|The Baroness Greenfield|
Greenfield at her home in March 2013
1 October 1950 |
Hammersmith, London, England
|Institutions||University of Oxford
Royal Institution of Great Britain
Lincoln College, Oxford
House of Lords
|Alma mater||St Hilda's College, Oxford|
|Thesis||Origins of acetylcholinesterase in cerebrospinal fluid (1977)|
|Doctoral advisor||Anthony David Smith|
|Spouse||Peter Atkins (m. 1991–2005)|
Susan Adele Greenfield, Baroness Greenfield, CBE, HonFRCP (born 1 October 1950) is a British scientist, writer, broadcaster, and member of the House of Lords. Her research is to identify a novel approach to the treatment of Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. She has also however, a keen interest in the neuroscience of consciousness.
Greenfield is Senior Research Fellow at Lincoln College, Oxford University. From 2005 to 2012, she was Chancellor of Heriot-Watt University in Edinburgh. Until 8 January 2010, she was director of the Royal Institution of Great Britain. In September 2013, she co-founded the biotech company Neuro-bio Ltd, where she is Chief Scientific Officer.
Baroness Greenfield was born to a Jewish father and a Christian mother in the west London borough of Hammersmith. Her mother Doris (Thorp) was a dancer, and Reginald Myer Greenfield, an electrician. Greenfield attended the Godolphin and Latymer School, and was the first member of her family to go on to university. As a Seniour Scholar St Hugh's College, Oxford. Greenfield completed her Doctor of Philosophy degree in 1977 under the supervision of Anthony David Smith on the Origins of acetylcholinesterase in cerebrospinal fluid.
Greenfield's research is focused on brain physiology, particularly on the brain mechanisms of Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases, but she is also known as a populariser of science. Greenfield has written a range of books about the brain, regularly gives public lectures, and appears on radio and television.
Since 1976, Greenfield has published some 200 papers in peer-reviewed journals, including studies on the basic brain mechanisms involved in addiction and reward, i.e. relating to dopamine systems and related neurochemicals. She has also investigated the brain mechanisms underlying ADHD as well as the impact of environmental enrichment.
In 1994, she was invited to be the first woman to give the Royal Institution Christmas Lecture, then sponsored by the BBC. Her lecture was titled "Journey to the centre of the brain". She was appointed Director of the Royal Institution in 1998, until declared redundant in 2010 for financial reasons. From 1995 to 1999, she gave public lectures as Gresham Professor of Physic. Greenfield was Adelaide's Thinker in Residence for 2004 and 2005.
Greenfield created three research and biotechnology companies: Synaptica, BrainBoost, and Neurodiagnostics, which research neuronal diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. She is a Patron of Dignity in Dying and a founder and trustee of the charity Science for Humanity, a network of scientists, researchers and technologists that collaborates with non-profits to create practical solutions to the everyday problems of developing communities. The idea of matching scientific capability with the needs of poor communities came to her while writing Tomorrow's People, a book in which she imagined a future world of "techno haves and techno have-nots". She felt that the democratization and dissemination of science through organizations like Science for Humanity was a way to avoid such a future.
She has explored the relevance of neuroscience knowledge to education and has introduced the concept of "mind change", an umbrella term comparable to "climate change", encompassing the diverse issues involved on the impact of the 21st environment on the brain.
Baroness Greenfield sits in the Parliament of the United Kingdom in the House of Lords as a crossbencher, having no formal political affiliation. Records of Baroness Greenfield's activity in the House of Lords indicate abstention on a range of issues. Her latest speech was on the revision of drugs policy on 17 October 2013.
Internet addiction disorder
In 2011, Greenfield was criticised for linking the increase in internet usage to a rise in autism, with the National Autistic Society describing her statements as "unhelpful speculation". Greenfield responded by saying "I point to the increase in autism and I point to internet use. That's all." Greenfield has been criticised by Ben Goldacre for failing to publish any research into her theories of technology's impact on child development. Goldacre suggested that "A scientist with enduring concerns about a serious widespread risk would normally set out their concerns clearly, to other scientists, in a scientific paper."
In press interviews, at public speaking events, as well as in her writing Greenfield has expressed concerns that modern technology, and in particular social networking sites and video games, may have a negative impact on child development, leading to conditions including dementia and autism. See also the reading list on her website.
In 2010 Greenfield explored the relevance of neuroscience knowledge to education, and in 2011 published You & Me: the Neuroscience of Identity, a book that introduces the concept of "mind change", an umbrella term comparable to climate change, encompassing the diverse issues involved on the impact of the 21st century environment on the brain, and inspired by various sources.
As well as having 30 honorary degrees, Greenfield has received a number of awards including the Royal Society's Michael Faraday Prize. She has been elected to an Honorary Fellowship of the Royal College of Physicians and the Science Museum.
In 2006 she was made an honorary fellow of the British Science Association and was the Honorary Australian of the Year.
||This article uses bare URLs for citations, which may be threatened by link rot. (January 2013)|
- Greenfield, Susan (1977). Origins of acetylcholinesterase in cerebrospinal fluid (DPhil thesis). University of Oxford.
- House of Lords (2001). "Minutes and Order Paper – Minutes of Proceedings". UK Parliament House of Lords. Retrieved 27 October 2007.
- Private Life of the Brain (2000)
- The Times (9 January 2010). "Baroness Greenfield loses her job in Royal Institution shake-up". London: The Times. Retrieved 9 January 2010.
- "Team". NeuroBio. Retrieved 2014-02-18.
- "Interview: Susan Greenfield | The Jewish Chronicle". Thejc.com. 24 November 2011. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
- Radford, Tim (30 April 2004). "The Guardian profile: Susan Greenfield". The Guardian. Retrieved 26 August 2011.
- British Council on Science (2007). "Baroness Greenfield". British Council on Science. Retrieved 27 October 2007.
- "What Goes On In The Brain" Dialogue Talk.
- Susan Greenfield at the Internet Movie Database
- Cragg, S. J., Hille, C. J. & Greenfield, S. A. Functional domains in dorsal striatum of the nonhuman primate are defined by the dynamic behavior of dopamine. J Neurosci 22, 5705–5712 (2002)http://www.jneurosci.org/content/22/13/5705.full.pdf
- Cragg, S. J., Hille, C. J. & Greenfield, S. A. Dopamine release and uptake dynamics within nonhuman primate striatum in vitro. J Neurosci 20, 8209–8217 (2000)http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11050144
- Cragg, S. J., Hille, C. J. & Greenfield, S. A. Dopamine release and uptake kinetics in the putamen of non-human primate striatum in vitro: Species and region differences. Eur J Neurosci 12, 135–135 (2000)http://www.susangreenfield.com/assets/Uploads/Susan-Greenfield-Scientific-Publications.pdf
- Cragg, S. J., Clarke, D. J. & Greenfield, S. A. Real-time dynamics of dopamine released from neuronal transplants in experimental Parkinson's disease. Exp Neurol 164, 145–153, doi:DOI 10.1006/exnr.2000.7420 (2000)http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10877925
- Cragg, S. J., Holmes, C., Hawkey, C. R. & Greenfield, S. A. Dopamine is released spontaneously from developing midbrain neurons in organotypic culture. Neuroscience 84, 325–330 (1998)http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9539208
- Dickie, B. G. M., Holmes, C. & Greenfield, S. A. Neurotoxic and neurotrophic effects of chronic N-methyl-D-aspartate exposure upon mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons in organotypic culture. Neuroscience 72, 731–741 (1996)http://www.susangreenfield.com/assets/Uploads/Susan-Greenfield-Scientific-Publications.pdf
- Threlfell, S., Greenfield, S. A. & Cragg, S. J. 5-HT(1B) receptor regulation of serotonin (5-HT) release by endogenous 5-HT in the substantia nigra. Neuroscience 165, 212–220, doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2009.10.005 (2010)http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/19819310
- Threlfell, S., Exley, R., Cragg, S. J. & Greenfield, S. A. Constitutive histamine H-2 receptor activity regulates serotonin release in the substantia nigra. J Neurochem 107, 745–755, doi:DOI 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2008.05646.x (2008)http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1471-4159.2008.05646.x/full
- Dommett, E. J., Overton, P. G. & Greenfield, S. A. Drug Therapies for Attentional Disorders Threlfell, S., Exley, R., Cragg, S. J. & Greenfield, S. A. Constitutive histamine H-2 receptor activity regulates serotonin release in the substantia nigra. J Neurochem 107, 745–755, doi:DOI 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2008.05646.x (2008)http://www.susangreenfield.com/assets/Uploads/Susan-Greenfield-Scientific-Publications.pdf
- Dommett, E. J., Henderson, E. L., Westwell, M. S. & Greenfield, S. A. Methylphenidate amplifies long-term plasticity in the hippocampus via noradrenergic mechanisms. Learn Memory 15, 580–586, doi:Doi 10.1101/Lm.1092608 (2008)http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18685149
- Devonshire, I. M., Dommett, E. J., Grandy, T. H., Halliday, A. C. & Greenfield, S. A. Environmental enrichment differentially modifies specific components of sensory-evoked activity in rat barrel cortex as revealed by simultaneous electrophysiological recordings and optical imaging in vivo. Neuroscience 170, 662–669, doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2010.07.029 (2010)http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20654700
- RI. "List of Lecturers". RI. Retrieved 9 January 2010.
- profile on Royal Institution website
- Gammell, Caroline; Alleyne, Richard (12 January 2010). "Baroness Greenfield's redundancy 'only way to get rid of her'". The Daily Telegraph (London).
- "Adelaide Thinkers in Residence – Susan Greenfield". Govt. of South Australia. Retrieved 3 March 2011.
- Dommett, E. J.; Devonshire, I. M.; Plateau, C. R.; Westwell, M. S.; Greenfield, S. A. (2010). "From Scientific Theory to Classroom Practice". The Neuroscientist 17 (4): 382–8. doi:10.1177/1073858409356111. PMID 20484219.
- "Susan Greenfield: 'Mind change is 'an issue that's as important and as unprecedented as climate change' – video | Comment is free | guardian.co.uk". Guardian. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
- Greenfield, Susan. "You And Me: The Neuroscience of Identity". Notting Hill Editions. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
- "Baroness Greenfield". UK Parliament Website. Retrieved 19 July 2010.
- "Baroness Greenfield". TheyWorkForYou. mySociety. Retrieved 19 July 2010.
- Tracy McVeigh. "Research linking autism to internet use is criticised | Society | The Observer". Guardian. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
- Goldacre, Ben (21 October 2011). "Serious claims belong in a serious scientific paper". The Guardian (London).
- and Me: The Neuroscience of Identity
- Derbyshire, David (24 February 2009). "Social websites harm children's brains". London: Daily Mail. Retrieved 5 March 2009.
- "Social websites: bad for kids' brains?". BBC Newsnight. 25 February 2009. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/programmes/newsnight/7909847.stm. Retrieved 6 January 2010.
- Arthur, Charles (25 February 2009). "Age Concern backs social networks but Ben Goldacre's blood pressure still rising". guardian.co.uk (London). Retrieved 14 March 2009.
- Dommett, E. J., Devonshire, I. M., Plateau, C. R., Westwell, M. S. & Greenfield, S. A. From Scientific Theory to Classroom Practice. The Neuroscientist : doi:10.1177/1073858409356111 (2010)http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20484219
- You & Me: the Neuroscience of Identity; Notting Hill editions, 2011
- "Bio on the Royal Institution website". Rigb.org. Retrieved 2 December 2011.
- "Fellows – About us". Science Museum. 2 September 2011. Retrieved 8 July 2013.
- The London Gazette: . 31 December 1999.
- The London Gazette: . 21 June 2001.
- "Current Honorary Fellows". British Science Association. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
- "MRW". Asmr.org.au. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
- "2010 Awards". British Inspiration Awards. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
- Moreton, Cole (11 May 2008). "Susan Greenfield: The girl with all the brains". The Independent on Sunday.
- Screen culture may be changing our brains (Australian Broadcasting Corporation – The 7.30 Report) 2009-03-19
- 'Stumbling into a Powerful Technology' (Address to the House of Lords) 2006-04-20
- Greenfield, Susan (1995). Journey to the Centers of the Mind: Toward a Science of Consciousness. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman. pp. 236 pages. ISBN 0-7167-2723-4.
- Greenfield, Susan (1997). The Human Brain: A Guided Tour (Science Masters Series). New York: Basic Books. pp. 160 pages. ISBN 0-465-00726-0.
- Greenfield, Susan (2002). The Private Life of the Brain (Penguin Press Science). London, England: Penguin Books Ltd. pp. 272 pages. ISBN 0-14-100720-6.
- Greenfield, Susan (2003). Tomorrow's People: How 21st Century Technology is Changing the Way we Think and Feel. London: Allen Lane. pp. 304 pages. ISBN 0-7139-9631-5.
- Greenfield, Susan (2006). Inside the Body. London: Cassell Illustrated. pp. 288 pages. ISBN 1-84403-500-X.
- Greenfield, Susan (2008). ID: The Quest for Identity in the 21st Century. London: Sceptre. pp. 320 pages. ISBN 0-340-93600-2.
- Greenfield, Susan (2011). You and Me: The Neuroscience of Identity. London: Notting Hill Editions. ISBN 978-1907903342.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Susan Greenfield.|
- Official website
- Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Baroness Greenfield
- Oxford home page
- Bio from the Social Issues Research Centre
- Education Guardian biography
- Biography and Interviews
- The Wrong Chemistry
- Audio: Susan Greenfield in conversation on the BBC World Service discussion programme The Forum
- Knight Ayton Management: Professor Susan Greenfield
|Fullerian Professor of Physiology
|Director of the Royal Institution