Sweetened beverage

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Soft drinks displayed on the shelves of a Woolworths supermarket in Australia.

A sweetened beverage is any beverage with added sugar.[1] They have been described as "liquid candy."[2] Consumption of sweetened beverages has been linked to weight gain, obesity, and associated health risks.[3][4]

Health concerns[edit]

A number of studies suggest that there is a significant correlation between increased consumption of sweetened beverages and weight gain leading to obesity.[3] There has also been an association between consumption of sweetened beverages and health risks such as coronary heart disease and diabetes.[5] Due to negative health effects of overconsumption of sweetened beverages, a sweetened beverage tax (soda tax) has been recommended by Institute of Medicine in 2009.[4]

Sweetened beverages in the United States[edit]

The rise in consumption of sweetened beverages has been described as a worldwide health problem, but it is particularly visible in the United States, from where most popular drinks, like sodas, have originated.[5] In the US, sweetened beverages such as most sodas are the most widely consumed type of foods containing added sugar, and account for about a third of all consumption of added sugars (about half if counted together with fruit juice); about twice the amount that is gained from the categories of "desserts" and "sweets").[4][6][7] They represent about 7% of total energy intake, more in children and adolescents where they can account for up to 15%, and have been described as the "largest single food source of calories in the US diet".[5] The consumption of sweetened beverages has increased in the USA since the 1970s, accounting for a significant portion (perhaps as high as a half) of the rise in caloric intake among the American populace.[2] Some more recent research suggests that the added sugar consumption in the USA has started declining in the 21st century, due to a related to decrease in the consumption of sweetened beverage, encouraged by the government health awareness initiative and other programs.[7]

The following drinks have been classified in the USA as sweetened beverages if they contained sugar or other caloric sweeteners: fruit or fruit-flavored drinks, energy drinks, flavored water, coffees, teas, nonalcoholic wines and beers.[8]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Jesse Kurtz - Nicholl, Students Growing Food: The Study of a Food - Production Focused Intervention in a California High School: Differences in Food Habits and Attitudes between Program and Control Students, http://www.livablefutureblog.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/capstone-final-paper22.pdf PDF
  2. ^ a b Dianne Hales (1 January 2010). An Invitation to Health: Choosing to Change. Cengage Learning. p. 189. ISBN 978-0-538-73655-8. Retrieved 20 April 2013. 
  3. ^ a b Frank Hu Associate Professor of Nutrition and Epidemiology Harvard School of Public Health (20 February 2008). Obesity Epidemiology. Oxford University Press. pp. 283–285. ISBN 978-0-19-971847-4. Retrieved 20 April 2013. 
  4. ^ a b c Travis A. Smith (November 2010). Taxing Caloric Sweetened Beverages: Potential Effects on Beverage Consumption, Calorie Intake, and Obesity. DIANE Publishing. pp. 13–14. ISBN 978-1-4379-3593-6. Retrieved 20 April 2013. 
  5. ^ a b c Cardiac rehabilitation manual. Springer. 2011. p. 55. ISBN 978-1-84882-794-3. Retrieved 20 April 2013. 
  6. ^ Lindsay H Allen; Andrew Prentice (28 December 2012). Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition 3E. Academic Press. pp. 231–233. ISBN 978-0-12-384885-7. Retrieved 4 April 2013. 
  7. ^ a b Welsh, J. A.; Sharma, A. J.; Grellinger, L.; Vos, M. B. (13 July 2011). "Consumption of added sugars is decreasing in the United States". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 94 (3): 726–734. doi:10.3945/ajcn.111.018366. 
  8. ^ How Food Away from Home Affects Children's Diet Quality. DIANE Publishing. January 2011. pp. 12–. ISBN 978-1-4379-4084-8. Retrieved 20 April 2013.