Svayam Bhagavan

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Svayam bhagavan)
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about a Hindu theological concept: the original or absolute manifestation of God. For other meanings, see Krishna (disambiguation) and Bhagavan (disambiguation).

Svayam Bhagavan (IAST svayam bhagavān), "The Lord" or Lord Himself, is a Sanskrit theological term for the concept of absolute representation of God as Bhagavan within Hinduism. He is the One eternal Supreme Being called Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva and Trimurti.

According to Bhagavad Gita, Lord Krishna is termed as Svayam Bhagavan since he is the avatari or source of all incarnations and expansions such as Vishnu or Narayana. As stated in Bhagavata Purana, Krsna appeared before Vasudeva and Devaki as four handed Vishnu before taking birth. Both Vasudev and Devaki after praising Vishnu requested him to hide his divine form agreeing to which Vishnu transformed himself into a small baby. According to this account, Krishna never took birth from the womb of his mother like a common baby.[1][2][3]

It is most often used in Gaudiya Vaishnava Krishna-centered theology as referring to Krishna. The title Svayam Bhagavan is used exclusively to designate Krishna,[4] while there are conflicting semantics or other usages in the Bhagavata Purana. Traditions of Gaudiya Vaishnavas, the Nimbarka Sampradaya and followers of Vallabha consider him to be the source of all avatars,[5] and the source of Vishnu and Narayana himself. As such, he is therefore regarded as Svayam Bhagavan.[6][7][8]

The term is seldom used to refer to other forms of Krishna and/or Vishnu within the context of certain religious texts such as the Bhagavata Purana, and also within other sects of Vaishnavism.

Though Krishna is recognized as Svayam Bhagavan by many,[9] he is also perceived and understood from an eclectic assortment of perspectives and viewpoints.[10] When Krishna is recognized to be Svayam Bhagavan, it can be understood that this is the belief of Gaudiya Vaishnavism,[11] the Vallabha Sampradaya,[12] and the Nimbarka Sampradaya, where Krishna is accepted to be the source of all other avatars, and the source of Vishnu himself. This belief is drawn primarily "from the famous statement of the Bhagavatam"[4](1.3.28).[13]

A different viewpoint differing from this theological concept is the concept of Krishna as an avatar of Narayana or Vishnu. It should be however noted that although it is usual to speak of Vishnu as the source of the avataras, this is only one of the names of the God of Vaishnavism, who is also known as Narayana, Vasudeva and Krishna and behind each of those names there is a divine figure with attributed supremacy in Vaishnavism.[14]

Meaning[edit]

The theological interpretation of svayam bhagavān differs with each tradition and the literal translation of the term has been understood in several distinct ways. Translated from the Sanskrit language, the term literally means "Bhagavan Himself" or "directly Bhagavan".[4] Gaudiya Vaishnava tradition often translates it within its perspective as primeval Lord or original Personality of Godhead, but also considers the terms such as Supreme Personality of Godhead and Supreme God as an equivalent to the term Svayam Bhagavan, and may also choose to apply these terms to Vishnu, Narayana and many of their associated Avatars.[15][16]

Early commentators of Bhagavata Purana such as Madhvacharya translated the term Svayam Bhagavan as "he who has bhagavata"; meaning "he who has the quality of possessing all good qualities".[8] Others have translated it simply as "the Lord Himself".[17] Followers of Vishnu-centered sampradayas of Vaishnavism rarely address this term, but believe that it refers to their belief that Krishna is among the highest and fullest of all Avatars[18] and is considered to be the "paripurna avatara", complete in all respects and the same as the original.[19] According to them Krishna is described in the Bhagavata Purana as the purnavatara (or complete manifestation) of the Bhagavan, while other incarnations are called partial. "Krishna being the Bhagavan Himself, the mind of man fixed on him intensely, whatever be the motive and however ignorantly it might be."(p. 334)[9] Generally there is a universal acceptance of the uniqueness of Krishna incarnation throughout Hinduism, as well as the principles involved in His life and personality for which He has been described as Svayam Bhagavan.[9]

Perspectives[edit]

Supporting views[edit]

There is an element of countenance in many Krishna centered traditions to the subordination of Krishna to Vishnu. The reasons for that are given that it was the easiest way to accommodate Krishna's human story within the composite Vaishnava theological perspective. These "core texts assert and defend the ultimacy of Krsna's identity".[20] However inclusion of Krishna in the list of avataras does not necessarily subordinate him to Vishnu as one of the latter's expansions.[21] Early authors, such as 12th century Jayadeva considered dasavatara to be principal incarnations of Krishna, rather than Vishnu.

The prime supporters of the Krishna-centered theology, Gaudiya Vaishnavas and followers of the Vallabha Sampradaya Nimbarka Sampradaya, use the Gopala Tapani Upanishad,[22] Vedanta Sutras[4] and other Hindu scriptures[23] such as the Bhagavata Purana as in verse 1.3.28 and the Brahma Vaivarta Purana, among others, to support their view that Krishna is indeed the Svayam Bhagavan. This belief was summarized by the 16th century author Jiva Goswami in some of his works, such as Krishna-sandarbha.[4][24] While Krishna himself is mentioned in one of the earliest texts of Vedic literature - Rig-Veda.[25]

In the sixth book of the Hindu epic Mahābhārata, the Bhishma Parva (where the Bhagavad Gita is part of), Krishna offers numerous quotations that reaffirm the belief that he himself is the Svayam Bhagavan. Verse 7.7 of the Bhagavad Gita, is often used to support the opinion that Krishna himself is the Svayam Bhagavan, and that no impersonal form of Brahman supersedes his existence, as it is a common view that Bhagavad Gita was propounding Krishna-theism before first major proponents of monism.[26]

Other two pervading understandings of the position of Svayam Bhagavan asserted in the Gita are connected to other, not Krishna-centered, traditions. One tradition follows predominately the views of Sankaracharya commentary on Brahma Sutras and is referred as maya-vad[26] which justifies Svayam Bhagavan supremacy by a concept of illusion or maya.

The second alternative understanding of the evident supremacy of Svayam Bhagavan in the Gita, is a popular view on Krishna being the highest and fullest Avatar of the Lord, Vishnu or Narayana.[18] "The Bhagavad Gita depicts Krishna not only as Brahman but also as an 'Avatar of Vishnu and the friend of Arjuna."[27] In summary in accordance with this view Svayam Bhagavan Krishna is considered to be the purna-avatara (full incarnation) of Vishnu or, according to some, of the universal Narayana who transcends even Brahman.[5] [28]

Supremacy or a concept of originality is often referred to the words of Krishna himself, as for example, Abhinavagupta of yet another tradition of Hinduism, introduces a quotation from the Bhagavad-gita that 'I', referring to Krishna, is the highest self who transcends the perishable and imperishable.[29]

Other Vaishnava views[edit]

The Sri Vaishnavas identify Vishnu with the Brahman, while Krishna-centered traditions will associate Para Brahman with Krishna as Svayam Bhagavan. According to Ramanujacharya, Brahman is personal. Indeed, he is the supreme person, creator and Lord, who leads souls to salvation. Far from having no (positive) attributes, as some Advaita Vedanta followers maintain, Brahman is the sum of all “noble attributes” — i.e. omniscient, omnipotent, omnipresent, and all-merciful, all qualities attributed to Vishnu by all Vaishavas. According to South Indian traditions he is also advitya (Sanskrit meaning without rival). To Vaishnavas, Shiva, Brahma, and the other gods of the Hindu pantheon are viewed as Brahman's agents or servants, created and commissioned by him. Some Vaishnavas consider them to be or see that they have the same status that of angels have in the western religious traditions.[30]

“The entire complex of intelligent and non-intelligent beings - is viewed as real and constitutes the form, i. e., the body of the highest Brahman”.[31] A soul-body relationship, according to Ramanujacharya, is “entirely subordinate” to its soul, having no independent reality or value.[32] However Ramanujacharya himself did not stress a subordination of the 'puravatara' Krishna to Vishnu.

However, Vaishnava traditions do not adhere to the concept of Svayam Bhagavan with the same views as those who support the concept.[33][unreliable source?] To support their view they quote the 149th chapter of Anushāsanaparva in the epic Mahabharata, Bhisma which states, with Krishna present, that mankind will be free from all sorrows by chanting the Vishnu sahasranama', which are the thousand names of the all-pervading supreme being Vishnu, who is the master of all the worlds, supreme over the devas and who is one with Brahman.[34][35] This seems to indicate that Krishna is identical with Vishnu. Indeed, Krishna himself said, "Arjuna, one may be desirous of praising by reciting the thousand names. But, on my part, I feel praised by one shloka. There is no doubt about it.” [36]

Many Vaishnava schools have different interpretation of the concept as for example followers of the Swaminarayan Sampraday believe that Lord Narayana manifested himself as Lord Swaminarayan.[37] This view is only supported within their particular tradition.

Comparison[edit]

Some early schools of thought, such as Pancaratra in particular, refer to Vasudeva-Krishna (Krishna, the son of Vasudeva) as the source of all incarnations and as no different from the ultimate and absolute reality, and as non-distinct from Vasudeva and any other manifestations of the supreme self.[38]

Krishnaism[edit]

Main article: Krishnaism

The term Krishnaism has been used to describe the cults of Krishna, reserving the term "Vaishnavism" for cults focusing on Vishnu in which Krishna is an Avatar, rather than a transcended being.[39]

"Greater Krishnaism" corresponds to the second and dominant phase of Vaishnavism, revolving around the cults of Vasudeva, Krishna, and Gopala.[40] Today the faith has a significant following outside of India as well.[41] Supremacy of Krishna is the key concept of Krishnaism. Gaudiya is one of the main traditions worshiping Radha Krishna that developed this concept.

Relationship between different forms of Krishna as paripurna avatara of Vishnu and as svayam bhagavan being direct representation of svayam rupa.

Gaudiya Vaishnava perspective[edit]

Theory of avataras[edit]

Primary theology of Caitanyaite or Gaudiya traditions is based and presented in Bhagavata Purana and Caitanya Caritamrita.[42]Svayam in Svayam rupa does not imply one and only, and all conceptions by previous Vaishnava traditions, according to the Gaudiya Vaishnavas beliefs, fall under a second category, tad ekatma rupa[43] (meaning: one that one and not different).[44] 'Svayam' as a term means not depending on others or being himself. [24] In his instruction to Sanatana Goswami, at Kasi, Chaitanya Mahaprabhu explains the implications of the vadanti verse: "The word brahman refers to Svayam Bhagavan, who has one consciousness without a second, and without whom there is nothing else." (Gupta 2007, p 36).[4]

The deity of Tulasi Krishna at Udupi. Krishna is the main deity worshipped by the followers of Madhvacharya.

Rūpa Gosvāmī has described the svayaṁ-rūpa in his Laghu-bhāgavatāmṛta:[45] "The form of the Supreme Personality of Godhead that does not depend on other forms is called svayaṁ-rūpa, the original form."[43][46]

The tad-ekātma-rūpa forms[43] are also described in the Laghu-bhāgavatāmṛta [46][47] "The tad-ekātma-rūpa forms simultaneous to svayaṁ-rūpa form and are non-different.[43] At the same time by their bodily features and specific activities they appear to be different."

Two best known Vedic descriptions of the creation are purusha sukta and nasadiya sukta. One hymn addresses to Vishvakarma, The one who makes all. To beliefs of Vaishnavas,[48] the Visvakarma Sukta of Rig Veda (10.82) refers to Garbhodakasayi Viṣṇu indirectly as the Supreme God: The waters verily first retained the embryo in which all the gods were aggregated, single deposited on the navel of the unborn (ajah), in which all beings abide.[49] and according to the Gaudiyas, falls under category of tad-ekātma-rūpa,[43]

According to the Gaudiya Vaishnava interpretation, it is also confirmed in the Bhagavad-gītā (7.7), which says, mattaḥ parataraṁ nānyat: "There is no truth superior to Me." Where Krishna is 'bhagavan' himself, whose partial manifestations are the other gods. This idea is reflected in the Bhagavata Purana. The Brahma Vaivarta Purana tells us Krishna is the ultimate source from which Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva and Prakriti originate. He is Svayam Bhagavan while other incarnation are his partial manifestations. The comments of Sridhara Svami (an early Sankara sect commentator), bring out uniqueness of Krishna. According to him Krishna is perfect as all potencies are observed to be full in him.[50] In Atharvavedasamhita, Krishna is described as having slain the giant Kesi, Keshava. The Kaustiki Brahmana (30.9) alludes to Krishna Angirasa, who is an object of evening ceremony in connection with Brahmanaacchamsin priest. The Aitareya Aranyaka speaks of two Krishnas of Harita Gotra.[50] However the south Indian Vaishnavism makes very little stress on Krishna and altogether ignored Radha in contrast with the other traditions.[50]

To the views of the Gaudiya Sampradaya, the Bhagavad-gita[51] states that this bhakti-yoga is secretive:[52] - "Just hear from Me again about the most confidential part of the instructions in Bhagavad-gītā."[51] It is also described as such in Bhagavata Purana[53] Vashnavas of ISKCON often stress their view that in both cases Krishna is speaking about himself, aham and me in Sanskrit mean, I am and Me respectively. While some commentators derive secondary meanings,[54] all major Sanskrit dictionary accept that the direct meaning of aham and me, refers to Krishna himself.[55]

Krishna and Balarama meet their father and mother - Vasudeva and Devaki. Thus a personal name of Krishna as Vaasudeva or son of Vasudeva, and Devakinandana, son of Devaki. Painting by Raja Ravi Varma

Lakshmi[edit]

When Gaudiya Vaishnavas present their views on Krishna being Svayam Bhagavan, [56] they present a number of perspectives some include comparison with other forms such as Vishnu, that are considered supreme in other sampradayas. The Bhagavat Sandarbha and the Tattva Sandabha are among quoted works by Jiva Goswami,[4] "Vaishnavas don't argue among themselves if Krishna or Vishnu is the Supreme. They consider it a matter of one's relationship with the Lord. Someone has a relationship with Vishnu, someone with Rama, someone with Krishna, etc. as per rasa theology." In the Caitanya Caritamrita [57] Chaitanya discusses this in a joking mood with Venkatta Bhatta from Sri sampradaya.[58] While Pustimarga tradition predates Gaudiya Vaisnavism in Radha worship. [59] When Chaitanya traveled through South India in 1509-10, he stayed at the house of Venkata Bhatta, the father of Gopala Bhatta, priest of Srirangam. Venkata and his two brothers, Gopala's uncles Trimalla and Prabodhananda Sarasvati "were converted from their Sri Vaishnava faith in Lakshmi-Narayana as supreme to one in Radha Krishna" as Svayam Bhagavan.[59] The dialog of this conversion is recorded in 16 c. Caitanya Caritamrita biography by Krishna dasa Kaviraja.[58]

In the Madhya lila of the Chaitanya charitamrita a presentation is given,[60] with a reference to the particular verse of the tenth canto of Bhagavata Purana as to the reason why Lakshmi also known as Sri (thus the name of Sri Sampradaya) is burning with desire and still not capable of entering to the realm of Vrindavana.[61]

Prabodhananda Sarasvati who was a Sri Sampradaya sannyasi was converted as to supreme position of Radha-Krishna being Svayam Bhagavan instead of Lakshmi-Narayana. He as well apparently came to appreciate the supremacy of Radha worship from Caitanya.[62]

Cosmological perspective[edit]

The view of South Indian Vaishnava groups on sarga, or subtle creation, is based upon scriptural adherence to Narayana or Vishnu being the cause of creation[63] expanding into Viraja and then Maha-Viṣṇu glancing over pradhana, and that is the start of actual function of creation. This view is not contradicted by Krishna-centered Vashnavism and does not appear to be in contradiction with Svayam Bhagavan who as Vasudeva (son of Vasudeva, Krishna) is according to Pancaratra is at the source of creation.

Pancaratra sources are accepted by all of Vaishnava traditions, and confirmed by Yamunacarya who preceding in the line of Ramanuja, summarizing in his Agamapramanya, a defense of the revelation of the tantric Vaishnava Pancaratra, defending whole body of the texts being part of the Veda: "The Pancadratra Tantra is authoritative like the Vedic sentences ordaining sacrifice on the grounds that it is based on knowledge free from all defects". Amalananda, also defends Pancaratra and while confirming that Agamas do not have the same self-authenticating validity, as the four Vedas, but the authenticity of it assured because Veda bear witness to the omniscience of Vasudeva. This position also forms the basis of Bhagavata Purana based theology.[64]

It is also a view of Gaudiya Vaishnavas that Sanatana Goswamis Brihad Bhagavatamrita, has illustrated this principle, not just in terms of comparative cosmology or avatara hierarchy as in Vaishnava Pancaratra, but also in terms of cosmology of adi-rasa.[65] The cosmological principle of the four dhamas (with a separate place for the last two: Vaikuntha - abode of Vishnu or Narayana, tad-ekatma rupa, in transcendence, and Goloka as abode of Svayam Bhagavan in transcendence) is the key of the graphical presentation, but it is also an answer to the dilemma.[66] In accordance with the cosmology of the Brihad Bhagavatamrita Krishna is believed being the original and most complete in all rasas or tastes is in fact not engaged and non engaging, is his independence, he does not even, at least in this his original form, carry symbols of Viṣṇu, he only carries his own flute, and that is the pleasure of his devotees.[67]

Original Purusha of the Vedas[edit]

The form of Narayana is linked with the concept of sacrifice in the earliest known references to him. In Vedic sources such as the Purusha sukta, Narayana is given as the name of the self-offering of the great cosmic sacrifice of the Rig Veda.[68] Narayana is not mentioned in Rig Veda itself, but came to be regarded as the seer who authored the hymn. It is possible that the sage who composed the Purusha Sukta hymn has been assimilated to the Purusha whose praise he had sung, and he himself became the object of worship. Mentions of a divine sage named Narayana, along with counterpart Nara, appears in many Puranic texts.[69] Purusha is also identified with Vishnu in the Rig Veda and interpreted accordingly by many traditions of Vaishnavism. In the Bhagavata he is recognized as "the Lord whose being is sacrifice, Yajna Purusha"[23][70][71][72] Some believe that thus this verse of the Rig Veda is a foundation of Vaishnava tradition. In the Gopala Tapani Upanishad the Rig Veda verse(1.22.20) was addressed paraphrasing the original of the Vedic hymn in accordance with the beliefs of the Gaudiya Vaishnava:[73] It outlines a specific view held by the Gaudiya Vaishnava and Vallabha Sampradaya, that the conclusion of Vishnu worship is meditation on gopa-rupah or specific form of Krishna.[22][74]

Krishna Upanishad supports this conclusion of Gopala Tapani,[75] and refers to the original "the most divine form of bliss dwells in the supremacy of love of Lord Krishna",[76] saksad, Hari as gopa-rüpa. (1.10-12): [77]

"The Supreme Personality of Godhead appeared in His original form as a cowherd boy. Cheated and bewildered by His illusory potency, the world could not understand His true identity.
"Even all the demigods cannot defeat the Lord's Maya potency. By the Lord's Yogamaya potency Brahma became a stick and Siva became a flute. How did the Lord's Maya potency manifest the entire universe?
"Knowledge is the strength of the demigods. The Lord's Maya potency steals away that knowledge in a single moment. Lord Sesanaga appeared in His original form as Lord Balarama. The eternal Supreme Personality of Godhead appeared in His original form as Lord Krishna."[22][78]

Gaudiya Vaishnava believe that Krishna possesses qualities that are absent in other forms and they relate to his sweetness in Vrindavana lila. Krishna is himself Narayana.[79] Narayana is often identified with supreme, however, when his beauty and sweetness (madhurya) overshadow his majesty, he is known as Krishna, i.e. Svayam Bhagavan.[80] As Friedhelm Hardy says, the concept of Bhagavan, "a single, all-powerful, eternal, personal and loving God ... is an empty slot, to be filled by concrete characteristics" and these characteristics culminate in Krishna.[81]

Paribhasa-sutra of Bhagavata Purana[edit]

Jiva Gosvami’s Bhajan Kutir at Radha-kunda. Jiva Goswamis Sandarbhas summarize Vedic sources of Gaudiya Vaishnava tradition's accretion of the concept bhagavān svayam based on paribhasa-sutra of Bhagavata Purana
[82]

In Gaudiya Vaishnava, Vallabha Sampradaya Nimbarka sampradaya and old Bhagavata school, Krishna believed to be fully represented in his original form in the Bhagavata Purana, that at the end of the list of avataras concludes with the following text:[83]

All of the above-mentioned incarnations are either plenary portions or portions of the plenary portions of the Lord, but Sri Krishna is the original Personality of Godhead (Svayam Bhagavan).[84]

Not all commentators on the Bhagavata Purana stress this verse, however a majority of Krishna-centered and contemporary commentaries highlight this verse as a significant statement.[85]Jiva Goswami has called it Paribhasa-sutra, the “thesis statement” upon which the entire book or even theology is based.[86]

In another place of the Bhagavata Purana 10.83.5-43 those who are named as wives of Krishna all explain to Draupadi how the 'Lord himself' (Svayam Bhagavan, Bhagavata Purana 10.83.7) came to marry them. As they relate these episodes, several of the wives speak of themselves as Krishna's devotees.[87]

Many Krishna-centered traditions believe that Svayam Bhagavan personally carries his unalloyed devotees (vahamy aham) like a husband carries his bride across the threshold into the house of prema bhakti.[88] Badarayana Vyasa says in his Brahma Sutras, visesam ca darsayati, implying that the scripture declares a difference with regard to the passing from the world of nirapeksa or unflinching devotees.[89]

Source of Para-Vasudeva[edit]

Baladeva Vidyabhusana, in his commentary on Gopala Tapani Upanishad states: Glory to the Gopala Tapani Upanishad, which to the pious reveals Lord Krishna, the original Personality of Godhead, the Supersoul near to all moving and unmoving creatures.[90]

The word used is krsna svayam isvaram, the paraphrase of the Bhagavata Purana verse 1.3.28 that Jiva Goswami has called a key sutra,[24] not only to the Bhagavata Purana but to Vedanta and thus all the Vedas.[24][91]

According to the Upanishads its believed that when Brahma, who is said to be the original created being, was approached by the sages, the Four Kumaras, he was presented with critical questions: – Who is the Supreme Lord? Who does death fear? – By knowing whom, does everything become realized? – Who is that person, who is behind the repetition of the creation of this Universe?[92][93] His own original or sweet form, Sva-bimbaṁ to the is not manifested very often in the Universe, loka-locanam.[94] Gaudiya Vaishnavas quote sources that claim that it happens only once in a universal day of Brahma, and its only at that time its believed, once every fourteen manvantaras, each seventy one divya-yugas duration.[95] To answer the four Kumaras, Brahma needed to relate this secret word of the seed mantra.[96] And this is believed to be the answer to the question, who is supreme god and how he creates this world.[92] Brahma replied to the sages: "Krisna is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Death fears Govinda. By knowing Gopijanavallabha everything becomes realized. By pronouncing the word "svaha" the Personality of Godhead created the world.[97] In the wider context of the Bhagavata's total perspective, Krishna is "not one among many but the Lord himself".[98]

Sanat-Kumara Samhita confirms the belief that this Kama Gayatri is the foundational structure of the Goloka, believed to be the abode of Krishna, who is the original Vaasudeva:[99] "In the whorl of the lotus flower which is Lord Krishna's transcendental abode, the Gopala mantra is written."[100][101] [102][103]

Related historical records[edit]

The first inscription of the Heliodorus pillar that was made by Heliodorus 110 BCE.
This Garuda-standard of Vasudeva, the God of Gods was erected here by the devotee Heliodoros,

While some place Krishna-centered worship as Svayam Bhagavan in the medieval times of Indian history, there is some evidence suggesting the opposite. In antiquity Krishna images were worshiped at many places. Quoting Curtius, Dr. D.C. Sircar says that an image of Herakles (i.e. Vasudeva-Krishna according to Sircar) was being carried in front of the Paurava army, as it advanced against the Greeks led by Alexander the Great (The Cultural Heritage of India, vol. 4. p. 115) An interesting terracotta plaque showing Vasudeva carrying the infant Krishna over his head across the flooded Yamuna river, belonging to c. first century is housed in the Mathura Museum. A Mora stone inscription of about the same time refers to some images of Bhagavata Vrshni Panchaviras, Sankarshana, Vasudeva, Pradyumna, Samba and Aniruddha - which were very beautifully carved in stone.[104] A Gupta period research makes a "clear mention of Vasudeva as the exclusive object of worship of a group of people," who are referred as bhagavatas.[105]

Verifying the antiquity of the exclusive worship of Svayam Bhagavan, Krishna, the early Jaina texts repeatedly stress two categories of Baladevas and Vasudevas that clearly can not be attributed to the Buddhist tradition, and can not be traced to the earlier strata of the Jaina canon itself. The introduction of these novel categories in the Jaina tradition, therefore, can hardly be explained without references to the legends surrounding the two popular figures of the early Vaishnava tradition, namely Balarama and Krishna of Mathura.[106]

Archaeological remains found in the region of Mathura support the fact that the popularity of these two divine figures had reached its zenith in the Mauryan and the Sunga period and associated Bhagavata religion had become widespread throughout Mathura and Western India areas. This period coincides with the large migrations of Jainas from Magadha to Mathura. Baladeva is referred to by Jaina Puranas as Halabhrit, without any support from Brahminical texts. All the Vasudevas are modeled after the description of Krishna found in the Puranas. They are called blue-black (nila) in complexion and are designated by several names that are normally applied exclusively to Krishna e.g. Keshava, Madhava, Govinda, Vishnu and Narayana (which is used as synonym for the name Vasudeva). List of opposites (or prati categories) include most of the names associated with Asuras in Puranas.[106] According to an opinion of some scholars in Patanjali's time identification of Krishna with Vasudeva is an established fact as is surmised from a passage of the Mahabhasya - (jaghana kamsam kila vasudevah).[107] This "supposed earliest phase is though to have been established from the sixth to the fifth centuries BCE at the time of Panini, who in his Astadhyayi explained the word vasudevaka as a bhakta, devotee, of Vasudeva and its believed that Bhagavata religion with the worship of Vasudeva Krishna were at the root of the Vaishnavism in Indian history."[108][109] Not just Indian Gupta period but also some historical records of the Greeks show existence of the bhakti tradition to Krishna-Vaasudeva,[110] it needs to be noted that, even Panini gives some support to the ancient root of Krishna-Vaasudeva bhakti - (vāsudeva arjunābhyāṁ, or related to Arjuna),[111] its is however only much later (2nd century BC) Patanjali who refer in his definition of the devotee or bhakta as "the follower of Vasudeva, God of gods."[107][112]

Other uses[edit]

In the Bhagavata purana the term is used for other forms of God, including Dhanvantari,[113] Vamana,[114] Vishnu,[115] Vaikunthadeva.[116] Although the term appears in the text referring to other forms, these references do not form a part of the Krishna-centered theology on which the reference to Krishna is based.

The Brahma Vaivarta Purana and Garga Samhita often refer to Krishna as paripūrṇatama, the term used in Gaudiya Vaishnava tradition by Bhaktivinoda Thakura in his Amnaya Sutra - krishnas tu paripurnatma sarvatra sukha-rupakah translated as 'original Supreme Personality of Godhead'.[117]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Bhagavata Purana - Canto 10 Chapter 2 Verse 9
  2. ^ Bhagavata Purana - Canto 1 Chapter 3 Verse 28
  3. ^ Bhagavata Purana - Canto 10 Chapter 3 Verse 46
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Gupta, Ravi M. (2007). Caitanya Vaisnava Vedanta of Jiva Gosvami. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-40548-3. 
  5. ^ a b Bhagawan Swaminarayan bicentenary commemoration volume, 1781-1981. p. 154: ...Shri Vallabhacharya [and] Shri Swaminarayan... Both of them designate the highest reality as Krishna, who is both the highest avatara and also the source of other avataras. To quote R. Kaladhar Bhatt in this context. "In this transcendental devotion (Nirguna Bhakti), the sole Deity and only" is Krishna. New Dimensions in Vedanta Philosophy - Page 154, Sahajānanda, Vedanta. 1981
  6. ^ Delmonico, N. (2004). "The History Of Indic Monotheism And Modern Chaitanya Vaishnavism". The Hare Krishna Movement: the Postcharismatic Fate of a Religious Transplant (Columbia University Press). ISBN 978-0-231-12256-6. Retrieved 2008-04-12. 
  7. ^ Elkman, S.M.; Gosvami, J. (1986). Jiva Gosvamin's Tattvasandarbha: A Study on the Philosophical and Sectarian Development of the Gaudiya Vaishnava Movement. Motilal Banarsidass Pub. 
  8. ^ a b Dimock Jr, E.C.; Dimock, E.C. (1989). The Place of the Hidden Moon: Erotic Mysticism in the Vaisnava-Sahajiya Cult of Bengal. University Of Chicago Press.  page 132
  9. ^ a b c Mepathur Narayana Bhattatiri (2003). Narayaneeyam-Bhagavata, Condensed Edition. Sri Ramakrishna Math. ISBN 81-7120-419-8. pp.234-239
  10. ^ Mahony, W.K. (1987). "Perspectives on Krishna's Various Personalities". History of Religions 26 (3): 333–335. doi:10.1086/463085. JSTOR 198702. 
  11. ^ Kennedy, M.T. (1925). The Chaitanya Movement: A Study of the Vaishnavism of Bengal. H. Milford, Oxford university press. 
  12. ^ Flood, Gavin D. (1996). An introduction to Hinduism. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 341. ISBN 0-521-43878-0. Retrieved 2008-04-21. "Early Vaishnava worship focuses on three deities who become fused together, namely Vasudeva-Krishna, Krishna-Gopala, and Narayana, who in turn all become identified with Vishnu. Put simply, Vasudeva-Krishna and Krishna-Gopala were worshiped by groups generally referred to as Bhagavatas, while Narayana was worshipped by the Pancaratra sect."
  13. ^ Essential Hinduism S. Rosen, 2006, Greenwood Publishing Group p.124 ISBN 0-275-99006-0
  14. ^ Matchett 2000, p. 4
  15. ^ Knapp, S. (2005). The Heart of Hinduism: The Eastern Path to Freedom, Empowerment and Illumination -. iUniverse.  "Krishna is the primeval Lord, the original Personality of Godhead, so He can expand Himself into unlimited forms with all potencies." page 161
  16. ^ Dr. Kim Knott, (1993). Contemporary Theological Trends In The Hare Krishna Movement: A Theology of Religions. Retrieved 2008-04-12. ..."Bhakti, the highest path, was that of surrender to Lord Krishna, the way of pure devotional service to the Supreme Personality of Godhead".
  17. ^ K. Klostermaier (1997). The Charles Strong Trust Lectures, 1972-1984. Crotty, Robert B. Brill Academic Pub. p. 206. ISBN 90-04-07863-0. "For his worshippers he is not an avatara in the usual sense, but Svayam Bhagavan, the Lord himself."  p.109 Klaus Klostermaier translates it simply as "the Lord Himself"
  18. ^ a b Bipin Chandra Pal (1964, 132 pages). Shree Krishna: Letters Written to a Christian Friend. Yugayatri/New India Printing & Publishing Co. "First edition published in 1938 under the title of 'Europe asks: who is Shree Krishna'."  p. 31: Shree Krishna stands at the top of this series. He is therefore called by his votaries as Purna Avatara or the highest and fullest incarnation of the Lord.
  19. ^ "Sapthagiri". www.tirumala.org. Retrieved 2008-05-03.  Parashara Maharishi, Vyasa's father had devoted the largest Amsa (part) in Vishnu Purana to the description of Sri Krishna Avatara the Paripoorna Avatara. And according to Lord Krishna's own (instructions) upadesha, "he who knows (the secrets of) His (Krishna's) Janma (birth) and Karma (actions) will not remain in samsara (punar janma naiti- maam eti) and attain Him after leaving the mortal coil." (BG 4.9). Parasara Maharishi ends up Amsa 5 with a phalashruti in an identical vein (Vishnu Purana .5.38.94)
  20. ^ Valpey 2006, p. 154
  21. ^ Matchett, Freda (2000). Krsna, Lord or Avatara? the relationship between Krsna and Visnu: in the context of the Avatara myth as presented by the Harivamsa, the Visnupurana and the Bhagavatapurana. Surrey: Routledge. p. 254. ISBN 0-7007-1281-X.  p. 182-183
  22. ^ a b c B. V. Tripurari (2004). Gopala-tapani Upanisad. Audarya Press. ISBN 1-932771-12-3. 
  23. ^ a b Gaudiya scholar, Bhaktivinoda Thakura in his Dasa Mula Tattva Ch.3: 'Śrī Kṛṣṇa—The Supreme Absolute Truth', Part: Vedic Evidences of Śrī Kṛṣṇa ’s Divinity states: In the Ṛg-Veda (Ṛg. 1.22.23):
    tad viṣṇoḥ paramaṁ padaṁ sadā paśyanti sūrayaḥ
    divīva cakṣur ātataṁ viṣṇor yat paramaṁ padam
    "The Personality of Godhead, Viṣṇu, is the Absolute Truth whose lotus feet all the demigods are always eager to see. His lotus-feet are only visible to those endowed with spiritual vision, for they are completely transcendental and supreme like Śrī Kṛṣṇa, Himself." Again, in the Ṛg-Veda (1.22.164 sūkta 31) we find this verse:
    apaśyaṁ gopām anipadyamāna mā ca parā ca pathibhiś carantam
    sa sadhrīcīḥ sa viṣucīr vasāna avarīrvati bhuvaneṣv antaḥ
    "I saw a young cowherd boy, who never falls from His position. Sometimes He is near, sometimes He is far away; in this manner, He moves in various ways. Sometimes, He is clothed in many robes and at other times differently dressed; in this way, He is repeatedly appearing and disappearing in this universe." The next verse establishes the eternal aspect of Śrī Kṛṣṇa's transcendental pastimes as found in the Ṛg Veda (1.54.6):
    tā vāṁ vāstuny uśmasi gamadhyai yatra gavo bhūri sṛṅga ayāsaḥ
    atrāha tad urugāyasya viṣṇoḥ parama-padam avabhāti bhuri
    "I desire to attain Your (Śrī Rādhikā and Śrī Kṛṣṇa's) abode where the wish-fulfilling cows, known as kāmadhenu, are decorated with gracefully long horns. The eternal residence of Śrī Kṛṣṇa, the fulfiller of His devotees' desires, is pre-eminently exhibiting itself in all grandeur."
  24. ^ a b c d Gupta, Ravi M. (2004). Caitanya Vaisnava Vedanta: Acintyabhedabheda in Jiva Gosvami's Catursutri tika. University Of Oxford. 
  25. ^ Sunil Kumar Bhattacharya Krishna-cult in Indian Art. 1996 M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd. ISBN 81-7533-001-5 p.126: "According to (D.R.Bhadarkar), the word Krishna referred to in the expression 'Krishna-drapsah' in the Rig- Veda, denotes the very same Krishna".
  26. ^ a b S. Devadas Pillai, ed. (1997). Indian Sociology Through Ghurye: A Dictionary. Columbia, Mo: South Asia Books. p. 403. ISBN 81-7154-807-5. 
  27. ^ Panjab University Journal of Medieval Indian Literature. Page 56 Panjab University Sheikh Baba Farid Dept. of Medieval Indian Literature
  28. ^ Sri Swami Chidananda (1964, 132 pages). The Divine Name and Its Practice: Souvenir on the Occasion of the Double. Divine Life Society & Publishing Co. "Preface Sri Swami Krishnananda"  p. 24
  29. ^ Flood 2006, p. 150
  30. ^ "Monotheism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) Nov 1, 2005". www.seop.leeds.ac.uk. Retrieved 2008-07-26. 
  31. ^ Ramanuja (1962) p. 88
  32. ^ Ramanuja (1962) p. 424
  33. ^ Tapasyananda, S. (1982). Śrīmadbhāgavatam-Srimad Bhagavata, the Holy Book of God. Sri Ramakrishna Math, Madras. Page xxvi[unreliable source?]
  34. ^ see, Ganguli English translation of Mahabharata, Chapter 148, at http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/m13/m13b113.htm
  35. ^ For Sanskrit text and translation, see: Tapasyananda, Vishnu Sahasrnama, Ramakrishna Mission pp. 3-4.[unreliable source?]
  36. ^ Srivaishnavism
  37. ^ "Lord Narayan manifested himself as Lord Swaminarayan". 
  38. ^ Flood, G.D. (2006). The Tantric Body: The Secret Tradition of Hindu Religion. IB Tauris. ISBN 1-84511-012-9.  p.102-105 - describes Vasudeva-Krishna, (Krishna son of Vasudeva) as the source of all or as the same the ultimate reality, non-distinct from Vasudeva and other manifestations. Having a hundred-fold radiance of fire from whom all other forms of Purusha, Achuta and Satya emanate.
  39. ^ Flood p. 117
  40. ^ Vaishnava University of Cumbria website Retrieved on 5-21-2008
  41. ^ Graham M. Schweig (2005). Dance of Divine Love: The Rڄasa Lڄilڄa of Krishna from the Bhڄagavata Purڄa. na, India's classic sacred love story. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press. pp. Front Matter. ISBN 0-691-11446-3. 
  42. ^ Valpey, Kenneth Russell (2006). Attending Kṛṣṇa's image: Caitanya Vaiṣṇava mūrti-sevā as devotional truth. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-38394-3. Ch. 1
  43. ^ a b c d e Beck 2005, p. 39, page 39 'According to Orthodox Gaudiya. Krishnas svarupa, or true form manifests in three ways. His svayam-rupa or transcendent form is self-existent, not dependent on anything. His tadekatma rupa is identical in essence to his true form, though it differs in appearance (and would include such forms of Krishna as Narayana and Vasudeva). His avesa form has Krishna appearing though in varying degrees of possession'
  44. ^ Swami Prabhupada, A.C. Bhaktivedanta. "Sri Caitanya Caritamrta Madhya-lila Chapter 20 Verse 165". Bhaktivedanta Book Trust. Retrieved 2008-05-07. 
  45. ^ Rupa Goswami, Laghu-bhāgavatāmṛta (Pūrva-khaṇḍa,verse 12) Kusakrathadasa, 1990, Krsna Institute, ISBN 1-56130-008-X
    ananyāpekṣi yad rūpaṁ svayaṁ-rūpaḥ sa ucyate.
  46. ^ a b Srila Rupa Gosvami's Sri Laghu-Bhagavatamrta, Translated by Kusakrathadasa, 1990, Krsna Institute, ISBN 1-56130-008-X
  47. ^ Rupa Goswami, Laghu-bhāgavatāmṛta (Pūrva-khaṇḍa, verse 14)
    yad rūpaṁ tad-abhedena svarūpeṇa virājate
    ākṛtyādibhir anyādṛk sa tad-ekātma-rūpakaḥ
    “The tad-ekātma-rūpa forms exist simultaneously with the svayaṁ-rūpa form and are nondifferent. At the same time, their bodily features and specific activities appear to be different.” quoted in Swami Prabhupada, A.C. Bhaktivedanta. "Sri Caitanya Caritamrta Madhya-lila Chapter 20 Verse 165". Bhaktivedanta Book Trust. Retrieved 2008-05-07. 
  48. ^ Klaus K. Klostermaier, A Survey of Hinduism. Page 113, 1994, ISBN 0-7914-2109-0
  49. ^ Rg.10.082.06 Ralph T.H. Griffith, [1896] translates it "The waters, they received that germ primeval wherein the Gods were gathefed all together. It rested set upon the Unborn's navel, that One wherein abide all things existing."
  50. ^ a b c Gosvami, J.; Chatterjee, C. (1986). Srikrsnasandarbha and its critical study. Jadavpur University.  p xvii-xviii
  51. ^ a b BG 18.64 "sarva-guhya-tamam—the most confidential of all" Purport states : "This essence is not understood by a common man, but by one who is actually very dear to Kṛṣṇa"
  52. ^ Klostermaier, K. (1974). "The Bhaktirasamrtasindhubindu of Visvanatha Cakravartin". Journal of the American Oriental Society (American Oriental Society) 94 (1): 96–107. doi:10.2307/599733. JSTOR 599733. 
  53. ^ SB 2.9.35: yathā mahānti bhūtāni bhūteṣūccāvaceṣv anu praviṣṭāny apraviṣṭāni tathā teṣu na teṣv aham
  54. ^ Hiltebeitel, A. (1984). "The Two Krishnas on One Chariot: Upanisadic Imagery and Epic Mythology". History of Religions 24 (1): 1–26. doi:10.1086/462971. JSTOR 198408. 
  55. ^ Sivananda, S. (1958). God Exists. Yoga-Vedanta Forest University. Quote: “Aham” means “I” in Sanskrit. “Idam” means “this.”
  56. ^ "VEDA - Vedas and Vedic Knowledge Online - Vedic Encyclopedia, Bhakti-yoga in vedas, Library". www.veda.harekrsna.cz. Retrieved 2008-05-04. 
  57. ^ Caitanya Caritamrita 2.9.108
  58. ^ a b Jan, Marez. "VEDA - Vedas and Vedic Knowledge Online - Vedic Encyclopedia, Bhakti-yoga in vedas, Library". www.veda.harekrsna.cz. Retrieved 2008-05-04. 
  59. ^ a b Brzezinski, J.K. (1992). "Prabodhananda, Hita Harivamsa and the" Radharasasudhanidhi". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London 55 (3): 472–497. doi:10.1017/S0041977X00003669. JSTOR 620194. "identify Radha as the supreme Laksmi.."
  60. ^ Madhya 9.113-114: "Just to associate with Kṛṣṇa, Lakṣmī abandoned all transcendental happiness in Vaikuṇṭha and for a long time accepted vows and regulative principles and performed unlimited austerities."
  61. ^ SB 10.16.36
  62. ^ Brzezinski, J.K. (1992). "Prabodhananda Sarasvati: From Benares to Braj". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London 55 (1): 52–75. doi:10.1017/S0041977X00002640. JSTOR 620476. 
  63. ^ The Eleventh Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam describes Lord Mahāpuruṣa: bhūtair yadā pañcabhir ātma-sṛṣṭaiḥ puraṁ virājaṁ viracayya tasmin svāṁśena viṣṭaḥ puruṣābhidhānam avāpa nārāyaṇa ādi-devaḥ "When the primeval Lord Nārāyaṇa created His universal body out of the five elements produced from Himself, and then entered within that universal body by His own plenary portion, He thus became known as the Puruṣa.
  64. ^ "self-authenticating validity as the Veda, but their authenticity is nevertheless assured because the Veda bear witness to the omniscience of Vasudeva." p. 53-54, Flood. 2006
  65. ^ K Dasa, (2006). The Life and Teachings of Krishna dasa Baba. Retrieved 2008-04-13. 
  66. ^ Anand Karalapakkam, Bhakti List : Archives Wed Apr 19 2000. "krushNAstu bhagavAn swayam". www.ramanuja.org. Retrieved 2008-04-29. 
  67. ^ Dāsa, Gopīparāṇadhana; Sanātana Gosvāmī (2002). Śrī Brhad Bhāgavatāmrta of Śrīla Sanātana Gosvāmī: translated from the original Sanskrit, with a summary of the author's Dig-darśinī commentary. Los Angeles: Bhaktivedanta Book Trust. p. 920. ISBN 0-89213-345-7. 
  68. ^ Rig Veda 10.90
  69. ^ Matchett, Freda (2000). Krsna, Lord or Avatara? the relationship between Krsna and Visnu: in the context of the Avatara myth as presented by the Harivamsa, the Visnupurana and the Bhagavatapurana. Surrey: Routledge. p. 254. ISBN 0-7007-1281-X.  p. 5
  70. ^ Bhagavata Purana 3.13.23
  71. ^ Matchett 2000, p. 194bhagavan yajñapuruso
  72. ^ Matchett, Freda (2000). Krsna, Lord or Avatara? the relationship between Krsna and Visnu: in the context of the Avatara myth as presented by the Harivamsa, the Visnupurana and the Bhagavatapurana. Surrey: Routledge. p. 254. ISBN 0-7007-1281-X.  p.74-75
  73. ^
    etad visnoh paramam padam ye nityodyuktah samyajante na kaman
    tesam asau gopa-rupah prayatnat prakasayad atma-padam tadaiva- "To they who always diligently worship Lord Viṣṇu's transcendental form, the Lord, in His original form as a cowherd boy, shows His lotus feet."B. V. Tripurari (2004). Gopala-tapani Upanisad. Audarya Press. ISBN 1-932771-12-3. 
  74. ^ Krishna, the Lord of Love. Bábá Premánand Bhárati, 1904
  75. ^ Wood, Ernest (2008). Great Systems of Yoga (Forgotten Books). Forgotten Books. ISBN 1-60506-644-3.  "Once the sages came to the great Brahma and asked: 'Who is the supreme God?... He replied Shri Krishna verily is the supreme God. Death is afraid of Godinda."
  76. ^ Stephen Knapp (2005). The Heart of Hinduism: The Eastern Path to Freedom, Empowerment and Illumination. [United States]: iUniverse, Inc. ISBN 0-595-35075-5.  p.16: "the Krishna Upanishad that directly reveals that the most divine form of bliss dwells in the supremacy of love of Lord Krishna."
  77. ^
    gopa-rūpo hariḥ sakṣan maya-vigraha-dharaṇaḥ
    durbodhaṁ kuhakaṁ tasya mayayā mohitaṁ jagat
    durjayā sa suraiḥ sarvair dhṛṣṭi-rūpo bhaved dvijaḥ
    rudro yena kṛto vaṁsas tasya māyā jagat katham
    balaṁ janaṁ suraṇaṁ vai teṣāṁ janaṁ hṛtaṁ kṣaṇat
    śeṣa-nago bhaved ramaḥ kṛṣṇo brahmaiva sasvatam
    Vyasadeva, Baladevavidyabhusana (1992). Sri Krsna Upanisad and Other Vaisnava Upanisads. [United States]: Krsna Institute. ISBN 1-56130-078-0. 
  78. ^ Vyasadeva, Baladevavidyabhusana (1992). Sri Krsna Upanisad and Other Vaisnava Upanisads. [United States]: Krsna Institute. ISBN 1-56130-078-0. 
  79. ^ Cyclopædia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia, Edward Balfour. Published 1871, Scottish and Adelphi Presses. p.604: Krishna indeed, himself is Narayana;
  80. ^ The Hare Krishna Movement: The Postcharismatic Fate of a Religious Transplant, Edwin Bryant, Maria Ekstrand, 2004, 448 pages, Page 151: known as Narayana and is served in awe and reverence. However, when his beauty and sweetness (madhurya) overshadow his majesty, he is known as Krishna...
  81. ^ Matchett 2000, p. 2
  82. ^ Gupta, Ravi M. (2007). Caitanya Vaisnava Vedanta of Jiva Gosvami. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-40548-3. 
  83. ^ Matchett 2000, p. 153Bhag. Purana 1.3.28
    ete cāṁśa-kalāḥ puṁsaḥ kṛṣṇas tu bhagavān svayam :indrāri-vyākulaṁ lokaṁ mṛḍayanti yuge yuge
  84. ^ 1.3.28 Swami Prabhupada, A.C. Bhaktivedanta. "Srimad Bhagavatam Canto 1 Chapter 3 Verse 28". Bhaktivedanta Book Trust. Retrieved 2008-05-07. 
  85. ^ "Sri Krishna". www.stephen-knapp.com. Retrieved 2008-04-30. 
  86. ^ Dhanurdhara Swami (2000). Waves of Devotion. Bhagavat Books. ISBN 0-9703581-0-5.  - "Waves of Devotion". www.wavesofdevotion.com. Retrieved 2008-05-04. In Hari-namamr†a-vyakarana, Jiva Gosvami defines paribhasa-sutra as aniyame niyama-karini paribhasa: “A paribhasa-sutra implies a rule or theme where it is not explicitly stated.” In other words, it gives the context in which to understand a series of apparently unrelated statements in a book.
  87. ^ Matchett 2000, p. 141
  88. ^ Bg 9.22
  89. ^ "VNN Editorial - 'Uttarayana', The Path Of Light And Darkness". www.vnn.org. Retrieved 2008-05-03. 
  90. ^ B. V. Tripurari (2004). Gopala-tapani Upanisad. Audarya Press. ISBN 1-932771-12-3. Śrī Gopāla Tapanī bhāśya 1.1:
    gopala-tapanim naumi ya krsnam svayam isvaram
    kara-stharava-sankasam sandarsayati sad-dhiyah
  91. ^ Gosvami, J.; Dasa, S.N.; Dasa, K.; Dasa, K.; Dasa, G.; Dasa, D. (1995). Sri Tattva-sandarbha: The First Book of the Sri Bhagavata-Sandarbha Also Known as Sri-sandarbha. Jiva Institute for Vaisnava Studies. 
  92. ^ a b
    krsno vai paramam daivatam govindan mrtyur bibheti
    gopijanavallabha-jnanena taj jnatam bhavati svahayedam samsarati
  93. ^ alternative translation of Gopala-tapani Upanisad
  94. ^ SB 3.2.11
  95. ^ Chaitanya Charitamrita Adi 3.10
  96. ^ Rosen, S.J. (2006). Essential Hinduism. Praeger Publishers. 
  97. ^ Svähä is the mantra by which offerings are made into the sacrificial fire.5 It is derived from the root ä(hu with the prefix su meaning “well-done,” meaning “according to the vidhi.” This etymology is tentatively accepted by Monier-Williams. The verb root vah is only used in the perfect tense. “to say, speak, state.” Monier-Williams gives the following meanings for svähä: “hail! hail to! May a blessing rest on” As a noun: “an oblation, oblation personified.” Both svähuti and svähväna are found in Rg.
  98. ^ Matchett 2000, p. 184
  99. ^ om namo bhagavate sarva-bhutatmane vasudevaya sarvatma-samyoga-yoga-padma-pithatmane namah - "I offer my respectful obeisances unto Lord Vasudeva, the all-pervading Supreme Personality of Godhead who resides in His own transcendental abode, which resembles a lotus flower."
  100. ^
    karnikayam likhed vahni-
    putitam mandala-dvayam
    tasya madhye likhed bijam
    sadhyakhyam karma samyutam
  101. ^ Cult, P.C.S. (1927). "An Introduction To The Post-chaitanya Sahajia Cult". Journal.  - refers to Kama Gayatri in the practice of Post-chaitanya Sahajia Cult and orthodox Gaudiya.
  102. ^ Mukherjee, P. (1979). History of the Chaitanya Faith in Orissa. Manohar.  refers to practice of Gopal mantra and its significance
  103. ^ Rosen, S.J. (2004). "Who Is Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu?". The Hare Krishna Movement: the Postcharismatic Fate of a Religious Transplant (Columbia University Press). ISBN 978-0-231-12256-6. Retrieved 2008-04-19. "he was given the ten-syllable Gopala mantra, a confidential incantation"
  104. ^ Chapter: Krishna and His Cult. Krishna Theatre in India By M.L. Varalpande, p.6; 2002. ISBN 81-7017-151-2
  105. ^ Banerjea, 1966, page 20
  106. ^ a b Doniger, Wendy (1993). Purāṇa perennis: reciprocity and transformation in Hindu and Jaina texts. Albany, N.Y: State University of New York Press. p. 331. ISBN 0-7914-1381-0. p.210-212
  107. ^ a b A Corpus of Indian Studies: Essays in Honour of Professor Gaurinath Sastri, Page 150, 1980 - 416 pages.
  108. ^ Page 76 of 386 pages: The Bhagavata religion with the worship of Vasudeva Krishna as the ... of Vasudeva Krishna and they are the direct forerunners of Vaisnavism in India.Ehrenfels, U.R. (1953). "The University Of Gauhati". Dr. B. Kakati Commemoration Volume. 
  109. ^ Page 98: In the Mahabharata, Vasudeva-Krishna is identified with the highest God.Mishra, Y.K. (1977). Socio-economic and Political History of Eastern India. Distributed by DK Publishers' Distributors. 
  110. ^ Vaidisa, B.; Wessanagar, V.; Others, (1987). "The Impact Of Vaisnavism—excavated Remains From Vidisha (mp)". Vaisnavism in Indian Arts and Culture: Collected Papers of the University Grants Commission National Seminar on" Impact of Vaisnavism on the Indian Arts". 
  111. ^ bhaktiḥ | 4.3.96 acittāt adeśakālāt ṭhak | 4.3.97 mahārājāt ṭhañ | 4.3.98 vāsudeva arjunābhyāṁ vun | Panini 4.3.95
  112. ^ Singh, R.R. (2007). Bhakti And Philosophy. Lexington Books. ISBN 0-7391-1424-7.  p. 10: "[Panini's] term Vaasudevaka, explained by the second century B.C commentator Patanjali, as referring to "the follower of Vasudeva, God of gods."
  113. ^ Bhag.P. 2.7.21: dhanvantariś ca bhagavān svayam eva kīrtir nāmnā nṛṇāṁ puru-rujāṁ ruja āśu hanti yajñe ca bhāgam amṛtāyur-avāvarundha āyuṣya-vedam anuśāsty avatīrya loke. The Lord in His incarnation of Dhanvantari very quickly cures the diseases of the ever-diseased living entities simply by his fame personified, and only because of him do the demigods achieve long lives. Thus the Personality of Godhead becomes ever glorified. He also exacted a share from the sacrifices, and it is he only who inaugurated the medical science or the knowledge of medicine in the universe.
  114. ^ Bhag. P. 5.24.27: tasyānucaritam upariṣṭād vistariṣyate yasya bhagavān svayam akhila-jagad-gurur nārāyaṇo dvāri gadā-pāṇir avatiṣṭhate nija-janānukampita-hṛdayo yenāṅguṣṭhena padā daśa-kandharo yojanāyutāyutaṁ dig-vijaya uccāṭitaḥ. Śukadeva Gosvāmī continued: My dear King, how shall I glorify the character of Bali Mahārāja? The Supreme Personality of Godhead, the master of the three worlds, who is most compassionate to His own devotee, stands with club in hand at Bali Mahārāja's door. When Rāvaṇa, the powerful demon, came to gain victory over Bali Mahārāja, Vāmanadeva kicked him a distance of eighty thousand miles with His big toe. I shall explain the character and activities of Bali Mahārāja later [in the Eighth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam].
  115. ^ Bhag. P. 7.1.1 samaḥ priyaḥ suhṛd brahman bhūtānāṁ bhagavān svayam indrasyārthe kathaṁ daityān avadhīd viṣamo yathā King Parīkṣit inquired: My dear brāhmaṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Viṣṇu, being everyone's well-wisher, is equal and extremely dear to everyone. How, then, did He become partial like a common man for the sake of Indra and thus kill Indra's enemies? How can a person equal to everyone be partial to some and inimical toward others?
  116. ^ Bhag. P. 8.5.4 patnī vikuṇṭhā śubhrasya vaikuṇṭhaiḥ sura-sattamaiḥ tayoḥ sva-kalayā jajñe vaikuṇṭho bhagavān svayam From the combination of Śubhra and his wife, Vikuṇṭhā, there appeared the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Vaikuṇṭha, along with demigods who were His personal plenary expansions.
  117. ^ "In that devotional liberation the spiritual senses of the spiritual form of the liberated soul are filled. There Lord Krishna, the original Supreme Personality of Godhead, enjoys blissful pastimes." Amnaya Sutra 3.5 Sampatti-prakarana, Sutra 114

References[edit]

  • Elkman, S.M.; Gosvami, J. (1986). Jiva Gosvamin's Tattvasandarbha: A Study on the Philosophical and Sectarian Development of the Gaudiya Vaisnava Movement. Motilal Banarsidass Pub. 
  • Flood, G.D. (2006). The Tantric Body: The Secret Tradition of Hindu Religion. IB Tauris. ISBN 1-84511-012-9. 
  • Kennedy, M.T. (1925). The Chaitanya Movement: A Study of the Vaishnavism of Bengal. H. Milford, Oxford university press. 
  • Ramanuja; George Thibaut (trans.) (1962). The Vedanta Sutras with the Commentary by Ramanuja. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. 
  • Richard Thompson, Ph. D. (December 1994). Reflections on the Relation Between Religion and Modern Rationalism. Retrieved 2008-04-12. 
  • Gupta, Ravi M. (2004). Caitanya Vaisnava Vedanta: Acintyabhedabheda in Jiva Gosvami's Catursutri tika. University Of Oxford. 
  • Gupta, Ravi M. (2007). Caitanya Vaisnava Vedanta of Jiva Gosvami's Catursutri tika. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-40548-3. 
  • Ganguli, K.M. (1883–1896). The Mahabharata of Krishna Dwaipayana Vyasa. Kessinger Publishing. 
  • Kaviraja, K.; Prabhupada, A.C.B.S.; Bhaktivedanta, A.C. (1974). Sri Caitanya-Caritamrta of Krsnadasa Kaviraja. Bhaktivedanta Book Trust. 
  • S.D. Goswami (1998). The Qualities of Sri Krsna. GNPress. pp. 152 pages. ISBN 0-911233-64-4. 
  • Garuda Pillar of Besnagar, Archaeological Survey of India, Annual Report (1908–1909). Calcutta: Superintendent of Government Printing, 1912, 129.
  • Rowland Jr, B. (1935). "Notes on Ionic Architecture in the East". American Journal of Archaeology (Archaeological Institute of America) 39 (4): 489–496. doi:10.2307/498156. JSTOR 498156. 
  • Delmonico, N. (2004). "The History Of Indic Monotheism And Modern Chaitanya Vaishnavism". The Hare Krishna Movement: the Postcharismatic Fate of a Religious Transplant (Columbia University Press). ISBN 978-0-231-12256-6. Retrieved 2008-04-12. 
  • Mahony, W.K. (1987). "Perspectives on Krsna's Various Personalities". History of Religions 26 (3): 333–335. doi:10.1086/463085. JSTOR 1062381. 
  • D Hudson (1993). "Vasudeva Krsna in Theology and Architecture: A Background to Srivaisnavism". Journal of Vaisnava Studies (2). 
  • Matchett, Freda (2000). Krsna, Lord or Avatara? the relationship between Krsna and Visnu: in the context of the Avatara myth as presented by the Harivamsa, the Visnupurana and the Bhagavatapurana. Surrey: Routledge. p. 254. ISBN 0-7007-1281-X. 
  • Valpey, Kenneth Russell (2006). Attending Kṛṣṇa's image: Caitanya Vaiṣṇava mūrti-sevā as devotional truth. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-38394-3. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]