Svetly, Kaliningrad Oblast

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Svetly (English)
Светлый (Russian)
-  Town  -
Map of Russia - Kaliningrad Oblast (2008-03).svg
Location of Kaliningrad Oblast in Russia
Svetly is located in Kaliningrad Oblast
Svetly
Svetly
Location of Svetly in Kaliningrad Oblast
Coordinates: 54°40′39″N 20°07′54″E / 54.67750°N 20.13167°E / 54.67750; 20.13167Coordinates: 54°40′39″N 20°07′54″E / 54.67750°N 20.13167°E / 54.67750; 20.13167
Coat of Arms of Svetly (Kaliningrad oblast).png
Coat of arms
Administrative status (as of November 2011)
Country Russia
Federal subject Kaliningrad Oblast
Administratively subordinated to town of oblast significance of Svetly[1]
Administrative center of town of oblast significance of Svetly[1]
Municipal status (as of July 2009)
Urban okrug Svetlovsky Urban Okrug[2]
Administrative center of Svetlovsky Urban Okrug[2]
Leader[citation needed] Lyutarevich Sergei Nikolaevich[citation needed]
Statistics
Area 26 km2 (10 sq mi)[citation needed]
Population (2010 Census) 21,375 inhabitants[3]
Density 822 /km2 (2,130 /sq mi)[4]
Time zone USZ1 (UTC+03:00)[5]
Founded 1640[citation needed]
Town status since 1955[citation needed]
Postal code(s)[6] 238340, 238741
Dialing code(s) +7 401 52[citation needed]
Svetly on WikiCommons

Svetly (Russian: Све́тлый; German: Zimmerbude; Lithuanian: Cimerbūdė; Polish: Buda), prior to 1945 known by its German name Zimmerbude, is a town in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the coast of Vistula Lagoon 30 kilometers (19 mi) west of Kaliningrad. Population: 21,375 (2010 Census);[3] 21,745 (2002 Census);[7] 19,936 (1989 Census).[8]

Geography[edit]

Town is located on the shore of Kaliningrad sea shipping channel connecting Kaliningrad with Baltic Sea, 30 km from Kaliningrad. Svetly is situated on the Samland Peninsula.

History[edit]

The settlement has existed since 1640 and was called Tsimmerbude (hour shop). It was one of the small villages of East Prussia. For a long time the main occupation of the villagers was fishing.

The first mention of its predecessor, Tsimmerbude, dates back to the 15th-century chronicle of a German knight of the Order. But earlier, in Fishhauzen manuscript 1305 and (Germany), mention of the peninsula Payziev ("Poyzart" - the area in the forest Poyz), by which in the first half of the 13th century German knights invaded the land Prussians. No filed ramparts of the castle once stood here "Royal Manor fishing", erected in the middle of the 15th century and belonged Samland first bishop. After the confiscation of church property to the estate passed into the possession of Oswald von Taubenhaym, which belonged to the most illustrious nobility and owned Zemland Tsimmerbude until 1661 as well.

In 1669 at the manor was given to the former tutor of King Frederick I Ebenhard Dankelman background as a reward.

About 1720 and Tsimmerbude included, along with 16 plots of land, 12 peasants and about the same number of fishermen whose main occupation was fishing, mainly for their own needs.

Gradually lock destroyed time and waters of the Gulf, but the memory of it still continued to live in any generation.

After the castle ceased to exist for a long time villagers eked out a miserable existence. Were poor, fed by fishing, which has never provided them nourishing life. Apart from a few acidified meadows they had no land, and therefore almost never held cattle. Their home were extremely cramped and dirty, smoke coming out of the centers through kamyshoyve roof sagged and a thick layer of soot on the walls through the kitchen. Long winter evenings in the huts burning torch, making the faces of the inhabitants were constantly black. Clothes spun, wove, and sewed himself. This adds another life flood, which were repeated from year to year.

Important role in the life of the village occupied religion: conducting religious rites, services, etc. For a long time there was no Tsimmerbude in his church and the village belonged to the parish church Medena (Logvino). But because of bad roads to visit the church in Medena villagers could only a few times in my life, there was baptized children, married, went on the biggest holidays in good weather. The rest of the strongly expressed religious feelings of people meet as a church sermons, which were held in the school building. And from April 1, 1901 and Tsimmerbude with neighboring villages and Payziev Nepleken 1500 residents formed their own church community and bought a small church, which two years earlier Medena built in Tsimmerbude as its branch.

In the 1920s, Tsimmerbude built a new school. Even before World War II, Tsimmerbude was a pretty busy, though small, village. There was a shop, restaurant, bakery, and a hotel called Valdshloskhen, which translates as "Forest castle house". There was also a church. Number of pre-war inhabitants Tsimmerbude was 742 people.

During World War II directly to the modern city of Bright military action did not pass. War for Tsimmerbude ended in April 1945 and, leaving extensive damage.

In 1947 at Tsimmerbude was renamed to the Svetly. June 17, 1947 and decreeth Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR as part of the Primorsky district was formed with the Countryside Council center in the village Svetly (former settlement Tsimmerbude) that decision Kaliningrad Oblast Executive Committee for the number 758 of 1 August 1949 and was converted into a working village Svetly. October 6, 1955 and the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the working village was transformed into a Svetly, town Svetly district subordination, which since the 2008 and the center of the municipality "Svetlovsky Borough".

Payziev[edit]

The fishing village Payziev was founded in the early 14th century, after Bishop Bartholomew introduced right away to start a new settlement in Samland.

For centuries, the villagers were very Payziev modest existence, since life in the village was standing alone difficult.

Population data for Payziev:

  • 1831 - 209 people
  • 1844 - 305 people
  • 1858 - 361 people
  • 1944 - 2196 people

In the late 30s of the last century[clarification needed] there were three small Payziev hotel, store, bakery and butchers. There was also a sports community. Especially people addicted football.

In 1894 in the construction of the channel Konigsberg - Pillau, which lasted until 1901 as well. After dumping spit water near villages calmed down in the fishing villages were raised bridge, nestled harbor equipped with signal station. Then built power-station, opened railroad with station. All this has led to a revival of life in towns and improve their welfare.

Climate[edit]

The climate is influenced by the prevailing air mass with Atlantic Ocean to the mainland and is characterized as a transition to the sea with mild winters with little snow, relatively cold spring, moderately warm summers and warm wet autumn. The average annual air temperature is +6.8 °C. Absolute variation ranges from 35 °C in July or August to -33 °C in January or February.

The average temperature in January is 3.4 °C. There are 86 days per year with frost. Severe frosts are rare. The warmest period - the month of July, when the average temperature is 17.5 °C. In general, unstable weather patterns and is associated mainly with a predominance of marine air masses with high repeatability accompanying cyclones (storms).

Moist air masses coming from the Atlantic Ocean, cause high relative humidity, which is winter and fall 85-87 %, decreasing by early summer to 72-73%. High humidity and a large cloudy significantly affect the features (reduction) of the Svetly regime.

During the year, is celebrated around 150 overcast and only 30 clear days. In an average year recorded 74 days with fogs, mainly fogs in winter. They are accompanied by drizzle, rain and snow. And annual rainfall of up to 700–750 mm of rainfall, most of them in the warmer months. The maximum is in the month of August - up to 90 mm, at least - in February - March. In the winter months falls only 8-10% of annual precipitation. Snow depth is small - 13–18 cm.

The study area generally refers to the area of active wind activity. The wind regime is characterized by a predominance of winds south, western areas with a repeatability of 35%, as well as the southern and south -eastern areas with a repeatability of 23%. The average annual wind speed is 3.7 m/s. Has the highest rate of wind. In winter, its average speed is 5.5 m/s. The number of days with strong winds (storms) at speeds exceeding 15 m/s up to 10–15 days.

Population[edit]

According to the census 1989 and to a bright living 19,936 people, including 9,253 men and 10,683 women.

The median age - 35 years. The economically active population is 13.5 thousand people (2008).

Education[edit]

Children's music school.
  • Secondary school № 1
  • Secondary school № 3
  • Secondary school № 5

Total number of students - 2.6 thousands.

Economy[edit]

  • "Lukoil - Kaliningradmorneft": oil terminal (storage, transfer of liquid petroleum products), steel plant (production of marine steel structures);
  • JSC "Sodrujestvo -Soja" - deep processing of oil-bearing crops;
  • JSC "Jantarenergo" (GRES - 2) - heat production;
  • LLC «Vivo-Porte» - production of interior doors;
  • OOO "Optim - Kran" - production support and overhead cranes;
  • OOO "Regio - Express" - passenger transport;
  • Rybkolhoz "Za Rodinu" - fishing and fish processing;
  • JSC "Svetly predprijatie "Era" - produces electrical work, repair of electrical equipment, electrical parameter measurements, ship repair river and maritime registers;
  • OGUP "Zapremmash" - ship repair and manufacturing, fish processing equipment;
  • JSC "Mezhkolhoznaja proizvodstvennaja baza" - ship repair, port services, maintenance and supply of the fishing fleet;
  • JSC "Sudoremontnik Baltica" - ship repair, port services;
  • JSC "BaltNafta" - handling of oil products;
  • OOO "Kreon" - shredding fish canned;

Transport[edit]

The station is located in svetly Baltic Forest Kaliningrad railway. The station belongs to a dead-end branch branched from the railway line Kaliningrad - Baltiysk. As of 2009 Svetly is not served by passenger trains. Distance to Kaliningrad - 27.5 km, airport Hrabrovo - 38 km.

Shuttle Bus Service: Bus № 105 and № 108 and taxis, motor company "Regio -Express" (winner of the All-Russian Prize "Golden Chariot"). Cost - 54 rubles to Kaliningrad, 9 rubles - in town. Also since August 2012 goes № 307 (Svetly - Baltiysk). Cost - 60 rubles.

In August 2008, construction began on the motorway Maritime Ring, which will have to tap Svetly.

Sights[edit]

  • Church of the Annunciation
  • Temple of the Holy Great Martyr Barbara.
  • Monument to Lenin.
  • Monument to soldiers-internationalists.
  • Monument to the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident.
  • Church of the Apostles Paul and Gleb.

Notable residents and natives of Svetly[edit]

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

Svetly is twinned with:

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Resolution #639
  2. ^ a b Law #423
  3. ^ a b "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  4. ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
  5. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  6. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Russian)
  7. ^ "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  8. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  9. ^ "Strony w dziale". Frombork. Retrieved 4 May 2014. 

Sources[edit]

  • Правительство Калининградской области. Постановление №640 от 30 августа 2011 г. «Об утверждении реестра объектов административно-территориального деления Калининградской области», в ред. Постановления №877 от 21 ноября 2011 г «О внесении изменения в Постановление Правительства Калининградской области от 30 августа 2011 г. №640». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Калининградская правда" (вкладыш "Официально"), №170, 15 сентября 2011 г. (Government of Kaliningrad Oblast. Resolution #640 of August 30, 2011 On the Adoption of the Registry of the Objects of the Administrative-Territorial Divisions of Kaliningrad Oblast, as amended by the Resolution #877 of November 21, 2011 On Amending the Resolution of the Government of Kaliningrad Oblast #640 of August 30, 2011. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
  • Калининградская областная Дума. Закон №423 от 11 октября 2004 г. «О наделении муниципального образования "Светловский городской округ" статусом городского округа», в ред. Закона №370 от 1 июля 2009 г «О составе территорий муниципальных образований Калининградской области». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская газета" ("Запад России"), №236, 26 октября 2004 г. (Kaliningrad Oblast Duma. Law #423 of October 11, 2004 On Granting the Urban Okrug Status to the Municipal Formation of "Svetlovsky Urban Okrug", as amended by the Law #370 of July 1, 2009 On the Composition of the Territories of the Municipal Formations of Kaliningrad Oblast. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).