60. ^ "Indiana Senate Candidate Dan Coats Gets Pro-Life Backing Over Ellsworth" LifeNews
  61. ^ Steele Meets Challengers For GOP Chairmanship
  62. ^ House Votes to Defund Planned Parenthood Over Abortion
  63. ^ Doyle, Sady (January 13, 2012). "The Susan B. Anthony List’s Situational Feminism". In These Times. 
  64. ^ LiveAction, Planned Parenthood Embark On Rival Bus Tours
  65. ^ Planned Parenthood, Susan B. Anthony List put up dueling ads
  66. ^ a b N.H. activists laud end of Planned Parentood contract
  67. ^ Endorsement criteria at Accessed 2011-08-05.
  68. ^ "Pro-Life Groups Excited John McCain Picks Sarah Palin, Both Oppose Abortion", LifeNews
  69. ^ "Team Sarah" website
  70. ^ "Palin Hits Campaign Trail for Anti-Abortion Group", CNN, May 14, 2010
  71. ^ "Sarah Palin Boosts 'Mom Awakening'", Politico, May 14, 2010]
  72. ^ "Sarah Palin Issues a Call to Action to 'Mama Grizzlies'", Washington Post, May 14, 2010
  73. ^ "Palin Tells Women's Group Washington Should Beware of 'Mama Grizzlies'", Associated Press, May 14, 2010
  74. ^ Sarah Palin, Mike Huckabee bid for conservative base
  75. ^ "Club for Growth Backs Hoffman, Too", The Hill
  76. ^ The New York 23 hits its tipping point
  77. ^ Open Secrets - SBA List 2009 independent expenditures
  78. ^ Conservative Loses Upstate House Race in Blow to Right
  79. ^ "For GOP Women, 2010 May Not Be Their Year", Los Angeles Times, July 24, 2010
  80. ^ Abortion an issue in Senate races
  81. ^ Susan B. Anthony List Candidate Fund: 2010 Endorsed Candidates
  82. ^
  83. ^ "Celebrating 'Suffrage to Success': Are All Women Invited to the Party?", Politics Daily, Aug. 8, 2010
  84. ^ "Organization to Host Bus Tour", Brazil Times
  85. ^ "First Stop for Pro-Life Bus Tour: Cincinnati", Aug. 6, 2010
  86. ^ "Catholic Groups Protest SBA List Tour", Politico, Aug. 2010
  87. ^ Some Supporters Fret as GOP Readies Agenda
  88. ^ Pro-life priority in GOP
  89. ^ Abortion activists target GOP
  90. ^ Social conservatives confident views will be in new GOP contract
  91. ^ "Fiorina Endorsed by Major Anti-Abortion Group in California Senate Race", The Hill
  92. ^ "Boxer Tries to Highlight Differences on Abortion", Associated Press
  93. ^ Conservatives hit Boxer on marriage, abortion, in Spanish
  94. ^ Outside groups appeal to Latinos on Fiorina's behalf
  95. ^ Barbara Boxer defeats Carly Fiorina in Senate race
  96. ^ Senate Democratic Leader Reid Defeats Angle to Win Re-Election in Nevada
  97. ^ "Pro-Life Group Endorses Sue Lowden for Senate", CNN, Mar. 30, 2010
  98. ^ "Pro-Life Groups Back Sharron Angle in Nevada After Primary Election Victory", LifeNews
  99. ^ SBA List works to boost Ayotte in final stretch
  100. ^ New Hampshire election results: Kelly Ayotte wins GOP nod in N.H.
  101. ^ Ayotte wins U.S. Senate seat
  102. ^ Susan B Anthony List endorses Miller
  103. ^ Anti-abortion group backs Miller, targets Sen. Murkowski
  104. ^ Miller Ends Fight, Concedes Alaska Race
  105. ^ SBA List 2010 Winning Candidates
  106. ^ a b Driehaus sues to stop abortion attacks
  107. ^ a b Driehaus suit against SBA List moves forward
  108. ^ a b c d Defeated Pro-Life Democrat Driehaus Sues Pro-Life Group
  109. ^ a b Judge: Reform doesn't fund abortion
  110. ^ a b Ohio Democrat files election complaint over pro-life group’s billboard
  111. ^ Judge Allows Driehaus Case against Susan B. Anthony List to Move Forward
  112. ^ FOX News: SBA List fights for billboards
  113. ^ ACLU joins fight over anti-Driehaus billboards
  114. ^ ACLU of Ohio Files Amicus Brief on SBA List's Behalf
  115. ^ Federal Judge Denies Ohio Election Law Challenge From Susan B. Anthony List
  116. ^ SBA List radio ad
  117. ^ Rep. Driehaus files defamation lawsuit over SBA List’s abortion funding claims
  118. ^ Battle over Ohio law that targeted anti-abortion ads heats up
  119. ^ Driehaus wins abortion billboard battles
  120. ^ Order at Justia website. Retrieved August 3, 2011.
  121. ^ Mann, Benjamin. "Defamation Lawsuit Against Susan B. Anthony List Continues | Daily News". Retrieved 2011-12-30. 
  122. ^ Bassett, Laura (October 13, 2011). "Protect Life Act Passes House: Congress Passes Controversial Anti-Abortion Bill". Huffington Post. 
  123. ^ Baker, Sam (August 1, 2011). "Court: No tax-funded abortion in healthcare law". The Hill. 
  124. ^ SBA List appeals ruling on healthcare law and abortion
  125. ^ SBA List Petitions Supreme Court in First Amendment Case
  126. ^ Anti-abortion group asks Supreme Court to strike limits on political speech
  127. ^ Supreme Court petition No. 13-193
  128. ^ Susan B. Anthony List, et al. v. Steven Driehaus, et al., no. 13-193, (docket ). Retrieved April 7, 2014.
  129. ^ Tau, Byron (January 10, 2014). "Supreme Court takes political ads case". Politico. Retrieved April 7, 2014. 
  130. ^ Pro-Life Group to Target Houck, Announces Virginia State Senate Endorsements
  131. ^ Anti-abortion group targets Sen. Houck
  132. ^ Democrat Edd Houck concedes Virginia Senate race; Republicans lock up hold on power
  133. ^ a b Frontrunner Romney Takes Heat Over Abortion Stance
  134. ^ Ron Paul Adviser Criticizes Mitt Romney For Declining Abortion Pledge
  135. ^ Michele Bachmann becomes third GOPer to get glittered, blasts Mitt Romney for his abortion policy
  136. ^ a b Susan B. Anthony List keeps up anti-abortion pledge pressure
  137. ^ Herman Cain Declines to Sign Pro-Life Pledge
  138. ^ Herman Cain signs anti-abortion pledge
  139. ^ a b Social cons tour Iowa ahead of straw poll
  140. ^ Pawlenty, Santorum to join socially conservative bus tour
  141. ^
  142. ^ Burns, Alexander (July 13, 2012). "SBA List: Condoleezza Rice unacceptable". Politico. 
  143. ^ "Anti-Abortion Activists Call Rice Unqualified". Wall Street Journal. July 13, 2012. 
  144. ^ a b Flock, Elizabeth (August 29, 2012). "Alleged Abortion Survivor Ad Airs in Missouri". U.S. News and World Report. Retrieved September 9, 2012. 
  145. ^ Burns, Alexander (August 27, 2012). "SBA List to launch Missouri ads against Obama on abortion". Retrieved September 9, 2012. 
  146. ^ Henig, Jess (August 25, 2008), Obama and 'Infanticide':The facts about Obama's votes against 'Born Alive' bills in Illinois, retrieved September 24, 2012 

External links