Swedish heraldry

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Swedish heraldry
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Two heralds at the funeral of King Johan III, 1594
 
Heraldic tradition German-Nordic
Jurisdiction Sweden
Governing body Riksarkivet
Chief officer Henrik Klackenberg, Statsheraldiker
Former chiefs

Clara Nevéus (1983–1999)
Jan von Konow (1975–1981)

Gunnar Scheffer (1955–1975)
Former offices
Riksheraldiker (1734–1953)

Harald Gustaf Fleetwood
(1931–1953)
Adam Ludvig Carl Lewenhaupt (1903–1931)
Carl Arvid Klingspor (1880–1903)
August Wilhelm Stiernstedt
(1855–1880)
Niklas Joakim af Wetterstedt
(1829–1855)
Jonas Carl Linnerhielm (1809–1829)
Anders Schönberg (1773–1809)
Daniel Tilas (1768–1772)

Conrad Ludvig Transchiöld
(1734–1765)

Swedish heraldry encompasses heraldic achievements in modern and historic Sweden. Swedish heraldic style is consistent with the German-Nordic heraldic tradition, noted for its multiple helmets and crests which are treated as inseparable from the shield, its repetition of colours and charges between the shield and the crest, and its scant use of heraldic furs.[1] Because the medieval history of the Nordic countries was so closely related, their heraldic individuality developed rather late.[2] Swedish and Finnish heraldry have a shared history prior to the Diet of Porvoo in 1809; these, together with Danish heraldry, were heavily influenced by German heraldry. Unlike the highly stylized and macaronic language of English blazon, Swedish heraldry is described in plain language, using (in most cases) only Swedish terminology.

The earliest known achievements of arms in Sweden are those of two brothers, Sigtrygg and Lars Bengtsson, from 1219.[3] The earliest example of Swedish civic heraldry is the city arms of Kalmar, which originated as a city seal in 1247.[4] The seal (Swedish sigill), used extensively in the Middle Ages, was instrumental in spreading heraldry to churches, local governments, and other institutions, and was the forerunner of the coat of arms in medieval Sweden.[5] Armorial seals of noblewomen appeared in the 12th century, burghers and artisans began adopting arms in the 13th century, and even some peasants took arms in the 14th century.[5]

Heraldry in Sweden today is used extensively by corporations and government offices; the rights of these private entities and of official bodies are upheld by Swedish law.[6] In order to become legally registered and protected under Swedish law, an official coat of arms must be registered with the Swedish Patent and Registration Office (PRV), and is subject to approval by the National Herald (Statsheraldiker) and the bureaucratic Heraldic Board of the National Archives of Sweden. Heraldic arms of common citizens (burgher arms), however, are less strictly controlled. These are recognised by inclusion in the annually published Scandinavian Roll of Arms.[7]

Characteristics[edit]

Swedish heraldry has a number of characteristics that distinguish the Swedish style from heraldry in other European countries. Common features of Swedish heraldry are similar to those of other Nordic countries and Germany,[2] placing it in the German-Nordic heraldic tradition, distinguished from Gallo-British heraldry and other heraldic traditions by several key elements of heraldic style.[1] One of these is the use of multiple helmets and crests, which cannot be displayed separately from the main shield. These helmets and crests are considered to be as important as the shield, each denoting a fief over which the bearer holds a right.[8] In Scandinavia (as distinct from the German custom), when an even number of helmets is displayed, they are usually turned, with their crests, to face outward; when an odd number, the center helmet is turned affronté and the rest turned outward (whereas in Germany the helmets are turned inward to face the center of the escutcheon).[8] Additionally, the crests are often repetitive of charges used on the main shield, and marks of cadency typically occur in the crest, rather than on the shield as in Gallo-British heraldry.[1] Also, the use of heraldic furs on the shield, while common in Gallo-British heraldry, is rare in German-Nordic heraldry.[1] Furs in Scandinavia are generally limited to ermine and vair, which sometimes appear in mantling, supporters, or the trimmings of crowns, but rarely on the shield.a

Consistent with German-Nordic heraldry, the most common charges in Swedish heraldry include lions and eagles. Additional animals that frequently appear in Swedish heraldry include griffins and (especially in the northern provinces) reindeer. Stars are common and are usually depicted with six points and straight sides, in contrast to the Gallo-British tradition, which typically depicts stars as either a five-pointed straight-sided star (mullet) or as a six-pointed wavy-sided star (estoile). In Swedish, these stars are usually described as "six-pointed stars" (sexuddig stjärna). In terms of blazoning, Swedish heraldry is described in plain terms using common Swedish language, rather than using specialized language such as Blazon. Canting arms occur frequently.b

Terminology[edit]

In English, achievements of arms are usually described (blazoned) in a specialized jargon that uses derivatives of French terms. In Swedish, however, achievements of arms are described in relatively plain language, using only Swedish terms and tending to avoid specialized jargon. Examples include the use of Swedish blå and grön for blue and green, as compared to the French-derived azure and vert used in English blazon. Rather than argent, the Swedish words silver or vit (white) are used, and white, while rare, may be a different color than silver. Purpur (purple) is used in the lining of crowns and in the royal canopy of the greater national coat of arms.[9] Traditionally, purple was rarely used as a tincture on the shield, though it does appear on the shields of some (especially modern) burgher arms.[10] Ermine likewise appears in the lining of the mantling over the greater national coat of arms, but is otherwise virtually unknown in Swedish heraldry.c Vair is also rare in Scandinavian heraldry, and other furs are unknown.d

Tinctures Metals Paints or Colours Furs
Escutcheons Heraldic Shield Or.svg Heraldic Shield Argent.svg Heraldic Shield Azure.svg Heraldic Shield Gules.svg Heraldic Shield Vert.svg Heraldic Shield Purpure.svg Heraldic Shield Sable.svg Blason De Bretagne Alix.jpg Heraldic Shield Vair.svg
English Or Argent Azure Gules Vert Purpure Sable Ermine Vair
Swedish Guld (gul) Silver (vit) Blå Röd Grön Purpur Svart Hermelin Gråverk
Ordinaries Pale demo.svg Fess demo.svg Bend demo.svg Bend Sinister demo.svg Blason ville fr Calvi (Haute-Corse).svg Blason ville fr Offignies (Somme).svg Chevron demo.svg Bordure demo.svg
English Pale Fess Bend Bend sinister Cross Saltire Chevron Bordure
Swedish Stolpe Bjälke Balk Ginbalk Kors Andreaskors Sparre Bård
Division of the field Parted per fess.svg Parted per pale.svg Parted per bend sinister.svg Parted quarterly.svg Parted quarterly with a heart.svg
English Party per fess Party per pale Party per bend sinister Quarterly Quarterly with an inescutcheon
Swedish Delad Kluven Ginstyckad Kvadrerad Kvadrerad med hjärtsköld

Officers of arms[edit]

Arms of the National Archives

In the Middle Ages, heraldic arms in Sweden were granted by the Royal Council (kungliga kansliet), but this role was turned over to the College of Antiquities (antikvitetskollegiet) in 1660.[3] Prior to 1953, the office of the National Herald (Riksheraldiker) was responsible for preparing municipal arms and the royal arms of Sweden, but today these duties are carried out by the Heraldry Board of the National Archives, including the State Herald (Statsheraldiker).[3][11] In order to register new municipal arms, a municipality must submit its proposal to both the National Archives Heraldry Board, which consults and renders an opinion, and to the PRV for registration.[11][12] Once the board has completed its consultation process and provided a warrant of arms, the arms thus warranted may then be registered by the PRV and implemented by the municipality.[11] Apart from municipal arms, heraldic arms registered by counties and by military and other government bodies are also handled by the National Archives Heraldry Board and the PRV.

The National Archives Heraldry Board, established under Swedish statute 2007:1179,[13] is the highest heraldic body in Sweden.[14] The board is chaired by the National Archivist and includes three other officials, three deputies, the State Herald (who acts as secretary), the National Archives jurist and the National Archives heraldic artist.[14] This board convenes as needed, which in recent years has been once or twice a year.[14]

The first National Herald was Conrad Ludvig Transkiöld (died 1766),[3] who served as Riksheraldiker 1734-1765.[15] Subsequent National Heralds included Daniel Tilas (1768-1772), Anders Schönberg (1773-1809), Jonas Carl Linnerhielm (1809-1829), Niklas Joakim af Wetterstedt (1829-1855), August Wilhelm Stiernstedt (1855-1880), Carl Arvid Klingspor (1880-1903), Adam Lewenhaupt (1903-1931) and Harald Fleetwood (1931-1953), and State Heralds (since the 1953 reform) have included Carl Gunnar Ulrik Scheffer (1953-1974), Lars-Olof Skoglund (1975), Jan von Konow (1975-1981), Bo Elthammar (1981-1983), and Clara Nevéus (1983-1999).[15][16] Since 1999, the State Herald of Sweden has been Henrik Klackenberg.[15][17]

The Swedish Collegium of Arms, operating under the Swedish Heraldry Society, is responsible for reviewing and registering burgher arms.[18] The Swedish Heraldry Society is a non-profit association founded in 1976,[7] and is not affiliated with the National Archives or their Heraldry Board, which registers arms of municipalities and other public entities.

National heraldry[edit]

The greater coat of arms of Sweden

The greater national arms (stora riksvapnet) originated in 1448 and has remained unchanged in Swedish law since 1943. The first legislation of state arms in Sweden was in 1908, and prior to that the state arms were changed by royal decree.[19] It is also the personal coat of arms of the king of Sweden; as such he can decree its use as a personal coat of arms by other members of the Royal House, with the alterations and additions decided by him.[20] Since the beginning of the reign of Gustav Vasa in 1523 it has been customary in Sweden to display the arms of the ruling dynasty as an inescutcheon in the centre of the greater arms.[21]

The coat of arms of Queen Silvia of Sweden is similar to the greater arms of Sweden, but without the ermine mantling, and with the central inescutcheon exchanged for her personal arms: Per pale gules and Or, a fleur-de-lis counterchanged. The shield is encircled by an azure ribbon with dependent cross of the Order of the Seraphim.[22]

The lesser coat of arms of Sweden (lilla riksvapnet) is emblazoned: Azure, with three coronets Or, ordered two above one; Crowned with a royal crown.f This is the emblem used by the government of Sweden and its agencies; it is, for example, embroidered on all Swedish police uniforms. Any representation consisting of three crowns ordered two above one is considered to be the lesser coat of arms, and its usage is therefore restricted by Swedish Law, Act 1970:498.[6][20]

The three crowns have been a national symbol of Sweden for centuries; historians trace the use of the symbol back to the royal seal of Albrecht of Mecklenburg, and even earlier.[23] The three crowns have been recognized as the official arms of Sweden since the 14th century.[21][24] The earliest credible attribution of the three crowns is to Magnus Eriksson, who reigned over Norway and Sweden, and in 1330s, bought Scania from Denmark.[23] Written in 1378, Ernst von Kirchberg's Reimchronik depicted Magnus Eriksson with a national banner of dark blue, charged with three crowns, although this banner did not ultimately become the national flag of Sweden.[23]

Military heraldry[edit]

Coat of arms of the Nordic Battlegroup

Swedish military heraldry made news headlines in Sweden and overseas in 2007, when a controversial change was made to the arms of the Nordic Battlegroup at the behest of a group of female soldiers who demanded that the lion's genitals be removed from the arms.[25][26] Vladimir Sagerlund, heraldic artist at the National Archives since 1994, was critical of the decision, saying, "once upon a time coats of arms containing lions without genitalia were given to those who betrayed the Crown."[25][27] The Times in London noted a recent trend toward heraldic "castration", pointing to the lions passant on the royal coat of arms of England, as well as the lions rampant on those of Norway, Finland, Belgium, Luxembourg and Scotland, all of which have been depicted without genitals; in conclusion, The Times wrote, "some crests are ambiguous, but the message remains clear: the lions are supposed to display courage and nothing else."[26] Officials at the National Archives treat this as a change in artistic style, rather than a heraldic change, and the lion remains in its original form on the rolls of the National Archives,g while the castrated lion appears on the unit's sleeve patches.[28] The Nordic Battle Group's coat of arms was originally designed to incorporate heraldic elements and colours from all member nations, including "a lion that did not look Finnish, Norwegian, Estonian or Swedish."[29] In an unusual move, the Armed Forces Heraldry Council authorised the Nordic Battle Group commander's use of a command sign. This consisted of a bunting divided into fields of blue, gold and blue with a Roman numeral V in the gold field, since the unit would be the fifth mobilized combat unit of the European Union.[29]

Swedish Army[edit]

The coat of arms of the Swedish Army consists of two crossed golden swords on a blue field. This motif is repeated in the flag of the Inspector General of the Army,[30] and a blue field with a single upright golden sword appears on the flag of Military Region Command infrastructure, with three gold crowns in the canton.[30]

Swedish Navy[edit]

The coat of arms of the Swedish Navy, which consists of a blue field with two cannons in saltire and a cabled anchor,[31] topped with a crown, and has been used on the flags of naval commanders, including on the flag of the Inspector General of the Navy,[31] the most senior representative of the Swedish Navy’s combat forces.[32]

Regional heraldry[edit]

Gävleborg län vapen.svg

Each of Sweden's 21 counties (län), 25 provinces (landskap) and 290 municipalities (kommun) has its own coat of arms. The Instrument of Government (1634) introduced the modern counties of Sweden, superseding the 25 medieval provinces.h Although many of these counties have been the subject of more recent reforms, many of them occupy broadly similar regions. (See comparative maps at Counties of Sweden.) Most of the counties that have remained largely intact (Dalarna, Gotland, Skåne, Södermanland, Uppsala, Värmland, etc.) retain the respective province's coat of arms, while the redistricting of other lands has been reflected heraldically (e.g. the newly created Gävleborgs län, occupying parts of Hälsingland and Gästrikland, bears their arms quarterly). By royal decree on 18 January 1884, King Oscar II granted all provinces the rights to the rank of duchy and to display their arms with a ducal coronet.[33][34] While more exhaustive lists can be found elsewhere,i this article only discusses the arms of a few of these regions, selected for their heraldic notability. The arms of Gotland, Västerbotten, Uppland, Södermanland, Skåne and Lappland will be considered here in further detail.

Municipal heraldry[edit]

Eric of Pomerania's 1437 Malmöbrev is one of Sweden's oldest known grants of arms.

There are 290 municipalities in Sweden, each with its own coat of arms. A local government reform in the 1960s–1970s made all cities part of a municipality. The city arms often—but not always—became the coat of arms of the new municipality. As some municipalities were created at this time by merging smaller communities, this led in some cases to arms consisting of two parts, each derived from one of the communities. Some new municipalities also lacked historical cities within, and therefore created wholly new coats of arms. Municipalities which carry the name of a city (with a few exceptions—see below) traditionally display a mural crown on top of their coat of arms.[11] While no law forbids other municipalities from using the mural crown, it is customarily reserved for those bearing former city arms.[44] Kalmar was the first to establish city arms in 1247, and Stockholm, Skara and Örebro were also among the first cities in Sweden to establish city arms.[4] As recently as 2007, Härryda Municipality was among the last municipalities in Sweden to replace its logo with a newly registered coat of arms.[45] Municipal arms may not use any colors (tinctures) other than argent, Or, gules, azure, sable and vert.[11] As in other heraldic traditions, the rule of tincture applies and it is the blazon—not the image—that is legally registered.[11]

Former city arms[edit]

The following is not an exhaustive list of the 133 historic cities in Sweden, but a brief list of cities that are notable and bear heraldic significance within the context of Swedish heraldry. Each is listed by the city name, in general chronological order with the approximate year of settlement or city charter. Note that most city arms originated in the Middle Ages as a city seal, and all were registered as municipality (kommun) arms in the 1970s.

Other municipal arms[edit]

The following examples do not represent an exhaustive list of Swedish municipal arms. See the list of municipalities of Sweden for a complete listing of these.

Ecclesiastical heraldry[edit]

Further information: Ecclesiastical heraldry
Arms of the Church of Sweden

The Church of Sweden (Svenska kyrkan) is the national church (folkkyrka) and, until 2000, was the state church (statskyrka) of Sweden.[69] The arms of the church have been found displayed on a 14th-century heraldic flag discovered in Uppsala cathedral, and are blazoned: Or, upon a cross gules, a crown Or.s The crown has long been said to represent St. Erik, but in early 2005, the church issued a press release adopting "a new interpretation of the 600-year-old coat of arms which was found in Uppsala cathedral," calling it the victory crown of Christ (Kristi segerkrona).[70] The Church of Sweden also has many dioceses and parishes with their own coats of arms.

According to tradition, bishops may use the arms of their diocese marshalled with their own personal arms, with a mitre in place of the helmet and a crosier displayed behind the shield, but these are removed when the bishop retires. These arms may take the form of a shield divided per pale or quartered with the arms of the diocese in the first and third quarters and the bishop's personal arms in the second and fourth quarters.t The cross staff or "primate cross" is used only by the Archbishop of Uppsala and the Bishop of Lund, crossed with the crosier behind the shield.[71] Bishop Antje Jackelén of Lund uses the traditional oval shield of a woman's arms, and her arms were designed by the diocese's heraldist, Jan Raneke, who also designed the arms of her predecessor, Christina Odenberg, who was the first female bishop in the history of the Church of Sweden.[71][72]

Personal heraldry[edit]

Noble arms[edit]

Personal arms of Gustav Vasa
Arms of Carl von Linné, 1761

Noble arms (adliga vapen), together with royal and municipal heraldry, are protected under Swedish law since 1970.[6] In the 17th and 18th century, the nobility fought to ban burgher arms (borgerliga vapen). The result in 1767 was a compromise in that granted the nobility the exclusive right to barred or open helmets, coronets, and supporters, while "the Town law of 1730 stated that burgher arms are accepted since they are not forbidden."[4] A coronet of eleven pearls denotes a baron's arms in Sweden, which also typically includes two barred helmets, each wearing this coronet, and a third such coronet is placed above the shield, although some baronial arms feature three helmets or only one, and not every baron uses supporters.[73] A Swedish Greve (Count) bears three barred helmets, each crowned with a coronet showing five leaves, and supporters are usually—though not always—present.[74] The arms of Swedish counts also, from the late 17th century, began using manteaux (see the Greater Coat of Arms of Sweden, pictured above) in place of the traditional mantling, although this practice has since been deprecated.[74] Untitled nobility (others granted noble status by letters patent) also bore a barred helm and a coronet showing two pearls between three leaves.[2]

The earliest known achievements of heraldry in Sweden were the noble arms of two brothers, Sigtrygg and Lars Bengtsson, of the Boberg family, dating to 1219.[3][4] Other noble arms may have been adopted into civic heraldry within their bearers' areas of influence, such as the adoption of the arms of Bo Jonsson (Grip) by Södermanland; the direct adoption of Jonsson's arms is disputed, but at the least, a certain heraldic influence is evident.u The last charter of nobility in Sweden was issued by King Oskar II to Swedish explorer Sven Hedin in 1902; this may well be the last charter ever. The 1974 constitution does not mention charters nor the nobility,[75] and the Royal orders of the State (not including, however, the Order of Carl XIII) can not be conferred to Swedes according to a special ordinance.[76] The house of nobility lost the last of its official privileges in 2003.[4]

Burgher arms[edit]

Arms of the Swedish Collegium of Arms

Throughout the Middle Ages, heraldry in Sweden was primarily the domain of the high nobility, but burgher arms came to Sweden in the 14th century by way of the Hansa trade.[4] This may have been especially true in Stockholm, where there was a large German population.[5] While burgher arms became popular among the merchants of the Middle Ages, by the 16th and 17th century their use was "common among the non-noble officers, judges and priests ... while the merchants tended to give up the tradition of heraldic seals and replace them with owner’s marks."[4] In contrast to noble arms, burgher arms are allowed only a shield with one tilting or closed helmet without a necklace or coronet. A wreath and crest must be placed on the helmet, and a motto or war cry can be used.[4] Unlike noble arms, few burgher arms were handed down through the generations.[5]

Burgher arms are not required to be registered with the PRV, and so they are not protected under Swedish law (1970:498). According to the Swedish Heraldry Society, the most common way of obtaining recognition of burgher arms is by inclusion in the annually published Scandinavian Roll of Arms (Skandinavisk Vapenrulla), which was first published in 1963[3] and currently includes over 400 Swedish family coats of arms, along with arms from the other Scandinavian countries.[7] Upon submission to the Swedish Heraldry Society, burgher arms are reviewed by the Swedish Collegium of Arms, whose decisions are published in the Scandinavian Roll of Arms.[18] Approximately 3000 burgher arms are known today in Sweden.[7] Swedish law protects "arms of the nobility as well as civic bodies, while burgher arms are not [protected], unless registered as a logotype."[7]

Crowns and helmets used in Swedish heraldry[edit]

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  • ^a Volborth (1981), p. 10, states that ermine is rare in Scandinavian arms, and usually appears outside the shield (lining the royal pavilion or trimming the caps of high nobility) in continental heraldry.
  • ^b Many examples of Swedish canting arms can be found here on the web.
  • ^c According to this article on the Swedish Heraldry Society's web site, ermine first appeared in Sweden in the arms of Eufemiga Eriksdotter (1316–1363), and "that is the only time ermine existed in medieval Swedish heraldry."
  • ^d Volborth (1981), p. 10, discusses the use of furs in Scandinavian and "Germanic countries", and notes the lack of furs in Polish heraldry. Also, according to this article on the Swedish Heraldry Society's web site, vair did not appear in Swedish heraldry until 1412–13 in the arms of Gert Comhaer of Lund, a Dutchman.
  • ^e [Reserved]
  • ^f Original text of Swedish statute 1982:268, 3 §, states: Lilla riksvapnet består av en med kunglig krona krönt blå sköld med tre öppna kronor av guld, ordnade två över en. Skölden får omges av Serafimerordens insignier. Såsom lilla riksvapnet skall också anses tre öppna kronor av guld, ordnade två över en, utan sköld och kunglig krona.[20]
  • ^g See the 2008 version of the Nordic Battle Group arms in the rolls of the Swedish National Archives. (Direct link to image here.)
  • ^h Wikisource: Swedish Instrument of Government of 1634 (in Swedish)
  • ^i Related media at Wikimedia Commons:
  • ^j The Swedish blazon reads "en stående vädur", which translates as "a ram statant", but the ram as conventionally depicted in the arms of Gotland and Visby, is shown as a ram trippant (otherwise as described above).
  • ^k The official blazon of the arms of Gotland states: I blått fält en stående vädur av silver med beväring av guld, bärande på en korsprydd stång av guld ett rött banér med bård och fem flikar av guld.[35]
  • ^l The official blazon of the arms of Västerbotten states: I med 6-uddiga stjärnor av guld bestrött blått fält en springande ren av silver med röd beväring.[38]
  • ^m The official blazon of the arms of Västerbotten County states: Delad sköld, i övre fältet Västerbottens vapen, undre fältet kluvet, med Lapplands vapen till höger och Ångermanlands vapen till vänster.[77]
  • ^n The official blazon of the arms of Uppland states: I rött fält ett riksäpple av guld.[39]
  • ^o The official blazon of the arms of Södermanland states: I fält av guld en upprest svart grip med röd beväring, därest sådan skall komma till användning.[40]
  • ^p The official blazon of the arms of Skåne states: I guldfält ett rött, avslitet griphuvud med blå krona och med blå beväring, därest dylik skall komma till användning.[41]
  • ^q The official blazon of the arms of Lappland states: I fält av silver en stående röd vildman med grön björklövskrans på huvudet och kring länderna, hållande i höger hand en på axeln vilande klubba av guld.[43]
  • ^r Media related to the original grant of arms by Eric of Pomerania at Wikimedia Commons
  • ^s The official blazon of the arms of the Church of Sweden states: I fält av guld ett rött kors, i korsmitten belagt med en krona av guld.[78]
  • ^t Examples of the former can be found in the arms of Bishop Esbjörn Hagberg of Karlstad and Bishop Martin Lind of Linköping, and the latter in the arms of Bishop Ragnar Persenius of Uppsala and Bishop Antje Jackelén of Lund.
  • ^u One online article asserts that the arms of Södermanland followed on the noble arms of Bo Jonsson Grip. The seal from 1379 shown here may suggest a less direct connection, however, as the arms of Södermanland feature a full griffin and not only the head.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Warnstedt, Christopher von (October 1970). "The Heraldic Provinces of Europe", The Coat of Arms, XI (84) 128–130.
  2. ^ a b c Volborth (1981), p. 129.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Bäckmark, Magnus (2005-07-05). "Först som sist: När dyker olika företeelser upp inom heraldiken i Sverige?" (in Swedish). Swedish Heraldry Society. Retrieved 2009-03-23. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h "The Swedish Way". www.heraldik.se. Swedish Heraldry Society. 2005-06-02. Retrieved 2008-07-02. 
  5. ^ a b c d Volborth (1981), p. 96.
  6. ^ a b c Swedish law 1970:498 protects registered arms from abuse. "Lag (1970:498) om skydd för vapen och vissa andra officiella beteckningar". Swedish Code of Statutes (in Swedish). Notisum AB. 1970-06-29. Retrieved 2008-06-27. 
  7. ^ a b c d e "Registration of Arms". www.heraldik.se. Swedish Heraldry Society. 2005-06-02. Retrieved 2008-07-01. 
  8. ^ a b Woodward & Burnett (1892), pp. 603–604.
  9. ^ "Heraldiska färger" (in Swedish). Swedish National Archives. 2011-08-15. Retrieved 2012-01-29. 
  10. ^ "Borgerliga släktvapen". Svenska Heraldiska Föreningens vapendatabas (in Swedish). Swedish Heraldry Society. Retrieved 2013-04-29.  Typing purpur into the form field Sköld 1 and pressing Sök yields a listing of ten Swedish burgher arms which use purple as a tincture on the shield. One of these listed, a coat of arms belonging to an unknown person, was found in a stained glass window in Gotland dating back to 1714.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h "Handledning för kommunvapnens användning" (in Swedish). Swedish National Archives. 2011-08-15. Retrieved 2012-01-29. 
  12. ^ "Kungörelse (1973:686) om registrering av svenska kommunala vapen". Swedish Code of Statutes (in Swedish). Notisum AB. 2008-08-17. Retrieved 2009-02-05. 
  13. ^ "Förordning (2007:1179) med instruktion för Riksarkivet och landsarkiven". Swedish Code of Statutes (in Swedish). Notisum AB. 2007-11-22. Retrieved 2009-02-07. 
  14. ^ a b c "Heraldiska nämnden" (in Swedish). Swedish National Archives. 2011-08-15. Retrieved 2012-01-29. 
  15. ^ a b c Wasling, Jesper (2007-06-28). "Riksheraldikerämbetet: En svensk institution sedan 1734" (in Swedish). Swedish Heraldry Society. Retrieved 2012-04-15. 
  16. ^ Nevéus, Clara (1992). Ny Svensk Vapenbok (in Swedish, English). Stockholm: Streiffert. ISBN 917886092X. 
  17. ^ "Heraldik" (in Swedish). Swedish National Archives. 2011-12-20. Retrieved 2012-01-29. 
  18. ^ a b "Laws of the Swedish Arms Registry" (in Swedish). Swedish Collegium of Arms. 2008-01-17. Retrieved 2009-02-07. 
  19. ^ Granqvist, Elias (2000-07-08). "Sweden: State Arms". Flags of the World. Retrieved 2008-08-01. 
  20. ^ a b c "Lag (1982:268) om Sveriges riksvapen". Swedish Code of Statutes (in Swedish). Notisum AB. 1982-04-29. Retrieved 2008-06-27. 
  21. ^ a b Neubecker (1979), p. 225.
  22. ^ Volborth (1981), p. 94.
  23. ^ a b c Engene, Jan Oskar (2007-02-10). "Three Crowns of Sweden". Flags of the World. Retrieved 2008-07-01. 
  24. ^ Volborth (1981), p. 173.
  25. ^ a b O'Mahony, Paul (2007-12-13). "Army castrates heraldic lion". The Local: Sweden's News in English. The Local Europe AB (Stockholm). Retrieved 2009-03-30. 
  26. ^ a b Boyes, Roger (2007-12-15). "Military lion shorn of his equipment after women troops protest". Times Online (Times Newspapers Ltd. (London)). Retrieved 2009-03-30. 
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Further reading[edit]

  • Neubecker, Ottfried (1979). A Guide to Heraldry. Maidenhead, England: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-046312-3.
  • Nevéus, Clara (1992). Ny svensk vapenbok. Stockholm: Streiffert. ISBN 91-7886-092-X LCCN 92-213159 (in Swedish)
  • Volborth, Carl-Alexander von (1981). Heraldry: Customs, Rules and Styles. Poole, England: Blandford Press. ISBN 0-7137-0940-5.
  • Woodward, John and George Burnett (1892). A Treatise on Heraldry British and Foreign. Edinburgh: W. & A. K. Johnston. Vol. I Vol. II

External links[edit]