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سوسية Arabic
סוּסְיָא Hebrew
Susya is located in the West Bank
Location of Susya
Coordinates: 31°23′30.67″N 35°6′44.45″E / 31.3918528°N 35.1123472°E / 31.3918528; 35.1123472
Region West Bank
District Judea and Samaria Area
 • Council Har Hebron
Time zone IST (UTC+2)
 • Summer (DST) IDT (UTC+3)

Susya (Arabic: سوسية‎, Hebrew: סוּסְיָא) is the site of an ancient Jewish village in the southern Judaean Mountains of the West Bank, a Palestinian village established in the 1830s and a religious communal Israeli settlement under the jurisdiction of Har Hebron Regional Council established in 1983.

The Palestinian community has a population of 250 residents as of 2013.[1] The Israeli settlement was established between May and September 1983 on 1,800 dunams of land. It had a population of 737 in 2006.[2][3][4]

The international community considers Israeli settlements in the West Bank illegal under international law, but the Israeli government disputes this.[5]


Susya, whether it refers to the site of the synagogue or the ruins of the contiguous ancient and large settlement of some 60 dunams, is not mentioned in any ancient text, and Jewish literature failed to register an ancient Jewish town on that site.[6] It is thought by some to correspond to the Biblical Carmel (Josh 15.5), a proposal made by Avraham Negev.[7][8] Others argue that, in the wake of the Second Revolt (AD 132-5), when the Romans garrisoned Khirbet el-Karmil, identified as the biblical Carmel, religious Jews uncomfortable with pagan symbols moved 2 km south-west to the present Susya, which they perhaps already farmed, and that, while they still regarded their new community as Carmel, the name was lost when the village's fortunes declined in the early Arab period, perhaps because the new Muslim overlords would not have tolerated its economy, which was based on wine.[9][10]

View of the synagogue

The site, in Arabic Khirbet Susiya/Susiyeh, "Ruin of the Liquorice Plant" was first described by V. Guérin in 1869, who first recognized its importance.[11][12] The spelling Susya represents the Hebrew name, as determined by the Israeli Naming committee.[13] In the Survey of Western Palestine, based on an observation in 1875 on the area of the southeastern slope of a hill west of Susya, Charles Warren and Claude Conder labeled Susya as an 'Important public structure'. German accounts later stated that it was a remnant of an ancient church.[14] In 1937, the building to the north was identified by L. A. Meyer and A. Reifenberg as the site of a synagogue.[12]

Ancient synagogue[edit]

The site was examined by Shemarya Gutman in 1969, who uncovered it during a trial dig the narthex of a synagogue. He, together with Ze'ev Yeivin and Ehud Netzer, then conducted the Israeli excavations at Khirbet Suseya, (subsequently named by a Hebrew calque as Horvat Susya) over 1971-1972,[12][15][16] by the Palestinian village of Susiya Al-Qadime.

Roller Stone in the synagogue of Susiya

Such remains are intriguing because so far no excavations have uncovered undisputed evidence for synagogues before the 2nd century CE in Judea. The excavated synagogue dates from the 4th to the 7th century CE and was in continuous use until the 9th century CE.[17][18] It is one of four of an architecturally unique group in the Southern Judean Hills,[19] of the six synagogues identified in Judea as a whole, the lower number probably reflecting a shift in the Jewish population from Judah to Galilee in the 2nd and 3rd centuries. The other three of this distinctive group are those of Eshtemoa, Horvat Maon, and 'Anim.[19] Three outstanding characteristics of the Susya-Eshtemoa group, group are their width, entrances at the short eastern wall, and the absence of columns to support the roof [20]

According to David Amit, the architectural design, particularly the eastern entrance and axis of prayer, which differ from the majority of Galilean synagogues, exhibits the ramifications of the earliest halakhic law conserved in southern Judea for generations after the destruction of the Temple. This was forgotten in Galilee, but in Judea there was a closer adherence to older traditions reflecting closer proximity to Jerusalem.[21] The eastern orientation may be also related to the idea of dissuading heretics and Christians in the same area, who bowed to the east, in the belief that the Shekinah lay in that direction.[22]

Interior of the synagogue

The synagogue was built as a broadhouse, rather than along basilica lines,[23][24] measuring 9 by 16 metres (27 by 48 feet[25] built in well-wrought ashlar construction, with triple doorway façade in an eastward orientation, and the bema and niche at the centre of the northern wall. There was a secondary bema in the eastern section. Unlike other synagogues in Judea this had a gallery, made while reinforcing the western wall. East of the synagogue was an open courtyard surrounded on three sides by a roofed portico. The western side opened to the synagogue’s narthex, and floor of narthex composed of coloured mosaics set in an interlaced pattern. This model was of short duration, yielding in the late Byzantine phase (6th/7th) to the basilica form, already elsewhere dominant in synagogue architecture.[26]

In contrast to most Galilean synagogues with their façade and Torah shrine on the same Jerusalem-oriented wall, the Judean synagogue at Susya, (as well as Esthtemoa and Maon) has the niche on the northern Jerusalem-oriented wall and entrances on the east side wall.[27] The synagogue floor of white tesserae has three mosaic panels, the eastern one a Torah Shrine, two menorahs, one on a screen relief showing two lamps [28] suspended from a bar between the menorah’s upper branches,[29] perhaps, since the Torah shrine flanked by lampstands, symbolizing both a connection between the synagogue and the Temple[30] for spotlighting the bema and giving light for scriptural readings, were by the reverse mirroring of the menorah pattern in the mosaics, heightened the central significance of the Torah shrine in the hall[31] a lulav, and an etrog with columns on each side. Next to the columns is a landscape with deers ands rams. The central panel composed of geometric and floral patterns. A spoke-wheel design before the central bema, has led Gutman to believed it is the remnant of a zodiac wheel. Zodiac mosaics are important witness to the time, since they were systematically suppressed by the Church, and, their frequent construction in Palestinian synagogue floors may be an index of 'the "inculturation" of non-Jewish imagery and its resulting Judaization'.[32] The fragmentary state of the wheel mosaic is due to its replacement by a much cruder geometric pavement pattern, indicative of a desire to erase what later came to be thought of as objectionable imagery.[33][34]

A motif that probably represented Daniel in the lion's den, as in the mosaics discovered at Naaran near Jericho and Ein Samsam in the Golan[35][36] was also tesselated, surviving only most fragmentarily. The figure, in an orans stance, flanked by lions, was scrubbed from the mosaics in line with later trends, in what Fine calls a ‘new aesthetic’ at Khirbet Susiya, one that refurbished the designs to suppress iconographic forms thought by later generations to be objectionable. We can only reconstruct the allusion to Daniel from the remaining final Hebrew letters remaining, namely -el, אל‎.[37]

Another unique feature is number of inscriptions. Four were laid in mosaics: two in Hebrew, attesting perhaps to its conservation as a spoken language in this region[38] and two in Aramaic. Nineteen fragmentary inscriptions, some of which were in Greek,[39] were etched into the marble of the building. From these dedicatory inscriptions the impression is given that the synagogue was run by donors [40] rather than by priests (kōhen).[41]

The abandoned synagogue, or its atrium or courtyard, was converted into a mosque around the 10th century.[12] A niche on the northern wall used as a mihrab/mahrab dates to Saladin's time,[42] according to local tradition.[43] In the 12th–13th centuries Crusaders garrisoned at nearby Chermala and Eshtemoa, and, in their wake, a few families, moved into the ruins to exploit the rich agricultural land.[11]

The settlement on the hill contiguous to the synagogue seems to have once had a thriving economy. A fine store has been excavated from its ruins.[44] It seems to have undergone a decline in the second half of the 4th century, and again in the 6th century. Some speak of abandonment though the evidence from the synagogue suggests continuity into the medieval period.[45] After the Islamic conquest, the archaeological evidence appears to suggest that a new Muslim population immigrated to the South Hebron hills and settled next to the Jewish population.[46]

Modern era: local population, Israeli settlement and conflict[edit]

Palestinian Susya, called Susya al-Qadima ('Old Susya')[47] is a centuries' old village which written records attest the existence of from 1830.[48] It is constituted of permanent cave homes.[49] The construction the Israeli settlement in the neighbourhood of Palestinian Susya, called Susya Al-Qadime, their ownership of which land has been established in law, and which was located near the ancient synagogue,[48] was decided by Israel and the World Zionist Organization in 1982, as part of 8 new settlements.

Susya main synagogue

Funding of 20 million shekels was provided to settle between 50 and 60 families.[50] and was established from May[51] to September 1983, on 1,800 dunams of land.[2][3] In June 1986, Israel expropriated the village's residential ground for "public use", for an 'archeological park', evicting villagers from their homes and lands. The expelled Susyans settled in cave and tin shacks 500 metres away, at a site now called Rujum al-Hamri, to restart their lives.[48][48][52] According to David Shulman, the number of Palestinians of Susya affected by the 1986 expulsion was over 1,500 people, and they resettled nearby on land they owned at a site called Rujum al-Hamri, near the new Israeli settlement at Susya. For some decades they were subject, Shulman states, to many violent attacks, and settler recourse to both civil and military courts, to drive them out.[47]

Since then the local villages, like Palestinian Susya, have been losing land, and being cut off from each other, as the nearby settlements of Carmel, Maon, Susya and Beit Yatir began to be built and developed, and illegal outposts established.[53] The second expulsion took place in 1990, when Rujum al-Hamri's inhabitants were loaded onto trucks by the IDF and dumped at the Zif Junction, 15 kilometres northwards[48] a roadside at the edge of a desert. Most returned and rebuilt on a rocky escarpment within their traditional agricultural and grazing territory. Their wells taken, they were forced to buy water from nearby Yatta.[47] Israel sheep-herding settlers expanded their unfenced land use at Mitzpe Yair and the Dahlia Farm.[48] According to B'tselem, by 2010 settlers were cultivating roughly 40 hectares, about 15% of the land area to which they deny access to the traditional Palestinian users of that area.[1] Since 2000 Jewish settlers in Susiya have denied Palestinians access to 10 cisterns in the area, or according to more recent accounts, 23,.[1] and try to block their access to others.[54] Soil at Susya, with a market value of NIS 2,000 per truckload, is also taken from lands belonging to the village of Yatta.[55]

The third expulsion occurred in June 2001, when settler civilians and soldiers drove the Palestinians of Susya out, without warning, with, reportedly violent arrests and beatings,[48] destroying their tents and caves, blocking their cisterns, killing their livestock and digging up their agricultural land. The settlers established a "Dahlia Farm" in the same year, and an outpost was set up on the archeological site.[56] On Sept 26 of the same year, by an order of the Israeli Supreme Court, these structures were ordered to be destroyed and the land returned to the Palestinians. Settlers and the IDF prevented the villagers from reclaiming their land, some 750 acres. The villagers made an appeal to the same court to be allowed to reclaim their lands and live without harassment. Some 93 events of settler violence were listed. The settlers made a counter-appeal, and one family that had managed to return to its land suffered a third eviction.[57] Land next to the Palestinian village of Susya was confiscated from the village of Yatta, from which a dozen local families had been expelled to make way on the pretext of archeological digs, according to one source.[58] A major expansion of the new settlement began on 18 September 1999, when its boundaries expanded northwards and eastwards, with the Palestinian Shreiteh family allegedly losing roughly 150 more dunams.[3]

According to B'tselem, the Palestinians that remain in the area live in tents[59] on a small rocky hill between the settlement and the archeological park which is located within walking distance.[60][61] According to Amnesty International, ten caves inhabited by Susya Palestinian families were blown up by the IDF in 1996, and some 113 tents were destroyed in 1998. Amnesty International also reports that official documents asking them to leave the area address them generically as 'intruders' (polesh/intruder).[62] Most of the rain-catching water cisterns used by the local Palestinian farmers of Susya were demolished by the Israeli army in 1999 and 2001. A local Susya resident told Amnesty International,

'Water is life ; without water we can’t live; not us, not the animals, or the plants. Before we had some water, but after the army destroyed everything we have to bring water from far away ; it’s very difficult and expensive. They make our life very difficult, to make us leave.'[63]

On 7 June 1991 a settler from the Israeli settlement of Susya shot dead a local Palestinian shepherd, under circumstances that were never clarified.[64] On 23 March 1993, Musa Suliman Abu Sabha[65] a Palestinian was arrested outside Susiya by two guards, Moshe Deutsch and Yair Har-Sinai, either on suspicion he had stolen 60 sheep from the latter's flock,[66] or because they suspected he was planning an attack on Jews.[67] Taken for questioning, he stabbed in the shoulder or back one of the guards, Moshe Deutsch, while the two were in a car, and, wrestled to the ground, was bound hand and foot. Another settler from nearby Maal Hever, Yoram[68] Shkolnik[69] shot him eight times, killing him.[70] According to the IDF he was found bearing a grenade. Reports differ as to whether he still had the grenade when bound, or whether it had been taken from him after his arrest.[71] In 2001, Yair Har-Sinai was killed in a brawl[72] with local Palestinians. A Palestinian, Jihad Najar, was convicted of murder and received a sentence of life imprisonment.[73] The IDF then evicted the 300 Palestinians in the area, demolishing some of their makeshift homes. They have sought redress in an Israeli court.[74] Jewish residents of Susya have harassed local Palestinians, destroyed their property,[75] and hindered them from gathering their crops from olive groves.[76] In 2009 Yaakov Teitel, was indicted for the 2007 murder of a Palestinian shepherd from Susya.[77][78]

While the Israeli settlement has mains power and piped water from Israel, the Palestinians depend on solar panels and wind turbine energy made possible by a Palestinian/Israeli NGO – Comet - and on wells.[79][dead link] This project has been shortlisted for the BBC World Challenge which highlighted the involvement of two Israeli physicists, Elad Orian and Noam Dotan.[80] According to David Hirst, the inhabitants of al-Amniyr, at-Tuwani and the other villages that comprise Susiya, are faced with a catch-22. If they comply with the law they cannot build cisterns and collect even the rainwater. But if they fail to work their lands, they lose it anyway.[81] One small enclave that remains for a Bedouin pastoralist's family suffers from further encroachment, with one settler, according to David Shulman, managing to wrest 95% of the family's land, and still intent on entering the remainder.[82]

In a ruling delivered in December 2013, the Israel High Court of Justice accepted that Yatta Palestinians had shown their legal attachment to a stretch of land between Susya and the illegal settlement of Mitzpe Yair, but requested them to withdraw their petition against the settlers who are alleged to have illegally seized these lands. The subject of a petition concerns 300 dunams of agricultural land, and a further 900 dunams of pasture of which, the Palestinians argue, they were forced by violent attacks from using for agriculture and herding. The court held that the proper option open to the Palestinians was recourse to a civil legal action.[83] Of the 120 complaints registered with Israeli police in Hebron by Palestinians of Susya, regarding alleged attacks, threats, incursions, and property damage wrought by settlers down to 2013, upwards of 95% have been dismissed, without charges being laid.[1]

Demolition Orders[edit]

A Palestinian demonstration against the demolition of the village of Susya

Palestinian Susya has been razed 5 times, in 1985, 1991, 1997 and twice in 2001.[citation needed] Since it is classified within Area C of the West Bank, it lies under Israeli military occupation and control. Though they own much of the land, Susya's residents are denied permits to build structures, and therefore build without permission from Israeli authorities.[84] No master plan exists for the Palestinian Susya as opposed to the Israeli settlement of Susya, and Palestinians are required to obtain permits from the Israeli Civil Administration.

On November 24, 2011 bulldozers razed two tents where the Mughnem family dwells on their own land in Susya.[85]

The Jewish settlers of Susya and the Israeli pro-settler association NGO Regavim petitioned the High Court to demolish Palestinian Susya, defining the villagers as 'trespassers' living in 'illegal outposts', terms usually applied to illegal Jewish outposts on the West Bank.[86]

On June 14 an Israelli court issued 6 demolition orders covering 50 buildings including tent dwellings, ramshackle huts, sheep pens, latrines, water cisterns, a wind-and-sun powered turbine, and the German-funded solar panels in most of the Palestinian village of Susya.[86] Over 500 people from Tel Aviv, Beer Sheva, and Jerusalem came to mount a peaceful protest on June 22.[47]

According to Amira Hass, before fifteen senior EU diplomats visiting the area on 8 August 2012, Susya villager Nasser Nawaja'a complained that "(t)here are in this village octogenarians who are older than the State of Israel . . . How can they be told that their residence here is illegal?" The EU has declared it does not expect that the demolition order will be executed.[87]

On the 26th of June, 2013, the Israeli Civil Administration, a military body, raided Palestinian Susya and handed out 40 demolition orders for many structures, tents, hothouses, a water well and a solar panel, established on humanitarian grounds by the European Union. Nearby Israeli settlers built two additional and unauthorized houses in the Mitzpeh Avigayil outpost, without interference.[88]

A local Palestinian declared to the Hebrew press:

They’re calling our village an illegal outpost. These lands are ours from before there was a State of Israel. My father is older than your state—and I am an illegal alien on my own land. I ask where is justice? Your courts distinguish between the settler and the Palestinian…We’re surrounded by illegal outposts [built by settlers] that have everything—infrastructures of water and electricity— despite the fact that these settlements are illegal even under Israeli law. And now you want to expel this old man from his home once again? To expel all of us who own these lands, who have lived on them for generations in this space that is ours, which is all we know?[47]

On 24 August, a further demolition took place. On 29 August 2012 the IDF destroyed a sheepfold and two tents, one a dwelling and the other for storage, donated to villagers of Palestinian Susiya by the United Nations' Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.[89]


  1. ^ a b c d 'Khirbet Susiya,' B'tselem 1 Jan 2013.
  2. ^ a b Unispal, 'Israeli Settlements in Gaza and the West Bank (Including Jerusalem) Their Nature and Purpose, Part II, United Nations, New York 1984.
  3. ^ a b c Applied Research Institute Jerusalem, (ARIJ), 18 September,1999
  4. ^ אודות סוסיא
  5. ^ "The Geneva Convention". BBC News. 10 December 2009. Retrieved 27 September 2011. 
  6. ^ Zeev Safrai, The Missing Century: Palestine in the fifth century:growth and decline, Peeters Publishers 1998 p. 101
  7. ^ Günter Stemberger, Jews and Christians in the Holy Land: Palestine in the fourth century, tr. Ruth Tuschling, Continuum International Publishing Group, 2000 p. 151
  8. ^ Avraham Negev, Shimon Gibson, Archaeological Encyclopedia of the Holy Land, rev. ed. Continuum International Publishing Group, 2005 p.484
  9. ^ 1 Samuel:25
  10. ^ Jerome Murphy-O'Connor, The Holy Land: an Oxford archaeological guide from earliest times to 1700,5th ed. Oxford University Press US, 2008 pp.351-354, p.351
  11. ^ a b Jerome Murphy-O'Connor, The Holy Land: an Oxford archaeological guide from earliest times to 1700, 5th ed. Oxford University Press US, 2008 p. 351
  12. ^ a b c d Avraham Negev, Shimon Gibson Archaeological Encyclopedia of the Holy Land, ibid. p. 482
  13. ^ 'A unique case is Susya. The existence of the ancient Jewish town was unknown in Jewish sources, but was discovered in archaeological excavations . . . the settlers are not free to decide on the names chosen: the National Naming Committee at the Prime Minister's Office has that responsibility and considers various factors. The settlers, however, being well acquainted with the territory and its history, play a significant role in the decision.' Michael Feige, Settling in the Hearts: Fundamentalism, Time, and Space in Judea and Samaria, Wayne State University Press, 2009, pp. 75–76
  14. ^ Vilnai, Ze'ev (1978). "Susiya—Judea". Ariel Encyclopedia. Volume 6. Tel Aviv, Israel: Am Oved. pp. 5352–5353.  (Hebrew)
  15. ^ David Amit, 'Architectural plans of Synagogues in the Southern Judean Hills and the 'Halakah'.' In Dan Urman, Paul Virgil McCracken Flesher, Ancient Synagogues: historical analysis and archaeological discovery, Brill, 1998 pp. 129–156 p.132.
  16. ^ David Milson, Art and architecture of the synagogue in late antique Palestine: in the shadow of the church,Brill, 2007 p.56
  17. ^ Post-byzantine according to the language of an inscription. See Zeev Safrai, The Missing Century: Palestine in the fifth century : growth and decline, Peeters Publishers 1998 p.149
  18. ^ ‘The synagogue is tentatively dated to the end of the 4th-beginning of the 7th.century AD, and was used as a Jewish prayer house until the 9th century.’ Avraham Negev, Shimon Gibson Archaeological Encyclopedia of the Holy Land, ibid. p.482
  19. ^ a b David Amit, 'Architectural plans of Synagogues in the Southern Judean Hills and the 'Halakah'.' ibid p. 129.
  20. ^ David Amit, 'Architectural plans of Synagogues in the Southern Judean Hills and the 'Halakah'.' Ibid. p. 138
  21. ^ David Amit, ibid pp. 148–155, pp. 148, 152
  22. ^ p. 146
  23. ^ ‘Uniquely Jewish adaptations of Christian architecture did occur. The synagogues at Khirbet Shema, in the Upper Galilee, Horvat Rimmon 1 in the southern Shephelah, at Eshtemoa, and Khirbet Susiya were built as broadhouses and not as longhouse basilicas. In these buildings, the basilica form is turned on its side, and the focal point of the synagogue is the wide wall of the hall. Benches were built round the interior walls of these synagogues, focusing attention on the centre of the room. This architecture is a continuation of the house-synagogues that literary sources suggests existed from the second and third centuries.’ Steven Fine, Art and Judaism in the Greco-Roman world: toward a new Jewish archaeology, Cambridge University Press, 2005 p.88
  24. ^ Eric M. Meyers, Galilee through the centuries: cultures in conflict, Eisenbrauns 1999 p.233
  25. ^ Avraham Negev, Shimon Gibson,Archaeological Encyclopedia of the Holy Land, ibid.p.482
  26. ^ David Amit, ‘Architectural plans of Synagogues in the Southern Judean Hills and the ‘Halakah’.’ p.156
  27. ^ Rachel Hachlili, ‘Jewish Art and Iconography in the Land of Israel,’ in Suzanne Richard (ed.), Near Eastern Archeology: A Reader, Eisenbrauns, 2003 pp.445-454 p.449
  28. ^ or incense censers. See Steven Fine, ibid. p.195
  29. ^ Rachel Hachlili, The menorah, the ancient seven-armed candelabrum: origin, form, and significance, Brill 2001, pp.67,228. For its reconstruction see p.53.
  30. ^ Steven Fine, p.195
  31. ^ Eric M. Meyers Galilee through the centuries: confluence of cultures, Eisenbrauns, 1999 p.231
  32. ^ Steven Fine, Art and Judaism in the Greco-Roman world, pp.196-7
  33. ^ Steven Fine, ibid.p.95
  34. ^ John Brian Harley, David Woodward, The History of Cartography: Cartography in prehistoric, ancient, and medieval Europe and the Mediterranean, Humana Press, 1987 p.266. ‘since mosaics were disapproved of by the Jews as graven images, they were both removed. In other mosaics of the Byzantine period from the Holy Land, the zodiac is represented only by the names of its signs rather than by their graphic representations’.
  35. ^ Steven Fine, ‘Archeology and the Interpretation of Rabbinic Literature: Some Thoughts’ in Matthew Kraus (ed.) How should rabbinic literature be read in the modern world? , Gorgias Press LLC, 2006 pp.199-217 p.214
  36. ^ Eric Meyers, Galilee through the centuries, ibid.p.232
  37. ^ Steven Fine, ibid.p.96. Fine speculates whether reluctance to erase these letters reflects a religious reluctance among iconoclasts to delete letters that spell out the Divine name El, for, again highlighting the distinctiveness of the synagogue, 'in no instance does an explicit Divine name appear in any Jewish synagogue inscription.'
  38. ^ David Amit, ibid.pp.152-3
  39. ^ The Israel yearbook, Zionist Organization of America, Jewish Agency for Israel. Economic Dept. Israel Yearbook Publications, 1981 p.120
  40. ^ in Aramaicbenei qartah, in Hebrew benei ha’ir (sons of the town), especially of residents of a small agrarian village. See Stuart S. Miller, 'Sages and commoners in late antique ʼEreẓ Israel: a philological inquiry into local traditions' in Peter Schäfer, Catherine Hezser (eds.), The Talmud Yerushalmi and Graeco-Roman culture, Mohr Siebeck, 1998 p.65
  41. ^ Meyers, Galilee throughout the centuries, ibid.p.265. The ‘rabbi’ in these epigraphs appears to be an honorific for ‘master’, and the role of such rabbis in the synagogue seems to have been that of being donors. For an early dating based on the rare ‘qedushat’ (to his holiness’) address used in amora’im correspondence (qedushat mari rabbi Issi ha-cohen ha-mehubad berabi) see Aharon Oppenheimer, ‘The Attempt of Hananiah, Son of Rabbi Joshua’s Brother, to Intercalate the Year in Babylonia’ in Peter Schäfer, Catherine Hezser (eds.), The Talmud Yerushalmi and Graeco-Roman culture, ibid. pp.255-264 p.260; A'haron Oppenheimer, Nili Oppenheimer, Between Rome and Babylon: studies in Jewish leadership and society, Mohr Siebeck, 2005 p.389, sets it in the amoraic period.
  42. ^ Daniel Jacobs, Shirley Eber, Francesca Silvani, Israel and the Palestinian Territories. 2nd ed. Rough Guides, 1998 p. 414
  43. ^ David Amit, 'Architectural plans of Synagogues in the Southern Judean Hills and the 'Halakah'.' p. 132
  44. ^ See the drawing of the reconstruction and groundplan in Zeev Safrai, The economy of Roman Palestine, Routledge, 1994 p.127
  45. ^ Zeev Safrai, The Missing Century,ibid. p.149
  46. ^ Gideon Avni (2014) The Byzantine-Islamic Transition in Palestine: An Archaeological Approach, OUP, p225
  47. ^ a b c d e David Shulman, ‘'I Am an Illegal Alien on My Own Land,’ at The New York Review of Books, June 28, 2012.
  48. ^ a b c d e f g 'Susya: A History of Loss,' Rabbis for Human Rights 7 November 2013.
  49. ^ Nadia Abu. Zahra, 'IDs and Territory: Control for Resource Expropriation,' in Deborah Cowen and Emil Gilbert (eds.),War, citizenship, territory , Routledge, 2008, pp-303-326, p.322.
  50. ^ 'Report of the Special Committee to investigate Israeli practices affecting the human rights of the population in the occupied territories,' A/38/409 14 October 1983 Unispal, citing the Jerusalem Post 6 September 1982.
  51. ^ 'ISRAELI SETTLEMENTS IN GAZA AND THE WEST BANK (INCLUDING JERUSALEM):Their Nature and Purpose Part II,' Unispal 1 July 1984.
  52. ^ Aggressive Zionist body wins court order to demolish Palestinian village, at Jews for Justice for Palestinians, 14 June 2012.
  53. ^ Julie M. Norman, The second Palestinian Intifada: civil resistance, Taylor & Francis, 2010 p.43.
  54. ^ Amanda Cahill Ripley, The Human Right to Water and Its Application in the Occupied Palestinian Territories, Taylor & Francis, 2011 p.155.
  55. ^ Chaim Levinson, 'West Bank settlers stealing tons of soil from Palestinian land,' at Haaretz, 10 October 2012
  56. ^ Ta'ayush,'Aggressive Zionist body wins court order to demolish Palestinian village,' at Jews for Justice for Palestinians, June 14, 2012.
  57. ^ Ta'ayush, 'Aggressive Zionist body wins court order to demolish Palestinian village,' at Jews for Justice for Palestinians, June 14, 2012.
  58. ^ Zahra, ibid.p.322 n.11
  59. ^ Nasser Nawaj'ah, 'How can you weather the storm when you’re barred from building a home?, B'tselem, 8 January 2015.
  60. ^ David Dean Shulman,Dark hope: working for peace in Israel and Palestine, University of Chicago Press, 2007 pp.37f.
  61. ^ 'Twenty years ago, the cave dwellers of Susya were evacuated from their original village on the pretext of archeological digs in the area. Some of the evacuees went to live on their lands close to the Israeli settlement which was founded a short time before. Five years ago the Israeli army destroyed the caves of these families, and since then they continued to live there in impermanent and improvised housing.(Krinis and Dunayevsky 2006)’, Deborah Cowen, Emily Gilbert, War, Citizenship, Territory, Routledge, London 2007 p.322.
  62. ^ Amnesty International. Israel-rapport 17.09.2001
  63. ^ Amnesty International,’Wire’ Vol.39, Issue 001, February/March 2009 p.7
  64. ^ Ami Pedahzur, Jewish Terrorism in Israel, Columbia University Press, 2011 p.183.
  65. ^ Associated Press, 'Jewish settler kills bound Palestinian,' Houston Chronicle, 23 March 1993 p.7, refers that Army radio had identified him to be a Jawad Jamil Khalil Husiya, 19, of Yatta.
  66. ^ Zvi Bar'el, 'Citizens in enemy territory,' at Haaretz, July 17, 2001:'Har-Sinai perhaps did not bear arms for ideological reasons, but a few years ago he and his friend Moshe Deutsch seized Mussa Abu Sabha, whom they suspected of stealing 60 head of sheep from Har-Sinai's flock. In the fight that ensued, Abu Sabha stabbed Moshe Deutsch in the back before the two pinned him to the ground and tied him up. Not long afterward another settler, Moshe Skolnik, arrived on the scene, cocked his rifle and murdered the bound man.'
  67. ^ Associated Press, Jewish settlers kills bound Palestinian,' at Houston Chronicle, 23 March 1993
  68. ^ Sources differ. Pedahzur writes Yoram, as does the Associated Press. Doug Struck for the Baltimore Sun writes Urim. Zvi Bar'el writes Moshe.
  69. ^ Ami Pedahzur, Jewish Terrorism in Israel, p.184.
  70. ^ Associated Press, 'Jewish settler kills bound Palestinian,' Houston Chronicle, 23 March 1993 p.7,
  71. ^ Doug Struck, 'Jews react to slayings with bullets Cycle of reprisals claims another life,' at Baltimore Sun, March 24, 1993.
  72. ^ David Shulman, Dark Hope, University of Chicago Press, 2007 p.61 writes: 'Yair Har-Sinai, . terrorized the Palestinians of South Hebron until he was killed in a brawl some years ago.'
  73. ^ Efrat Weiss,'6 years later: Life sentence for Palestinian who murdered Israeli,' in Ynet, 12 October 2007.
  74. ^ 'The state admitted the demolition was executed illegally. Justice Procaccia said that "the state did not establish a legal procedure which would allow for a building permit, hence the state is not carrying out its duties and is creating a situation under which a human's basic existence becomes impossible." Justice Hayut pointed to the absurdity of the situation, saying "the state admits an unauthorized action was carried out, which resulted in the demolition of structures that constituted the bare minimum in living conditions." Yuval Yoaz,'Court: Palestinian homes in southern Hebron Hills can stay,' Haaretz, 08/09/2004.
  75. ^ Shulman, 2007, pp. 57-63.
  76. ^ Gideon Levy, 'Adding insult to injury,'Ha’aretz, 5 September 2010.
  77. ^ Alleged Jewish terrorist: I know God is pleased Haaretz. 12 November 2009
  78. ^ Teitel indicted for murder, attempted murder YNet. 12 November 2009
  79. ^ Susya Sustainable Energy Project, Comet Middle East (Comet-ME)
  80. ^ BBC World Challenge
  81. ^ David Hirst, West Bank villagers’ daily battle with Israel over water,' at The Guardian, 14 September 2011.
  82. ^ David D. Shulman, 'Truth and Lies in South Hebron,' Jewish Quarterly June, 2013.'May 7th 2011. The settler in his Shabbat white, a huge knitted skullcap on his head, takes a pebble and holds it out on his fingertips to a Palestinian woman from Susya as he clucks his tongue at her, beckoning her as one would a dog. He has already taken 95% of the family’s land, and now he bullies his way into the tiny patch that is left in order to harass and humiliate further. As if throwing a dog a bone, he tosses the pebble at her and laughs..'
  83. ^ Amira Hass,Court asks Palestinians to drop land case against settlers,' at Haaretz, 23 December 2013.
  84. ^ Anne Barker, Palestinians fighting order to demolish their village in the West Bank, ABC News, Monday, July 2, 2012
  85. ^ Amira Hass, 'Israeli demolition firm takes pride in West Bank operations,' at Haaretz, November 28, 2011
  86. ^ a b Kate Laycock West Bank village struggles against demolition at Deutsche Welle, 5 July 2012.
  87. ^ Amira Hass, 'EU: We expect Israel to cancel demolition orders for Palestinian villages in Area C of West Bank,' at Haaretz, 9 August 2012.
  88. ^ Chaim Levinson, 'The end of an EU international sustainability project? Israel orders demolition of West Bank village's tents, solar panels,' at Haaretz, 27 June 2013.
  89. ^ Amira Hass, IDF razes Palestinian infrastructure in West Bank communities at Haaretz, 30 August 2012.


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