Svan language

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Svan
ლუშნუ ნინ Lušnu nin
Pronunciation [luʃnu nin]
Native to Svaneti
Native speakers
est. 30,000 (1997)[1] or 15,000  (2000)[2]
Georgian script
Language codes
ISO 639-3 sva
Glottolog svan1243[3]
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The Svan language (Svan: ლუშნუ ნინ lušnu nin; Georgian: სვანური ენა svanuri ena) is a Kartvelian language spoken in the western Georgian region of Svaneti primarily by the Svan people.[4][5] With its speakers variously estimated to be between 30,000 and 80,000, the UNESCO designates Svan as a "definitely endangered language".[6]

Features[edit]

Familial features[edit]

Like all languages of the Kartvelian family, Svan has a large number of consonants. It has agreement between subject and object, and a split-ergative morphosyntactic system. Verbs are marked for aspect, evidentiality and "version".

Distinguishing features[edit]

Svan retains the voiceless aspirated uvular plosive, /qʰ/, and the glides /w/ and /j/. It has a larger vowel inventory than Georgian; the Upper Bal dialect of Svan has the most vowels of any Kartvelian language, having both long and short versions of /a ɛ i ɔ u æ ø y/ plus /ə eː/, a total of 18 vowels (Georgian, by contrast, has just five).

Its morphology is less regular than that of the other three sister languages, and there are notable differences in verbal inflections.

Distribution[edit]

Svan is the native language of fewer than 30,000 Svans (15,000 of whom are Upper Svan dialect speakers and 12,000 are Lower Svan), living in the mountains of Svaneti, i.e. in the districts of Mestia and Lentekhi of Georgia, along the Enguri, Tskhenistskali and Kodori rivers. Some Svan speakers live in the Kodori Valley of the de facto independent republic of Abkhazia. Although conditions there make it difficult to reliably establish their numbers, there are only an estimated 2,500 Svan individuals living there.[1]

The language is used in familiar and casual social communication. It has no written standard or official status. Most speakers also speak Georgian, the country's official language, and use it as their literary and business language. There is no official instruction in Svan, and the number of speakers is declining due to the dispersal of the Svan population in the face of increasing economic hardship. The language is regarded as being endangered, as proficiency in it among young people is limited.

History[edit]

Svan is the most differentiated member of the four Kartvelian languages, and is not intelligible with the other three (Georgian, Mingrelian and Laz). Svan is believed to have separated from them in the 2nd millennium BC or earlier, about one thousand years before Georgian branched off from the other two.

Dialects[edit]

The Svan language is divided into the following dialects and subdialects:

  • Upper Svan (about 15,000 speakers)
    • Upper Bal: Ushguli, Kala, Ipar, Mulakh, Mestia, Lenzer, Latal.
    • Lower Bal: Becho, Tskhumar, Etser, Par, Chubekh, Lakham.
  • Lower Svan (about 12,000 speakers)
    • Lashkhian: Lashkh.
    • Lentekhian: Lentekhi, Kheled, Khopur, Rtskhmelur, Cholur

Phonology[edit]

Consonants[edit]

Bilabial Dental Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Plosive b
ფ ბ პ
d
თ დ ტ
ɡ
ქ გ კ

ჴ ყ
ʔ
Fricative f v
ჶ ვ
s z
ს ზ
ʃ ʒ
შ ჟ
x ɣ
ხ ღ
h
Affricate tsʰ dz tsʼ
ც ძ წ
tʃʰ tʃʼ
ჩ ჯ ჭ
Nasal m
n
Liquid l, r
ლ, რ
j
w

Vowels[edit]

[citation needed]

Front Central Back
unrounded rounded unrounded rounded
short long short long short long short long
Close /i/

i
/iː/
ი̄
ī
/y/
უ̈, ჳი
ü
/yː/
უ̄̈
ű
/u/

u
/uː/
უ̄
ū
Close-mid /eː/

ė
/ə/¹

ə
Open-mid /ɛ/

e
/ɛː/
ე̄
ē
/œ/
ო̈, ჳე
ö
/œː/
ო̄̈
ő
/ɔ/

o
/ɔː/
ო̄
ō
Open /æ/
ა̈
ä
/æː/
ა̄̈
ã
/a/

a
/aː/
ა̄
ā
  1. Freely varies between [ə] and [ɨ]

Apart from the odd /eː/, only Upper Bal and Lashkh dialects have long vowels. Only Upper Bal has /æ, æː/; Lashkh does not have the front rounded vowels /œ, œː, y, yː/.

Alphabet[edit]

The alphabet, illustrated above, is similar to the Mingrelian alphabet, with a few additional letters otherwise obsolete in the Georgian script:

  • /f/
  • /q⁽ʰ⁾/
  • /ʔ/
  • /j/
  • /w/
  • /ə/
  • /eː/

These are supplemented by diacritics on the vowels (the umlaut for front vowels and macron for length), though those are not normally written. The digraphs

  • ჳი /y/
  • ჳე /œ/

are used in the Lower Bal and Lentekh dialects, and occasionally in Upper Bal; these sounds do not occur in Lashkh dialect.

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b DoBeS (Dokumentation Bedrohter Sprachen, Documentation of Endangered Languages)
  2. ^ Svan at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  3. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Svan". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  4. ^ Levinson, David. Ethnic Groups Worldwide: A Ready Reference Handbook. Phoenix: Oryx Press, 1998. p 34
  5. ^ Stephen F. Jones. Svans. World Culture Encyclopedia. Retrieved on March 13, 2011
  6. ^ UNESCO Interactive Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger

General References[edit]

External links[edit]