Suteuphaa

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Ahom dynasty
Ahom insignia plain.svg
1 Sukaphaa 1228–1268
2 Suteuphaa 1268–1281
3 Subinphaa 1281–1293
4 Sukhaangphaa 1293–1332
5 Sukhrangpha 1332–1364
Interregnum 1364–1369
6 Sutuphaa 1369–1376
Interregnum 1376–1380
7 Tyao Khamti 1380–1389
Interregnum 1389–1397
8 Sudangphaa 1397–1407
9 Sujangphaa 1407–1422
10 Suphakphaa 1422–1439
11 Susenphaa 1439–1488
12 Suhenphaa 1488–1493
13 Supimphaa 1493–1497
14 Suhungmung 1497–1539
15 Suklenmung 1539–1552
16 Sukhaamphaa 1552–1603
17 Susenghphaa 1603–1641
18 Suramphaa 1641–1644
19 Sutingphaa 1644–1648
20 Sutamla 1648–1663
21 Supangmung 1663–1670
22 Sunyatphaa 1670–1672
23 Suklamphaa 1672–1674
24 Suhung 1674–1675
25 Gobar Roja 1675–1675
26 Sujinphaa 1675–1677
27 Sudoiphaa 1677–1679
28 Sulikphaa 1679–1681
29 Supaatphaa 1681–1696
30 Sukhrungphaa 1696–1714
31 Sutanphaa 1714–1744
32 Sunenphaa 1744–1751
33 Suremphaa 1751–1769
34 Sunyeophaa 1769–1780
35 Suhitpangphaa 1780–1795
36 Suklingphaa 1795–1811
37 Sudingphaa 1811–1818
38 Purandar Singha 1818–1819
39 Sudingphaa 1819–1821
40 Jogeswar Singha 1821–1822
41 Purandar Singha 1833–1838

Suteuphaa was the second king of Ahom kingdom who ruled from 1268 CE to 1281 CE. Suteuphaa succeeded his father Sukaphaa, who laid the foundation of Ahom kingdom in Assam. His reign was characterized by the expansion of his father’s kingdom. He also had conflicts with the Shans or Naras of Mungkang, a Shan kingdom in Upper Burma.

Ancestry and accesion[edit]

Suteuphaa was the eldest son of Ahom king Sukaphaa. After a reign of 39 years, Sukaphaa died in 1268 CE. The nobles installed Suteuphaa as the new king of Ahom kingdom.[1] After his accession, Suteuphaa sent embassy to the ancestral homeland of Sukaphaa, informing its ruler Sukhranphaa, the brother of Sukaphaa, about the demise of Sukaphaa and his accession to the throne. Sukhranphaa sent gifts to Suteuphaa consisting of caps made of gold and silver and two specially designed bows, congratulating his coronation as the king of Ahom kingdom.[2]

Reign[edit]

Expansion of the kingdom[edit]

Suteuphaa desired to expand his father’s kingdom. Therefore in order to fulfill his desire, he came in conflicts with the Kacharis residing in the neighbouring region. At that time, many parts of Upper Assam were inhabited by the Kacharis, though it was not known whether all the Kachari tribes were part of the same kingdom. He forced the Kacharis to abandon the country which lies to the east of Dikhou river.[3] One of the Ahom Buranji or historical document describes the event in an interesting way. Suteuphaa claimed the tract east of Dikhou river as his own. The local Kachari inhabitants opposed his claim. Instead of resorting to warfare, both sides decided to solve this matter in a peaceful way. The Ahom challenged the Kacharis to build a canal from their settlement to Dikhou river within a duration of one night. If the Kacharis successfully complete the work within allotted time, the tract will be theirs otherwise it would come under Ahom rule. The Kacharis accepted the challenge. They worked on the construction of canal and were on the verge of completing it, when the Ahoms resorted to tricks. On Suteuphaa’s personal instruction, some Ahom soldiers were hiding in the forest near the construction site. Each soldiers had one rooster along with them. Seeing that the Kacharis were on the verge of completing the canal, the Ahom soldiers hiding in the forest, made the roosters to cock. Since it was full moon night, the Kacharis could not determine the actual time and they believed that they have lost the bet, since cocking of rooster signifies morning. The Kacharis abandoned the tract, and the Ahoms immediately occupied it.[4]

Conflict with Mungkang[edit]

It is related in one Buranji or Chronicle that there was a war between the Naras or Shans of Mungkang, and the king of Mantara or Burma. The Naras were defeated and they appealed for help from Suteuphaa, as the ruler of Mungkang and Suteuphaa’s father king Sukaphaa shares the same branch of Shan tribes. The rulers of Mungkang and the Ahom kings used to communicate each other as Bhai Raja or Brother King. In all ancient Ahom chronicles, the Naras or the Shans of Mungkang are regarded by the Ahoms as their close kinsmen. In reply to the appeal for help made by the ruler of Mungkang, Suteuphaa stated that if the Nara king of Mungkang agrees to give his daughter in marriage with Suteuphaa, then he would send a force for assistance of Mungkang. The Nara king declined to do so. A quarrel ensued and Suteuphaa sent an expedition against the Naras, but his troops suffered defeat and the Burhagohain, who commanded them, were defeated. The Borgohain was promptly dispatched with a second force, but, instead of fighting, he came to terms with the enemy. On his return he was disgraced and imprisoned. He was subsequently forgiven on the intercession of the other nobles.[5] Some Ahom historians claimed that no conflict occurred between Ahoms and Naras, during the reign of Suteuphaa and the incident described above happened during the reign of Sukhaamphaa or Khora Raja.[6]

Death and legacy[edit]

Suteuphaa died in 1281 CE. Among his four sons, the eldest son Subinphaa succeeded him as the king of Ahom kingdom. Suteuphaa followed the policy of expansion of his father’s kingdom. The manner in which he outwit the Kacharis and conquered the country which lies east to the Dikhou river, reveals that he had inheritated his father, king Sukaphaa’s wits and intelligence. The policy of expansion of Ahom kingdom will be followed by the later Ahom rulers and almost the entire Brahmaputra valley would come under their rule.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Gait E.A. A History of Assam 2nd edition 1926 Thacker, Spink & Co Calcutta page 79
  2. ^ Barbaruah Hiteswar Ahomar-Din or A History of Assam under the Ahoms 1st edition 1981 Publication Board of Assam Guwahati page 24
  3. ^ Gait E.A. A History of Assam 2nd edition 1926 Thacker, Spink & Co Calcutta page 79
  4. ^ Barbaruah Hiteswar Ahomar-Din or A History of Assam under the Ahoms 1st edition 1981 Publication Board of Assam Guwahati page 24
  5. ^ Gait E.A. A History of Assam 2nd edition 1926 Thacker, Spink & Co Calcutta page 79
  6. ^ Barbaruah Hiteswar Ahomar-Din or A History of Assam under the Ahoms 1st edition 1981 Publication Board of Assam Guwahati page 75

References[edit]

  • Barbaruah Hiteswar Ahomar-Din or A History of Assam under the Ahoms first edition 1981 Publication Board of Assam Guwahati
  • Barua Gunaviram Assam Buranji or A History of Assam fourth edition 2008 Publication Board of Assam Guwahati
  • Gait E.A. A History of Assam second edition 1926 Thacker, Spink & Co Calcutta