|The Baroness Greenfield|
Greenfield speaking at the National Assembly for Wales Pierhead Building in March 2013
1 October 1950 |
Hammersmith, London, England
|Institutions||University of Oxford
Royal Institution of Great Britain
Lincoln College, Oxford
House of Lords
|Alma mater||St Hilda's College, Oxford|
|Thesis||Origins of acetylcholinesterase in cerebrospinal fluid (1977)|
|Doctoral advisor||Anthony David Smith|
|Spouse||Peter Atkins (m. 1991–2005)|
Susan Adele Greenfield, Baroness Greenfield, CBE, HonFRCP (born 1 October 1950) is a British scientist, writer, broadcaster, and member of the House of Lords. Greenfield, whose specialty is the physiology of the brain, has worked to research and bring attention to Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease.
Greenfield is Professor of Synaptic Pharmacology at Lincoln College, Oxford. On 1 February 2006, she was installed as Chancellor of Heriot-Watt University in Edinburgh. Until 8 January 2010, she was director of the Royal Institution of Great Britain.
Baroness Greenfield was born to Jewish family  in the west London borough of Hammersmith to Doris (Thorp), a dancer, and Reginald Myer Greenfield, an electrician. Greenfield attended the private Godolphin and Latymer School, and was the first member of her family to go on to university, at St Hilda's College, Oxford. Greenfield completed her Doctor of Philosophy degree in 1977 under the supervision of Anthony David Smith on the Origins of acetylcholinesterase in cerebrospinal fluid.
Greenfield's research is focused on brain physiology, particularly the etiology of Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases, but she is best known as a populariser of science. Greenfield has written several popular-science books about the brain and consciousness, and regularly gives public lectures, and appears on radio and television.
In 1994, she was invited to be the first woman to give the Royal Institution Christmas Lecture, then sponsored by the BBC. Her lecture was titled "Journey to the centre of the brain". She was appointed Director of the Royal Institution in 1998, until the position was scrapped as being "no longer affordable" in 2010. Greenfield was Adelaide's Thinker in Residence for 2004 and 2005. From 1995 to 1999, she gave public lectures as Gresham Professor of Physic.
Greenfield created three research and biotechnology companies: Synaptica, BrainBoost, and Neurodiagnostics, which research neuronal diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. She is a Patron of Dignity in Dying and a founder and trustee of the charity Science for Humanity, a network of scientists, researchers and technologists that collaborates with non-profits to create practical solutions to the everyday problems of developing communities. The idea of matching scientific capability with the needs of poor communities came to her while writing Tomorrow's People, a book in which she imagined a future world of "techno haves and techno have-nots". She felt that the democratization and dissemination of science through organizations like Science for Humanity was a way to avoid such a future.
More recently[when?] she has explored the relevance of neuroscience knowledge to education and has introduced the concept of "Mind Change", an umbrella term comparable to "climate change", encompassing the diverse issues involved on the impact of the 21st environment on the brain.
Political affiliation 
Baroness Greenfield sits in the United Kingdom Parliament in the House of Lords as a crossbencher, having no formal political affiliation. Records of Baroness Greenfield's activity in the House of Lords indicate abstention on a range of issues.
Internet Addiction Disorder 
Greenfield has expressed concerns that modern technology, and in particular social networking sites, may have a negative impact on child development. In an August 2011 interview with New Scientist, Greenfield cited a June 2011 study published in PLoS ONE as evidence for her claims. In the study, the authors investigated changes in the microstructures of major fiber pathways in the brain of 18 adolescents. Gray matter atrophy and fractional anisotropy to some white matter portions of the brain were found to have a significant correlation with the duration of internet addiction disorder (IAD). The authors noted similarities between the structural changes from IAD and those from substance abuse studies, suggesting that the mechanism for both may be similar. The authors concluded that the structural changes they found "probably contributed to chronic dysfunction in subjects with IAD".
In this respect, she has been criticised by Dr. Ben Goldacre for claiming that technology has adverse effects on the human brain, without having published any research, and retracting some claims when challenged. Goldacre suggested that "A scientist with enduring concerns about a serious widespread risk would normally set out their concerns clearly, to other scientists, in a scientific paper".
Greenfield has published extensively in the research literature on the links between addictive behavior, and brain chemistry and structure. She has also investigated the brain mechanisms underlying ADHD treatments, and the impact of environmental enrichment on rats.
As well as having 30 honorary degrees, Greenfield has received a number of awards including the Royal Society's Michael Faraday Prize. She has been elected to an Honorary Fellowship of the Royal College of Physicians and The Science Museum.
In 2006 she was made an honorary fellow of the British Science Association and was the Honorary Australian of the Year.
Personal life 
||This article uses bare URLs for citations. (January 2013)|
- Greenfield, Susan (1977). Origins of acetylcholinesterase in cerebrospinal fluid (DPhil thesis). University of Oxford. http://solo.bodleian.ox.ac.uk/primo_library/libweb/action/display.do?doc=oxfaleph016961302.
- House of Lords (2001). "Minutes and Order Paper - Minutes of Proceedings". UK Parliament House of Lords. Retrieved 27 October 2007.
- The Times (9 January 2010). "Baroness Greenfield loses her job in Royal Institution shake-up". London: The Times. Retrieved 9 January 2010.
- Radford, Tim (30 April 2004). "The Guardian profile: Susan Greenfield". The Guardian. Retrieved 26 August 2011.
- British Council on Science (2007). "Baroness Greenfield". British Council on Science. Retrieved 27 October 2007.
- Susan Greenfield at the Internet Movie Database
- RI. "List of Lecturers". RI. Retrieved 9 January 2010.
- profile on Royal Institution website
- Gammell, Caroline; Alleyne, Richard (12 January 2010). "Baroness Greenfield's redundancy 'only way to get rid of her'". The Daily Telegraph (London).
- "Adelaide Thinkers in Residence - Susan Greenfield". Govt. of South Australia. Retrieved 2011-03-03.
- Dommett, E. J.; Devonshire, I. M.; Plateau, C. R.; Westwell, M. S.; Greenfield, S. A. (2010). "From Scientific Theory to Classroom Practice". The Neuroscientist 17 (4): 382–8. doi:10.1177/1073858409356111. PMID 20484219.
- "Baroness Greenfield". UK Parliament Website. Retrieved 2010-07-19.
- "Baroness Greenfield". TheyWorkForYou. mySociety. Retrieved 2010-07-19.
- Derbyshire, David (24 February 2009). "Social websites harm children's brains". London: Daily Mail. Retrieved 2009-03-05.
- "Social websites: bad for kids' brains?". BBC Newsnight. 25 February 2009. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/programmes/newsnight/7909847.stm. Retrieved 6 January 2010.
- Arthur, Charles (25 February 2009). "Age Concern backs social networks but Ben Goldacre's blood pressure still rising". guardian.co.uk (London). Retrieved 2009-03-14.
- Yuan, Kai; Qin, Wei; Wang, Guihong; Zeng, Fang; Zhao, Liyan; Yang, Xuejuan; Liu, Peng; Liu, Jixin et al. (2011). "Microstructure Abnormalities in Adolescents with Internet Addiction Disorder". In Yang, Shaolin. PLoS ONE 6 (6): e20708. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0020708. PMC 3108989. PMID 21677775.
- Swain, Frank (2011-08-03). "Susan Greenfield: Living online is changing our brains". New Scientist. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
- Goldacre, Ben (21 October 2011). "Serious claims belong in a serious scientific paper". The Guardian (London).
- Cragg, Stephanie J.; Hille, Christopher J.; Greenfield, Susan A. (2002). "Functional Domains in Dorsal Striatum of the Nonhuman Primate Are Defined by the Dynamic Behavior of Dopamine". The Journal of Neuroscience 22 (13): 5705–12. PMID 12097522.
- Cragg, Stephanie J.; Hille, Christopher J.; Greenfield, Susan A. (2000). "Dopamine Release and Uptake Dynamics within Nonhuman Primate Striatum In Vitro". The Journal of Neuroscience 20 (21): 8209–17. PMID 11050144.
- Cragg, S.J.; Clarke, D.J.; Greenfield, S.A. (2000). "Real-Time Dynamics of Dopamine Released from Neuronal Transplants in Experimental Parkinson's Disease". Experimental Neurology 164 (1): 145–53. doi:10.1006/exnr.2000.7420. PMID 10877925.
- Cragg, S.J.; Holmes, C.; Hawkey, C.R.; Greenfield, S.A. (1998). "Dopamine is released spontaneously from developing midbrain neurons in organotypic culture". Neuroscience 84 (2): 325–30. doi:10.1016/S0306-4522(97)00657-X. PMID 9539208.
- Dickie, B.G.M.; Holmes, C.; Greenfield, S.A. (1996). "Neurotoxic and neurotrophic effects of chronic N-methyl-d-aspartate exposure upon mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons in organotypic culture". Neuroscience 72 (3): 731–41. doi:10.1016/0306-4522(95)00611-7. PMID 9157319.
- Threlfell, S.; Greenfield, S.A.; Cragg, S.J. (2010). "5-HT1B receptor regulation of serotonin (5-HT) release by endogenous 5-HT in the substantia nigra". Neuroscience 165 (1): 212–20. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2009.10.005. PMID 19819310.
- Threlfell, Sarah; Exley, Richard; Cragg, Stephanie J.; Greenfield, Susan A. (2008). "Constitutive histamine H2 receptor activity regulates serotonin release in the substantia nigra". Journal of Neurochemistry 107 (3): 745–55. doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2008.05646.x. PMID 18761715.
- Dommett, E.J.; Overton, P.G.; Greenfield, S.A. (2009). "Drug therapies for attentional disorders alter the signal-to-noise ratio in the superior colliculus". Neuroscience 164 (3): 1369–76. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2009.09.007. PMID 19747530.
- Dommett, E. J.; Henderson, E. L.; Westwell, M. S.; Greenfield, S. A. (2008). "Methylphenidate amplifies long-term plasticity in the hippocampus via noradrenergic mechanisms". Learning & Memory 15 (8): 580–6. doi:10.1101/lm.1092608. PMID 18685149.
- Devonshire, I.M.; Dommett, E.J.; Grandy, T.H.; Halliday, A.C.; Greenfield, S.A. (2010). "Environmental enrichment differentially modifies specific components of sensory-evoked activity in rat barrel cortex as revealed by simultaneous electrophysiological recordings and optical imaging in vivo". Neuroscience 170 (2): 662–9. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2010.07.029. PMID 20654700.
- "Bio on the Royal Institution website". Rigb.org. Retrieved 2011-12-02.
- Moreton, Cole (11 May 2008). "Susan Greenfield: The girl with all the brains". The Independent on Sunday.
Further reading 
- Screen culture may be changing our brains (Australian Broadcasting Corporation - The 7.30 Report) 2009-03-19
- 'Stumbling into a Powerful Technology' (Address to the House of Lords) 2006-04-20
- Greenfield, Susan (1995). Journey to the Centers of the Mind: Toward a Science of Consciousness. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman. pp. 236 pages. ISBN 0-7167-2723-4.
- Greenfield, Susan (1997). The Human Brain: A Guided Tour (Science Masters Series). New York: Basic Books. pp. 160 pages. ISBN 0-465-00726-0.
- Greenfield, Susan (2002). The Private Life of the Brain (Penguin Press Science). London, England: Penguin Books Ltd. pp. 272 pages. ISBN 0-14-100720-6.
- Greenfield, Susan (2003). Tomorrow's People: How 21st Century Technology is Changing the Way we Think and Feel. London: Allen Lane. pp. 304 pages. ISBN 0-7139-9631-5.
- Greenfield, Susan (2006). Inside the Body. London: Cassell Illustrated. pp. 288 pages. ISBN 1-84403-500-X.
- Greenfield, Susan (2008). ID: The Quest for Identity in the 21st Century. London: Sceptre. pp. 320 pages. ISBN 0-340-93600-2.
- Greenfield, Susan (2011). You and Me: The Neuroscience of Identity. London: Notting Hill Editions. ISBN 978-1907903342.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Susan Greenfield|
- Official website
- Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Baroness Greenfield
- Oxford home page
- Bio from the Social Issues Research Centre
- Education Guardian biography
- Biography and Interviews
- The Wrong Chemistry
- Audio: Susan Greenfield in conversation on the BBC World Service discussion programme The Forum
- Knight Ayton Management: Professor Susan Greenfield
|Fullerian Professor of Physiology
|Director of the Royal Institution