Swathi Thirunal Rama Varma

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This article is about the king from the royal dynasty of Travancore. For the 1987 Indian film, see Swathi Thirunal (film).
Svāti Tirunāḷ‍ Rāma Varma
Maharaja of Travancore
SREE PADMANABHADASA SWATHI THIRUNAL.JPG
Reign 1829-1846
Coronation 1813
Investiture 1829
Full name Śrī Padmanābhādāsa Śrī Vañcipāla Śrī Rāmavarma Kulaśēkhara Kirīṭapati Mannēy Suttā Rāja Rāmarāja Bahadūr Ṣanṣēr Jang, Tiruvitāṅkūḷ Mahārājāv
Born (1813-04-16)April 16, 1813
Birthplace Travancore
Died December 27, 1846(1846-12-27) (aged 33)
Place of death Travancore
Predecessor Gowri Parvati Bayi
Uthram Thirunal
Successor Uthram Thirunal
Consort Thiruvattar Ammachi Aykutty Panapillai Amma Srimathi Narayani Pillai Kochamma
Issue Thiruvattar Chithira Nal Ananthapadmanabhan Chempakaraman Thampi
Royal house Travancore royal family
Dynasty Kulasekhara
Royal anthem Vanji bhoomi
Royal motto Dharmoasmad Kuladaivatham
Father Changanassery Laxmipuram Palace Raja Raja Varma Koil Thampuran
Mother Gowri Lakshmi Bayi
Religious beliefs Hinduism

Svāti Tirunāḷ‍ Rāma Varma (Malayalam: സ്വാതി തിരുനാള്‍ രാമവർമ്മ, Tamil: ஸ்ரீ சுவாதி திருநாள் ராம வர்மா; April 16, 1813 – December 27, 1846) was the Maharaja of the state of Travancore, India. A well-formulated code of laws, courts of Justice, introduction of English education, construction of an observatory, installation of the first Government printing press, establishment of the first manuscripts library were amongst the many initiatives taken by Svāti Tirunāḷ‍ to modernise Travancore. Efficiency was the key word and corruption a taboo.[1]

Early life[edit]

Svāti Tirunāḷ‍ Rama Varma with his father Raja Raja Varma Koil Thampuran

Svāti Tirunāḷ‍ was born into the Chera dynasty of the royal family of Travancore, which is now a part of Kerala, on April 16, 1813. He was the second child of Queen Gowri Lakshmi Bayi who ruled Travancore from 1811–15, and Rajaraja Varma Koyi Thampuran of Changanasseri Palace. While in the womb itself, he was proclaimed King and was referred to as Garbha Sreemaan. He reigned under the regency of his mother from 1813–15 and then under the regency of his maternal aunt Gowri Parvati Bayi until 1829. When he was just four months old, his mother invited Colonel Munro, representative of the East India Company, and his officials and declared in the Durbar that she was entrusting the East India Company with the care of her child and expected the Company to cooperate with him in future.

In 1829 Svāti Tirunāḷ‍ reached majority at 16 and assumed full powers of ruler and reigned as the Maharajah of Travancore until his death in 1846. He had an elder sister, Rukmini Bai, whose children ascended the Travancore musnud consecutively. Her only daughter was the mother of Moolam Thirunal. He had a younger brother, Uthram Thirunal Marthanda Varma, who succeeded him in 1846 and ruled Travancore until his demise in 1860.

Irayimman Thampi, the famous poet-composer wrote perhaps the most famous Malayalam lullaby Omanathinkal Kidavo (ഓമനത്തിങ്കള്‍ക്കിടാവോ), about Svāti Tirunāḷ‍ when he was born.

Education[edit]

Both his aunt/foster mother, who was well-versed in music, and his father, a Sanskrit scholar. took special care about his education. Col. Munro also is said to have taken a keen interest in his education. He started learning Malayalam and Sanskrit at the age of six and English at the age of seven. The young Prince studied several languages, including Malayalam, Kannada, Tamil, Hindustani, Telugu, Marathi, Sanskrit, English and Persian. He impressed all his teachers, and even guests from abroad, with his keen understanding of not only languages but also other subjects like geometry. P. Sankunni Menon (A History of Travancore from the Earliest Times, 1878) records an incident between young Svāti Tirunāḷ‍ and Col. Welsh, a visiting British officer, that the word geometry and words like hexagon, heptagon and so on were derived from Sanskrit. Colonel Welsh summed up the boy King's genius as follows :

Swati Tirunal, now thirteen… took up a book of mathematics and selecting the forty seventh proposition of Euclid sketched the figure on a country slate but what astonished me most was his telling us in English that Geometry was derived from the Sanskrit, which as Jaw metor (Jyamiti) to measure the earth and that many of our mathematical terms were also derived from the same source such as hexagon, heptagon, octagon… This promising boy is now, I conclude, sovereign of the finest country in India for he was to succeed to the Musnud (throne) the moment he had attained his 16th year.[2]

As a Ruler[edit]

Kuthira Malika, Thiruvananthapuram, constructed by Maharajah Svāti Tirunāḷ‍

Svāti Tirunāḷ‍ took over the reins of Travancore from his aunt (She was the regent for Svāti Tirunāḷ‍ in his boyhood) at the age of sixteen. He appointed his teacher Subbarao as the chief minister (Diwan). One of his first moves was to shift the government secretariat from Kollam (about seventy five kilometres away) to Thiruvananthapuram. This enabled him to give personal attention to government affairs. He took steps to curb corruption in the government, and told even the Diwan to resign when he heard that the Diwan had acted to favour a particular party in a land dispute. He started an English school in Thiruvananthapuram in 1834, which came to be called the Maharajah's Government Free School and later became Maharajah's High School and then Maharajah's College. It is now the University College. Later, similar schools were started at many other places. He also implemented reforms in the legal sector, starting Munsif, District and Appellate Courts and modernising laws. He identified one Kandan Menon from Malabar and appointed him as Huzoor Diwan Peshkar to bring about legal reforms. Another of his achievements was to settle many land disputes by carrying out a resurvey of the land, in which also Menon helped him. He also conducted the first census of the state in 1836. As per the census, the population of Travancore was 128, 068. Svāti Tirunāḷ‍ was also instrumental in bringing modern medicine to the state. He appointed a European as the palace physician. He was also given the responsibility of providing medical assistance to local people, for which hospitals were started. It is this post that was known as Surgeon General till the formation of Kerala State. He also started an engineering department, which was placed under the command of one Lieutenant Horsley. The Karamana bridge was built at that time. Another area where Svāti Tirunāḷ‍ took interest was in astronomy. He wished to compare Western findings with Indian knowledge. For this, he invited Caldecott, an industrial representative who lived in Alapuzha, who used to make instruments for astronomical observations. Finding that there was much common between western and Indian knowledge about the universe, Svāti Tirunāḷ‍ started an observatory and placed Caldecott in charge. Started in 1837, some of the equipment is still to be seen at the Thiruvananthapuram observatory (now under the Department of Physics, University of Kerala). Maharajah Svāti Tirunāḷ‍ put an end to the barbaric punishment called the 'SUCHINDRAM KAIMUKKU' According to which the accused was forced to prove his innocence by dipping his hand in boiled ghee at Suchindram temple,and he was punished if the hand get burnt. He is also credited with starting the first government press (the only press at that time was CMS Press in Kottayam). Trivandrum Public Library (now State Central Library) and the Oriental Manuscript Library were started by Svāti Tirunāḷ‍, the Museum and Zoo in Thiruvananthapuram as well. The Maharajah was also an honorary member of the Royal Asiatic Society from 1843.[3]

A report on the English schools in Travancore appeared in The Gardner’s Magazine of 1841, wrote about the administrative reforms brought in by Maharajah Svāti Tirunāḷ‍:

Rajah of Travancore, the great promoter of science in the East, was only twenty-eight years of age, and had not reigned more than ten years, yet, during that short period, he had caused himself to be distinguished by his accomplishments as well as by his' liberality. They would, no doubt, be interested in learning that this prince was educated by his prime minister— a rare tutor for a sovereign. The Rajah had established schools within his dominions—he had established a mathematical school under English superintendence; but he had done more—he had done what, he was sorry to say, had neither been done in England, Scotland, nor Ireland—be had established a school in every village of his dominions— and be gave education to every child, male and female — a change in Indian customs that might lead to the happiest results. He was informed, on good authority, that there was not a child who had reached eight years of age not capable of reading and writing; but this distinguished prince, not satisfied with advancing the .interests of elementary education, had established an observatory, and placed in it an English gentleman, a member of the Royal Society of London, and who was in that room — he meant Mr. Caldecott. In this observatory, observations were carried on with the same success as under British interests. The Rajah had also established a magnetical and meteorological observatory, having being led to do so by becoming acquainted with a report on Meteorology, published by the British Association. And the observations taken there were found to be as accurate as those taken in Edinburgh, Philadelphia, and other places.

Contributions to Music and Literature[edit]

Svāti Tirunāḷ‍ was deeply interested in music right from childhood. Besides being an able ruler, he was a patron of music and was a musician himself. Researchers say that Svāti Tirunāḷ‍ affixed his compositions with the mudra ‘Padmanabha’ and its synonyms. His education in music started with the first lessons from Karamana Subrahmania Bhagavathar and Karamana Padmanabha Bhagavathar. Later, he studied music from the then English scholar, Thanjavur Subba Rao as well. He continued to learn music by listening to accomplished musicians and practicing himself. He encouraged both broad systems of Indian music, Hindustani and Carnatic music, though he was essentially a connoisseur of the Carnatic music tradition. He is credited with composing over 400 compositions[4] in Carnatic and Hindustani music. Some of his favorite compositions were Padmanabha Pahi, Deva Deva, Sarasijanabha and Sree Ramana Vibho. Svāti Tirunāḷ‍ was fluent in a number of languages including Malayalam, Sanskrit, Marathi, Telugu, Kannada, Hindustani,[5][6] Bengali, Tamil, Oriya and English. This was a period when music and art were thriving in many parts of south India. The triumvirate of Carnatic music, Tyagaraja (1767–1847), Syama Sastri (1762–1827) and Muthuswami Dikshitar (1775–1835), lived and enriched music during this period. Svāti Tirunāḷ‍'s palace also was home to many musicians and artistes of the period, including the famous Thanjavur Quartet brothers, Tyagaraja's disciple Kannayya Bhagavathar, Ananthapadmanabha Goswami (a Maharashtrian singer known as Kokilakanthameru swami), Shadkala Govinda Marar, and many others.

The literary works of Maharajah Svāti Tirunāḷ‍ include Bhakti Manjari, Syanandurapuravarnana Prabandham, Padmanabhasatakam, Muhanaprasa Antyaprasa Vyavastha, Ajamila, Kuchela Upakhyanas and Utsava Varnana Prabandha.[7]

Family[edit]

In 1829, at the age of sixteen, Maharajah Svāti Tirunāḷ‍ married[8] Thiruvattar Panapillai Amma Srimathi Ayikutty Narayani Pillai Kochamma, a famed beauty, of the Thiruvattar Ammaveedu family. She was an expert carnatic singer and Veena player.[9] Together they had three children but in 1839 Narayani Pillai Kochamma died, leaving behind a son, Thiruvattar Chithira Nal Ananthapadmanabhan Chempakaraman Thampi. A few months later, for the care of the baby, the Maharajah married another lady called Neelamma by adopting her into the Thiruvattar Ammaveedu.[10] Narayani Pillai's sister was married to the Maharajah's brother and successor Uthram Thirunal. He later married Sundara Lakshmi in 1843, a Saiva Mudaliar dancer, after adopting her into Vadasseri Ammaveedu. The story of the dancer Sugandhavalli who didn't get along with the King's first wife, Narayani Pillai Kochamma, has been disproved by R.P. Raja. as nothing but fiction, in his research treatise New Light on Swathi Thirunal. In 1845 the King constructed the Thanjavur Ammaveedu. Sundara Lakshmi, a great devotee of Lord Ganapati and Kanjirottu Yakshi Amma, resided there until her death in 1856.

Death[edit]

As a monarch, Svāti Tirunāḷ‍ was incredibly hardworking and supremely committed to his kingdom and people. The appointment of General Cullen as the Resident of Travancore, was the beginning of the end for the Maharajah. Historian P. Shungoony Menon wrote, Cullen assumed almost sovereign authority. Such was his oppressive intrusion in the administration. The king was made totally powerless. Compounding this atrocity was the machinations of his aide Krishna Rao, who schemed with Cullen for his own personal gain. What ever the reason, the Resident's intrusion in the administration was unbearable for the young King. To compound his problems, the deaths of his elder sister, father, wife and all three children (Narayani's) made the Maharajah distraught. He increasingly sought silence and solitude, weakening his mind and body. Thus, at the young age of 33, the King of Travancore passed away on December 27, 1846, at 3 a.m..[11]

The demise of Maharajah Svāti Tirunāḷ‍ attracted the attention of even the foreign press. Allen’s Indian Mail and Register of Intelligence of British &Foreign India, China, & All Parts of the East wrote, Both intellectually and morally, he was indeed far beyond his country and equals in rank; in both respects he might have taken a high place among the most enlightened of European Sovereigns had his destiny been so cast. You will be grieved to learn about the demise of His Highness the Rajah of Travancore. Among the native princes of India, he was distinguished for his superior intelligence and extensive acquirements in oriental literature. He is not unknown to fame in the European world, for most of you must be aware that the deceased Rajah maintained an observatory at considerable expense, and that MR Caldecott was for a length of time, his highness’s astronomer.The ephemeris emanating from the Travancore observatory was a valuable contribution to astronomical science … The Rajah also supported an English school on a scale of liberality that perhaps has few precedents in other native states. He was a steady and staunch advocate of education, friend and patron of men of letters … his loss will doubtless be greatly deplored by Travancoreans as a national calamity.

The Journal the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland ran an obituary in 1847 which mourned that the early death of this enlightened and princely patron of true science is a subject of just regret.

Swathi Sangeethotsavam[edit]

Prince Rama Varma, the South Indian Classical Musician, is a descendent of Maharajah Svāti Tirunāḷ‍. He is the organiser for Swathi Sangeethotsavam, a week long music festival featuring exclusively the compositions of Svāti Tirunāḷ‍. This unique musical event is conducted every year from 6 to 12 January at Kuthira Malika, Trivandrum.

In popular culture[edit]

In 1987, a Malayalam film titled Swathi Thirunal based on his life was released. It was directed by Lenin Rajendran. It stars Anant Nag in the title role, and Srividya, Ambika, Nedumudi Venu and Murali in other important roles.[12]

Compositions[edit]

For a list of 360+ compositions with 200+ MP#s, visit swathithirunal.in

Composition Raga Tala Type Language
dEva dEva kalayAmi tE mAyA mALava gowLa Rupaka Sanskrit
gIta dhuniku taka dhIm dhana shRI Adi tillAna Hindi
jaya jaya padmanAbha murArE Sarasangi Adi Sanskrit
kamala nayana jagadIswara Vagadheeswari Adi Sanskrit
pAhi shrIpatE hamsadhwani Adi Sanskrit
sArasAksha paripAlaya mAmayi pantuvarALi Adi Sanskrit

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ DEVNATH, LAKSHMI (December 27, 2013). "The Monarch musician". THE HINDU. Retrieved 12 March 2014. 
  2. ^ DEVNATH, LAKSHMI (December 27, 2013). "The Monarch musician". THE HINDU. Retrieved 12 March 2014. 
  3. ^ http://print.achuth.googlepages.com/SwathiThirunalandSciencev3.0.pdf
  4. ^ Gov-Music
  5. ^ Compositions of Svati Tirunal Maharaja
  6. ^ http://www.carnaticcorner.com/articles/swathi.txt
  7. ^ DEVNATH, LAKSHMI (December 27, 2013). "The Monarch musician". THE HINDU. Retrieved 12 March 2014. 
  8. ^ MARAVANKUDIERUPPU - He was a tax payer to the Travancore Samasthanam, (Travancore Kingdom). So he was called to attend the marriage of Maharajah Svāti Tirunāḷ‍ Rama Varma and Panapillai Amma Srimathi Ayikutty Narayani Pillai Kochamma of the Thiruvattar Ammaveedu family in 1829. Thiru. Swamyadiyan Nadar also attended the function and presented 1001 ponnu (ponnu-paun-Sovereign of Gold) which was a big presentation in that period. So the king was pleased and honoured him by awarding him 5 acres of land in Trivandrum with one of the greater award of Title “Thiru Mugam Parpu”.
  9. ^ Our Lady Of Snows, Maravankudieruppu. "Maravankudieruppu/History". Retrieved 12 March 2014. 
  10. ^ New Light on Swathi Thirunal by RP Raja
  11. ^ DEVNATH, LAKSHMI (December 27, 2013). "The Monarch musician". THE HINDU. Retrieved 12 March 2014. 
  12. ^ Inc, IMDb.com,. "Swathi Thirunal". Retrieved 12 March 2014. 

See also[edit]

References[edit]

[1] : Articles and compilations by Dr Achuthsankar S Nair Articles by Achuthsankar S Nair on Sruthi Magazine, June 2013 and Journal of Madras Music Academy, 2009

External links[edit]

Swathi Thirunal Rama Varma
Born: 16 April 1813 Died: 25 December 1846
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Gowri Lakshmi Bayi
(as Maharani Regent of Travancore)
Maharaja of Travancore
1813–1846
Succeeded by
Uthram Thirunal
Kingdom of Travancore
Part of History of Kerala
Flag of Travancore
Travancore Kings
Anizham Thirunal Marthanda Varma 1729–1758
Dharma Raja 1758–1798
Avittam Thirunal 1798–1810
Gowri Lakshmi Bayi 1810–1815
Gowri Parvati Bayi 1815–1829
Swathi Thirunal 1813–1846
Uthram Thirunal 1846–1860
Ayilyam Thirunal 1860–1880
Visakham Thirunal 1880–1885
Moolam Thirunal 1885–1924
Sethu Lakshmi Bayi 1924–1931
Chithira Thirunal 1924–1991, (1971-1991 titular)
Uthradom Thirunal Marthanda Varma 1991-2013 (Titular)
Moolam Thirunal Rama VarmaVI 2013- (Titular)
‡ Regent Queens
Capitals
Padmanabhapuram 1729–1795
Thiruvananthapuram 1795–1947
Palaces
Padmanabhapuram Palace
Kilimanoor palace
Kuthira Malika
Kowdiar Palace