Shàntóu (Chinese: 汕头), also known as Swatow or Suátao, is a prefecture-level city on the eastern coast of Guangdong province, People's Republic of China, with a total population of 5,391,028 as of 2010 and an administrative area of 2,064 square kilometres (797 sq mi). Shantou has direct jurisdiction over six districts and one county, and the six urban districts of Shantou has a population of 5,330,764. With it and the surrounding cities of Jieyang and Chaozhou, the metropolitan region known as Chaoshan covers an area of 10,404 km2 (4,017 sq mi), and had a permanent population of 13,937,897 at the end of 2010.
Shantou, a city significant in 19th-century Chinese history as one of the treaty ports established for Western trade and contact, was one of the original Special Economic Zones of the People's Republic of China established in the 1980s, but did not blossom in the manner that cities such as Shenzhen, Xiamen and Zhuhai did. However, it remains eastern Guangdong's economic centre, and is home to Shantou University, a member of the Project 211 group.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Administration
- 4 Economy
- 5 Demographics
- 6 Culture and lifestyle
- 7 Religions
- 8 Infrastructure
- 9 Tourism attractions
- 10 Media
- 11 Education
- 12 Twin towns — sister cities
- 13 Prominent people
- 14 See also
- 15 References
- 16 Notes
- 17 Further reading
- 18 External links
Shantou was a fishing village part of Tuojiang City (鮀江都), Jieyang District (揭陽縣) during the Song Dynasty. It came to be Xialing (廈嶺) during the Yuan Dynasty. In 1563, Shantou was a part of Chenghai District (澄海縣) in Chao Prefecture (Chaozhou). As early as 1574, Shantou had been called Shashan Ping (沙汕坪). In the seventeenth century, a cannon platform called Shashan Toupaotai (沙汕頭炮臺 sha shan tou pao tai) was made here, and the placename later was shortened to "Shantou". Locally it has been referred to as Kialat.
Connecting to Shantou across the Queshi Bridge is Queshi (礐石) which had been known by the local people through the 19th century as Kakchio. It was the main site for the American and British Consulates. Today the area is a scenic park but some of the structures are somewhat preserved from its earlier history. In 1860, Shantou became a trading port.
It became a city in 1919, and was separated from Chenghai in 1921. 1922 saw the devastating Swatow Typhoon, which killed 5,000 out of the 65,000 people then inhabiting the city. Some nearby villages were totally destroyed. Several ships near the coast were totally wrecked. Other ones were blown as far as two miles inland. The area around the city had around another 50,000 casualties. The total death toll was above 60,000, and may have been higher than 100,000.
In the 1930s, as a transport hub and a merchandise distribution centre in Southeast China, Shantou Port's cargo throughput ranked third in the country. A brief account of a visit to the city in English during this period is the English accountant Max Relton's A Man in the East: A Journey through French Indo-China (Michael Joseph Ltd., London, 1939). On June 21, 1939, Japanese troops invaded Shantou. Japanese force occupied Shantou until 1945.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
Shantou is located in eastern Guangdong with latitude spanning 23°02′33″ – 23°38′50″ N and longitude 116°14′40″ – 117°19′35″ E; the Tropic of Cancer passes through the northern part of the city, and along it there is a monument, in fact the easternmost in mainland China, at . The highest peak in the city's administration is Mount Dajian (大尖山) on Nan'ao Island, at 587 m (1,926 ft); the highest peak on the geographic mainland is Mount Lianhua (莲花山), at 562 m (1,844 ft) in Chenghai District. The city is located at the mouths of the Han, Rong (榕江), and Lian Rivers.
Shantou has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa), with short, mild to warm winters, and long, hot, humid summers. Winter begins sunny and dry but becomes progressively wetter and cloudier. Spring is generally overcast, while summer brings the heaviest rains of the year though is much sunnier; there are 8.2 days annually with 50 mm (1.97 in) of rainfall. Autumn is sunny and dry. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from 13.8 °C (56.8 °F) in January to 28.3 °C (82.9 °F) in July, and the annual mean is 21.53 °C (70.8 °F). The annual rainfall is around 1,630 mm (64 in), about 60% of which occurs from May to August. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 28% in March to 58% in July and October, the city receives 1,979 hours of bright sunshine annually.
|Climate data for Shantou (1971–2000)|
|Average high °C (°F)||17.9
|Average low °C (°F)||10.7
|Rainfall mm (inches)||33.6
|Avg. rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm)||7.2||10.8||12.7||13.3||15.3||17.1||13.4||13.7||9.9||5.2||4.8||5.2||128.6|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||143.2||96.0||101.7||112.8||134.7||170.9||239.7||218.6||200.7||207.6||181.2||171.5||1,978.6|
|Percent possible sunshine||43||30||28||30||33||42||58||55||55||58||55||52||44.9|
|Source: China Meteorological Administration |
|Map||#||Name||Hanzi||Hanyu Pinyin||Population (2010 Census)||Area (km²)||Density (/km²)|
|1||Jinping District||金平区||Jīnpíng Qū||810,606||109||7,437|
|3||Longhu District||龙湖区||Lónghú Qū||536,102||104||5,155|
|2||Haojiang District||濠江区||Háojiāng Qū||267,597||135||1,982|
|4||Chaoyang District||潮阳区||Cháoyáng Qū||1,626,641||668||2,435|
|5||Chaonan District||潮南区||Cháonán Qū||1,290,922||596||2,166|
|6||Chenghai District||澄海区||Chénghǎi Qū||798,896||345||2,315|
|7||Nan'ao County||南澳县||Nán'ào Xiàn||60,264||108||558|
As of 2003, the district of Haojiang was established out of Hepu and Dahao which had been merged, and the district of Jinping Shengping and Jinyuan; Waisha and Xinxi Town, part of former Chenghai City, was merged into Longhu District; Chenghai City became Chenghai District; Chaoyang City was divided and became Chaoyang and Chaonan District respectively.
Shantou's economy is medium by Guangdong standards. Manufacturing accounts for a large and increasing share of employment. Canning, garments, lithography, plastic, and toys are some of the principal products. Toy manufacturing is the city's leading export industry, with 400 million U.S. dollars worth of exports each year.
In 2000, the biggest tax fraud in the history of the People's Republic of China was uncovered, estimated worthy of 32.3 billion yuan.
With an area of 2.34 km2 (0.90 sq mi), Shantou Free Trade Zone lies at the south part of Shantou city. It was ratified by the State Council of the People's Republic of China and founded in January 1993, it formally came into use on December of the same year after its supervision installations are checked and accepted by the General Customs. It has been comprehensively developing export processing, storage, international trade, finance and information industry. Its goal is to establish a modernized international zone that is open to the overseas by drawing experience from international free trade zone.
Shantou is one of the most densely populated regions in China. Former Chaoyang City was China's most populous county-level administrative region, with 2.4 million inhabitants.
Most residents are linguistically Teochew. There are also Hakka, popularly known as Half-Hakka (半山客), living mainly in Chaoyang District (潮陽區) and Chaonan District (潮南區), although they speak Teochew on a daily basis and practise Teochew culture. Thanks to the Mandarin-medium education system, most people, especially the younger generations, can speak Mandarin fluently. Thanks to Cantonese-language TV and labor migrations to the Pearl River Delta, Cantonese is widely spoken as a second or third language by the younger generations.
Governmental statistics show that 2.16 million overseas Chinese have roots in Shantou, with significant populations of Teochew people residing in Thailand and Cambodia. This is demonstrated by the unusually high number of international direct flights between Bangkok and Shantou. In addition, there are at least two Teochew-speaking air hostesses on board each China Southern flight between Shantou and Bangkok. The Teochew presence, furthermore, is evident in Singapore and Malaysia; Johor Bahru, a coastal city situated at the latter's southernmost tip, is known as 'Little Swatow'.
Culture and lifestyle
Shantou people share the same culture with other Teochew. The tea-drinking tradition widely practised in town is a classic instance. According to China Daily, Shantou people "drink more tea than anyone else in China, in total 700 million yuan (US$87.5 million) each year".
Most population in Shantou is non religious or partakes to traditional folk religions, Buddhism, Taoist rites, worship of gods and ancestors. About 2% of the population (100,000) belongs to organised religions, with 40,000 are Protestants, 20,000 are Catholics and 500 are Muslims. St. Joseph's Cathedral of Shantou is the cathedral of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Shantou.
The public hospitals in the Shantou metropolitan area are operated by the Government of Shantou. Management of these hospitals and other specialist health facilities are coordinated by Shantou Board of Health.
Shantou is one of the most important international telecommunications ports in China. Four international submarine communications cables land at Shantou submarine cable landing station, including APCN 2, China-US Cable Network, SMW3 and South-East Asia Japan Cable System (SJC).
The private car has matured as a transport option for Shantou residents. However, more still travel by autobikes. Public transportation is provided by bus, ferry and taxi.
Shantou previously has its own civil airport, Shantou Waisha Airport. It was formerly the main airport serving the Shantou until nearby Jieyang Chaoshan Airport was opened on 15 December 2011. Shantou Waisha Airport became a military airbase since then and all civilian flights were transferred to the newly built airport in Jieyang. Taxi is the usual way to travel between the airport and the city proper. The taxi fare is around 60 RMB.
There are 3 railway stations which serve Shantou: Chaoshan Railway Station and Chaoyang Railway Station which lie on the Xiamen-Shenzhen Railway line, and Shantou Railway Station which lies on the Guangzhou–Meizhou–Shantou Railway.
- Shipaotai Park (Chinese: 石炮台公园; pinyin: Shí pàotái gōngyuán)
- Chen Cihong's Former Residence (Chinese: 陈慈黉故居; pinyin: Chén Cíhóng gùjū)
- Nan'ao Island (南澳島 Nanao Dao): rated as Guangdong's most beautiful island by China's National Geographic magazine
- Palace-Temple of Old Mother (老媽宮 Laoma Gong): dedicated to the goddess Matsu
- Temple of Emperor Guan (關帝廟 Guandi Miao): dedicated to Guan Yu
- Tropic of Cancer Symbol Tower (北回归线标志塔 Beihuiguixian Biaozhita): The Tropic of Cancer slips through Centipede Mountain, which is 20 kilometers away from the city proper.
- Cultural Revolution Museum (文革博物馆 Wenge Bowuguan): The country's only museum dedicated to the Cultural Revolution.
|This section requires expansion. (November 2012)|
Education is overseen provincewide by the Guangdong Education Bureau.
Primary and secondary
Public primary and secondary schools provide education free.
A list of known schools:
- Shantou Jinshan Middle School
- Shantou Number One Middle School
- Shantou Experimental School
- Shantou Number four Middle School
- Shantou Number ten Middle School
- Shantou Number two Middle School
- Shantou Number three Middle School
- Dahua number one primary school
Colleges and universities
- South China University of Technology Shantou College
- Shantou Polytechnic
- Shantou Radio and TV University
- Shantou University
Twin towns — sister cities
|Japan||Kishiwada||Osaka Prefecture||June 2, 1990|
|Canada||Saint John||New Brunswick||February 28, 1997|
|Vietnam||Can Tho||N/A||August 1, 2005|
|South Korea||Pyongtaek||Gyeonggi-do||March 25, 2003|
|Australia||Fairfield||New South Wales||April 26, 2005|
|United States||Orlando||Florida||August 8, 2007|
|United States||Los Angeles||California||December 25, 2001|
Many famous Chinese come from Shantou or their ancestral home is Shantou.
- Mainland China
- Hong Kong
- Hong Kong born
- Mainland China
- Cai Chusheng (1906–1968), famous director, and the film "Yu Guang Qu" (渔光曲) directed by him received the first international film prize in China's history
- Nuon Chea (1926-), politician
- Qin Mu (1919–1992), writer
- Watchman Nee (1903–1972), theologian, and opponent of prosperity theology
- Tan Howe Liang (1933–), Singaporean weightlifting Olympian
- Xu Shilin (1998- ), Chinese tennis player, Junior Olympic gold medallist
- Miscellaneous series, Issues 7-11. United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, 1912.
- Willis E. Hurd (August 1922). "North Pacific Ocean". Monthly Weather Review. pp. 433–35. Retrieved 2007-07-05.
- "Notes on weather in the other parts of the world". Monthly Weather Review. p. 437. Retrieved 2007-06-14.
- "The Selga Chronology Part II: 1901-1934". Universidad Complutense Madrid. Retrieved 2007-05-02.
- "NOAA's Top Global Weather, Water and Climate Events of the 20th Century" (PDF). NOAA. Archived from the original on 28 June 2007. Retrieved 2007-06-28.
- 日军入侵 汕头沦陷
- 侵汕日军投降日 汕头人民欢天喜地庆祝胜利
- "中國汕頭政府－歷史沿革" (in 简体中文). 汕头市政府门户网. Retrieved 2009-12-24.
- 中国地面国际交换站气候标准值月值数据集（1971－2000年） (in Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2010-05-04.
- The Seattle Times (2006). E-waste dump of the world. Retrieved 9 March 2007
- RightSite.asia | Shantou Free Trade Zone
- 民航资源网(2002). 汕头——曼谷航班有了潮籍空姐. Retrieved 5 March 2007
- China Daily (2006). For all the tea in China, head to Shantou. Retrieved 26 July 2006
- "Shantou Submarine Cable Landing Station". Submarine Cable Networks website. Retrieved 24 February 2012.
- 揭阳潮汕机场今晨起飞首架航机. Netease (in Chinese). 2011-12-15. Retrieved 2013-01-23.
- United States Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, p. 187.
- "Sister Cities and Friendly exchange cities, the official website of the Shantou city". Retrieved 2009-10-30.
- "Sister Cities Kishiwada, the official website of the Shantou city". Retrieved 2009-10-30.
- "Sister Cities St.John's, the official website of the Shantou city". Retrieved 2009-10-30.
- "Sister Cities Can Tho, the official website of the Shantou city". Retrieved 2009-10-30.
- "Sister Cities Pyongtaek, the official website of the Shantou city". Retrieved 2009-10-30.
- "Sister Cities Fairfield, the official website of the Shantou city". Retrieved 2009-10-30.
- "Sister Cities Orlando, the official website of the Shantou city". Retrieved 2009-10-30.
- "Sister Cities Los Angeles, the official website of the Shantou city". Retrieved 2009-10-30.
- Herbert Allen Giles (1877). From Swatow to Canton: (overland). SHANGHAI : PRINTED AT THE "CELESTIAL EMPIRE" OFFICE: Trübner
LONDON : Trübner & CO. SHANGHAI : KELLY & WALSH. p. 74. Retrieved 10 February 2012.(Harvard University)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Shantou.|
- (Chinese) Official government website
- Website of Shantou Government
- Shantou Daily
- Guangdong Statistical Yearbook
Largest cities or towns of China
Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China (2010)
|2||Beijing||Beijing||18,827,000||12||Hong Kong||Hong Kong||7,055,071|