Swimming at the 2012 Summer Olympics

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Swimming
at the Games of the XXX Olympiad
London Olympic Aquatic Centre (1).jpg

The Aquatics Centre

Olympic rings without rims.svg
Venue Aquatics Centre (pool)
Hyde Park (open water)
Dates 28 July–4 August 2012 (pool)
9–10 August (open water)
Competitors 900 (pool), 50 (open water) from 166 nations
«2008 2016»
Swimming at the
2012 Summer Olympics

Sample picture of the event (unofficial)
Freestyle
50 m   men   women
100 m men women
200 m men women
400 m men women
800 m women
1500 m men
Backstroke
100 m men women
200 m men women
Breaststroke
100 m men women
200 m men women
Butterfly
100 m men women
200 m men women
Individual medley
200 m men women
400 m men women
Freestyle relay
4×100 m men women
4×200 m men women
Medley relay
4×100 m men women
Marathon
10 km men women

The swimming competitions at the 2012 Summer Olympics in London took place from 28 July to 4 August at the Aquatics Centre. The open-water competition took place from 9 to 10 August in Hyde Park.[1]

Swimming featured 34 events (17 male, 17 female), including two 10 km open-water marathons in Hyde Park's Serpentine lake. The remaining 32 were contested in a 50 m long course pool within the Olympic Park.

United States claimed a total of 31 medals (16 golds, 9 silver, and 6 bronze) in the leaderboard to maintain its supremacy as the most successful nation in swimming.[2] Brought by an unprecedented sporting domination, Michael Phelps emerged as the most decorated Olympian of all time after winning six more medals at these Games to end his Olympic career with a remarkable tally of 22 (18 golds, 2 silver, and 2 bronze).[3][4] Battling against the Americans for an overall medal count, China mounted to an unexpected second-place effort on the leaderboard with a tally of 10 medals (five golds, three silver, and bronze) after striking a superb double from Sun Yang in long-distance freestyle (both 400 and 1500 m) and Ye Shiwen in the individual medley (both 200 and 400 m).[5] Meanwhile, France ended on a spectacular fashion in third spot with a total of seven medals (four golds, two silver, and one bronze), followed by the Netherlands with four, including two golds from Ranomi Kromowidjojo in sprint freestyle (both 50 and 100 m), and South Africa with three.[2]

For the first time since 1992, Australia delivered an underwhelming performance with only a single triumph in the freestyle relay, but managed to bring home a total of ten medals.[6] With the absence of gold in swimming since 2004, Japan produced the most medals in the post-war era to build a marvelous tally of eleven (three silver and eight bronze).[7]

In the post-techsuit era, a total of nine world records and twenty five Olympic records were set during the competition.

Events[edit]

Similar to the program's format in 2008, swimming featured a total of 34 events (17 each for men and women) including two 10 km open-water marathons. The following events were contested (all pool events were long course, and distances are in metres unless stated):

Schedule[edit]

Similar to the previous Olympics since 2000, with the exception of 2008, swimming program schedule occurred in two segments. For the pool events, prelims were held in the morning, with semifinals and final in the following evening session.


H Heats ½ Semifinals F Final
Men[8]
Date → Sat 28 Sun 29 Mon 30 Tue 31 Wed 1 Thu 2 Fri 3 Sat 4 Fri 10
Event ↓ M E M E M E M E M E M E M E M E M E
50 m freestyle H ½ F
100 m freestyle H ½ F
200 m freestyle H ½ F
400 m freestyle H F
1500 m freestyle H F
100 m backstroke H ½ F
200 m backstroke H ½ F
100 m breaststroke H ½ F
200 m breaststroke H ½ F
100 m butterfly H ½ F
200 m butterfly H ½ F
200 m individual medley H ½ F
400 m individual medley H F
4×100 m freestyle relay H F
4×200 m freestyle relay H F
4×100 m medley relay H F
10 km open water F
Women[8]
Date → Sat 28 Sun 29 Mon 30 Tue 31 Wed 1 Thu 2 Fri 3 Sat 4 Thu 9
Event ↓ M E M E M E M E M E M E M E M E M E
50 m freestyle H ½ F
100 m freestyle H ½ F
200 m freestyle H ½ F
400 m freestyle H F
800 m freestyle H F
100 m backstroke H ½ F
200 m backstroke H ½ F
100 m breaststroke H ½ F
200 m breaststroke H ½ F
100 m butterfly H ½ F
200 m butterfly H ½ F
200 m individual medley H ½ F
400 m individual medley H F
4×100 m freestyle relay H F
4×200 m freestyle relay H F
4×100 m medley relay H F
10 km open water F
M = Morning session, E = Evening session


Qualification[edit]

FINA By-Law BL 9.3.6.4 (swimming) and BL 9.3.7.5.3 (open water) lays out the qualification procedures for the "Swimming" competition at the Olympics.[9] Each country is allowed to enter up to two swimmers per individual event (provided they qualify), and one entry per relay; and a country may not have more than 26 males and 26 females (52 total) on its team.

Swimming – individual events[edit]

On 11 November 2010, FINA posted the qualifying times for individual events for the 2012 Olympics.[10] The time standards consist of two time standards, an "Olympic Qualifying Time" and an "Olympic invitation time". Each country was able to enter up to two swimmers per event, provided both swimmers met the (faster) qualifying time. A country was able to enter one swimmer per event that met the invitation standard. Any swimmer who met the "qualifying" time was entered in the event for the Games; a swimmer meeting the "invitation" standard was eligible for entry, and their entry was allotted/filled in by ranking.

If a country has no swimmers meeting either qualifying standard, it may enter one male and one female. A country that does not receive an allocation spot but has at least one swimmer who meets a qualifying standard may enter the swimmer with the highest ranking.

Swimming – relay events[edit]

Each relay event featured 16 teams, composed of:

  • 12: the top-12 finishers at the 2011 World Championships in each relay event.
  • 4: the 4 fastest non-qualified teams, based on times in the 15-months preceding the Olympics.

Open-water swimming[edit]

The men's and women's 10 km races at the 2012 Olympics each featured 25 swimmers:

  • 10: the top-10 finishers in the 10 km races at the 2011 World Championships
  • 9: the top-9 finishers at the 2012 Olympic Marathon Swim Qualifier (8–9 June 2012 in Setúbal, Portugal[11]).
  • 5: one representative from each FINA continent (Africa, Americas, Asia, Europe and Oceania). (These were selected based on the finishes at the qualifying race in Setúbal.)
  • 1: from the host nation (Great Britain) if not qualified by other means. If Great Britain already had a qualifier in the race, this spot was allocated back into the general pool from the 2012 qualifying race.

Participating nations[edit]

FINA announced in early July 2012 that 631 athletes from 166 nations would compete in swimming events at the 2012 Olympics (note: all nations qualified for the 10 km races also have at least 1 swimmer qualified for the pool portion). 59 nations qualified via the A cut (OQT), 12 via the B cut (OST) and 95 via Universality.[12] Brunei, Central African Republic, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Lesotho, Liechtenstein, Togo, and Tonga made their official debut in swimming. Meanwhile, Grenada, Iraq, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines returned to the sport after an eight-year absence. Nations with swimmers at the Games are (team size in parentheses):

Medal summary[edit]

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1  United States (USA) 16 9 6 31
2  China (CHN) 5 2 3 10
3  France (FRA) 4 2 1 7
4  Netherlands (NED) 2 1 1 4
5  South Africa (RSA) 2 1 0 3
6  Hungary (HUN) 2 0 1 3
7  Australia (AUS) 1 6 3 10
8  Tunisia (TUN) 1 0 1 2
9  Lithuania (LTU) 1 0 0 1
10  Japan (JPN) 0 3 8 11
11  Russia (RUS) 0 2 2 4
12  Belarus (BLR) 0 2 0 2
 Spain (ESP) 0 2 0 2
 South Korea (KOR) 0 2 0 2
15  Great Britain (GBR) 0 1 2 3
 Canada (CAN) 0 1 2 3
17  Brazil (BRA) 0 1 1 2
18  Germany (GER) 0 1 0 1
19  Italy (ITA) 0 0 1 1
Total 34 36 32 102

Note: There were ties for silver in the men's 200 m freestyle and men's 100 m butterfly events.

Results[edit]

Men's events[edit]

Event Gold Silver Bronze
50 m freestyle
details
 Florent Manaudou
France (FRA)
21.34  Cullen Jones
United States (USA)
21.54  César Cielo
Brazil (BRA)
21.59
100 m freestyle
details
 Nathan Adrian
United States (USA)
47.52  James Magnussen
Australia (AUS)
47.53  Brent Hayden
Canada (CAN)
47.80
200 m freestyle
details
 Yannick Agnel
France (FRA)
1:43.14 NR  Sun Yang
China (CHN)
 Park Tae-Hwan
South Korea (KOR)
1:44.93 NR
(for CHN)
Not awarded
as there was a tie for silver.
400 m freestyle
details
 Sun Yang
China (CHN)
3:40.14 OR, AS  Park Tae-Hwan
South Korea (KOR)
3:42.06  Peter Vanderkaay
United States (USA)
3:44.69
1500 m freestyle
details
 Sun Yang
China (CHN)
14:31.02 WR  Ryan Cochrane
Canada (CAN)
14:39.63 AM  Oussama Mellouli
Tunisia (TUN)
14:40.31
100 m backstroke
details
 Matt Grevers
United States (USA)
52.16 OR  Nick Thoman
United States (USA)
52.92  Ryosuke Irie
Japan (JPN)
52.97
200 m backstroke
details
 Tyler Clary
United States (USA)
1:53.41 OR  Ryosuke Irie
Japan (JPN)
1:53.78  Ryan Lochte
United States (USA)
1:53.94
100 m breaststroke
details
 Cameron van der Burgh
South Africa (RSA)
58.46 WR  Christian Sprenger
Australia (AUS)
58.93  Brendan Hansen
United States (USA)
59.49
200 m breaststroke
details
 Dániel Gyurta
Hungary (HUN)
2:07.28 WR  Michael Jamieson
Great Britain (GBR)
2:07.43 NR  Ryo Tateishi
Japan (JPN)
2:08.29
100 m butterfly
details
 Michael Phelps
United States (USA)
51.21  Chad le Clos
South Africa (RSA)
 Yevgeny Korotyshkin
Russia (RUS)
51.44 Not awarded
as there was a tie for silver.
200 m butterfly
details
 Chad le Clos
South Africa (RSA)
1:52.96 AF  Michael Phelps
United States (USA)
1:53.01  Takeshi Matsuda
Japan (JPN)
1:53.21
200 m individual medley
details
 Michael Phelps
United States (USA)
1:54.27  Ryan Lochte
United States (USA)
1:54.90  László Cseh
Hungary (HUN)
1:56.22
400 m individual medley
details
 Ryan Lochte
United States (USA)
4:05.18  Thiago Pereira
Brazil (BRA)
4:08.86 =SA  Kosuke Hagino
Japan (JPN)
4:08.94 AS
4×100 m freestyle relay
details
 France (FRA)
Amaury Leveaux (48.13)
Fabien Gilot (47.67)
Clément Lefert (47.39)
Yannick Agnel (46.74)
Alain Bernard[a]
Jérémy Stravius[a]
3:09.93  United States (USA)
Nathan Adrian (47.89)
Michael Phelps (47.15)
Cullen Jones (47.60)
Ryan Lochte (47.74)
Jimmy Feigen[a]
Matt Grevers[a]
Ricky Berens[a]
Jason Lezak[a]
3:10.38  Russia (RUS)
Andrey Grechin (48.57)
Nikita Lobintsev (47.39)
Vladimir Morozov (47.85)
Danila Izotov (47.60)
Yevgeny Lagunov[a]
Sergey Fesikov[a]
3:11.41
4×200 m freestyle relay
details
 United States (USA)
Ryan Lochte (1:45.15)
Conor Dwyer (1:45.23)
Ricky Berens (1:45.27)
Michael Phelps (1:44.05)
Charlie Houchin[a]
Matt McLean[a]
Davis Tarwater[a]
6:59.70  France (FRA)
Amaury Leveaux (1:46.70)
Grégory Mallet (1:46.83)
Clément Lefert (1:46.00)
Yannick Agnel (1:43.24)
Jérémy Stravius[a]
7:02.77 NR  China (CHN)
Hao Yun (1:47.12)
Li Yunqi (1:46.46)
Jiang Haiqi (1:47.17)
Sun Yang (1:45.55)
Lü Zhiwu[a]
Dai Jun[a]
7:06.30
4×100 m medley relay
details
 United States (USA)
Matt Grevers (52.58)
Brendan Hansen (59.19)
Michael Phelps (50.73)
Nathan Adrian (46.85)
Nick Thoman[a]
Eric Shanteau[a]
Tyler McGill[a]
Cullen Jones[a]
3:29.35  Japan (JPN)
Ryosuke Irie (52.92)
Kosuke Kitajima (58.64)
Takeshi Matsuda (51.20)
Takuro Fujii (48.50)
3:31.26  Australia (AUS)
Hayden Stoeckel (53.71)
Christian Sprenger (59.05)
Matt Targett (51.60)
James Magnussen (47.22)
Brenton Rickard[a]
Tommaso D'Orsogna[a]
3:31.58
10 km open water
details
 Oussama Mellouli
Tunisia (TUN)
1:49:55.1  Thomas Lurz
Germany (GER)
1:49:58.5  Richard Weinberger
Canada (CAN)
1:50:00.3

AF African record | AM Americas record | AS Asian record | ER European record | OC Oceania record | OR Olympic record | WR World record
NR National record (Any world record is necessarily also an Olympic, area, and national record. Area records (for continental regions) are also national records.)

a Swimmers who participated in the heats only and received medals.

Women's events[edit]

Event Gold Silver Bronze
50 m freestyle
details
 Ranomi Kromowidjojo
Netherlands (NED)
24.05 OR  Aliaksandra Herasimenia
Belarus (BLR)
24.28 NR  Marleen Veldhuis
Netherlands (NED)
24.39
100 m freestyle
details
 Ranomi Kromowidjojo
Netherlands (NED)
53.00 OR  Aliaksandra Herasimenia
Belarus (BLR)
53.38  Tang Yi
China (CHN)
53.44
200 m freestyle
details
 Allison Schmitt
United States (USA)
1:53.61 OR, AM  Camille Muffat
France (FRA)
1:55.58  Bronte Barratt
Australia (AUS)
1:55.81
400 m freestyle
details
 Camille Muffat
France (FRA)
4:01.45 OR  Allison Schmitt
United States (USA)
4:01.77 AM  Rebecca Adlington
Great Britain (GBR)
4:03.01
800 m freestyle
details
 Katie Ledecky
United States (USA)
8:14.63 AM  Mireia Belmonte García
Spain (ESP)
8:18.76 NR  Rebecca Adlington
Great Britain (GBR)
8:20.32
100 m backstroke
details
 Missy Franklin
United States (USA)
58.33 AM  Emily Seebohm
Australia (AUS)
58.68  Aya Terakawa
Japan (JPN)
58.83 AS
200 m backstroke
details
 Missy Franklin
United States (USA)
2:04.06 WR  Anastasia Zuyeva
Russia (RUS)
2:05.92  Elizabeth Beisel
United States (USA)
2:06.55
100 m breaststroke
details
 Rūta Meilutytė
Lithuania (LTU)
1:05.47  Rebecca Soni
United States (USA)
1:05.55  Satomi Suzuki
Japan (JPN)
1:06.46
200 m breaststroke
details
 Rebecca Soni
United States (USA)
2:19.59 WR  Satomi Suzuki
Japan (JPN)
2:20.72 =AS  Yuliya Yefimova
Russia (RUS)
2:20.92 EU
100 m butterfly
details
 Dana Vollmer
United States (USA)
55.98 WR  Lu Ying
China (CHN)
56.87  Alicia Coutts
Australia (AUS)
56.94
200 m butterfly
details
 Jiao Liuyang
China (CHN)
2:04.06 OR  Mireia Belmonte García
Spain (ESP)
2:05.25 NR  Natsumi Hoshi
Japan (JPN)
2:05.48
200 m individual medley
details
 Ye Shiwen
China (CHN)
2:07.57 OR, AS  Alicia Coutts
Australia (AUS)
2:08.15  Caitlin Leverenz
United States (USA)
2:08.95
400 m individual medley
details
 Ye Shiwen
China (CHN)
4:28.43 WR  Elizabeth Beisel
United States (USA)
4:31.27  Li Xuanxu
China (CHN)
4:32.91
4×100 m freestyle relay
details
 Australia (AUS)
Alicia Coutts (53.90)
Cate Campbell (53.19)
Brittany Elmslie (53.41)
Melanie Schlanger (52.65)
Emily Seebohm[b]
Yolane Kukla[b]
Libby Trickett[b]
3:33.15 OR  Netherlands (NED)
Inge Dekker (54.67)
Marleen Veldhuis (53.80)
Femke Heemskerk (53.39)
Ranomi Kromowidjojo (51.93)
Hinkelien Schreuder[b]
3:33.79  United States (USA)
Missy Franklin (53.52)
Jessica Hardy (53.53)
Lia Neal (53.65)
Allison Schmitt (53.54)
Amanda Weir[b]
Natalie Coughlin[b]
3:34.24 AM
4×200 m freestyle relay
details
 United States (USA)
Missy Franklin (1:55.96)
Dana Vollmer (1:56.02)
Shannon Vreeland (1:56.85)
Allison Schmitt (1:54.09)
Lauren Perdue[b]
Alyssa Anderson[b]
7:42.92 OR, AM  Australia (AUS)
Bronte Barratt (1:55.76)
Melanie Schlanger (1:55.62)
Kylie Palmer (1:56.91)
Alicia Coutts (1:56.12)
Brittany Elmslie[b]
Angie Bainbridge[b]
Jade Neilsen[b]
Blair Evans[b]
7:44.41  France (FRA)
Camille Muffat (1:55.51)
Charlotte Bonnet (1:57.78)
Ophélie-Cyrielle Étienne (1:58.05)
Coralie Balmy (1:56.15)
Margaux Farrell[b]
Mylène Lazare[b]
7:47.49 NR
4×100 m medley relay
details
 United States (USA)
Missy Franklin (58.50)
Rebecca Soni (1:04.82)
Dana Vollmer (55.48)
Allison Schmitt (53.25)
Rachel Bootsma[b]
Breeja Larson[b]
Claire Donahue[b]
Jessica Hardy[b]
3:52.05 WR  Australia (AUS)
Emily Seebohm (59.01)
Leisel Jones (1:06.06)
Alicia Coutts (56.41)
Melanie Schlanger (52.54)
Brittany Elmslie[b]
3:54.02  Japan (JPN)
Aya Terakawa (58.99)
Satomi Suzuki (1:05.96)
Yuka Kato (57.36)
Haruka Ueda (53.42)
3:55.73
10 km open water
details
 Éva Risztov
Hungary (HUN)
1:57:38.2  Haley Anderson
United States (USA)
1:57:38.6  Martina Grimaldi
Italy (ITA)
1:57:41.8

AF African record | AM Americas record | AS Asian record | ER European record | OC Oceania record | OR Olympic record | WR World record
NR National record (Any world record is necessarily also an Olympic, area, and national record. Area records (for continental regions) are also national records.)

b Swimmers who participated in the heats only and received medals.

Olympic and world records broken[edit]

Men[edit]

Event Date Round Name Nationality Time Record Day
Men's 400 m freestyle 28 July Final Sun Yang China 3:40.14 OR 1
Men's 100 m breaststroke 28 July Semifinal Cameron van der Burgh South Africa 58.83 OR 1
Men's 100 m breaststroke 29 July Final Cameron van der Burgh South Africa 58.46 WR 2
Men's 100 m backstroke 30 July Final Matt Grevers United States 52.16 OR 3
Men's 200 m breaststroke 1 August Final Dániel Gyurta Hungary 2:07.28 WR 5
Men's 200 m backstroke 2 August Final Tyler Clary United States 1:53.41 OR 6
Men's 1500 m freestyle 4 August Final Sun Yang China 14:31.02 WR 8

Women[edit]

Event Date Round Name Nationality Time Record Day
Women's 100 m butterfly 28 July Heats Dana Vollmer United States 56.25 OR 1
Women's 400 m individual medley 28 July Final Ye Shiwen China 4:28.43 WR 1
Women's 4 × 100 m freestyle relay 28 July Final Alicia Coutts (53.90)
Cate Campbell (53.19)
Brittany Elmslie (53.41)
Melanie Schlanger (52.65)
Australia 3:33.15 OR 1
Women's 100 m backstroke 29 July Heats Emily Seebohm Australia 58.23 OR 2
Women's 100 m butterfly 29 July Final Dana Vollmer United States 55.98 WR 2
Women's 400 m freestyle 29 July Final Camille Muffat France 4:01.45 OR 2
Women's 200 m individual medley 30 July Semifinal Ye Shiwen China 2:08.39 OR 3
Women's 200 m freestyle 31 July Final Allison Schmitt United States 1:53.61 OR 4
Women's 200 m individual medley 31 July Final Ye Shiwen China 2:07.57 OR 4
Women's 100 m freestyle 1 August Semifinal Ranomi Kromowidjojo Netherlands 53.05 OR 5
Women's 200 m butterfly 1 August Final Jiao Liuyang China 2:04.06 OR 5
Women's 200 m breaststroke 1 August Semifinal Rebecca Soni United States 2:20.00 WR 5
Women's 4 × 200 m freestyle relay 1 August Final Missy Franklin (1:55.96)
Dana Vollmer (1:56.02)
Shannon Vreeland (1:56.85)
Allison Schmitt (1:54.09)
United States 7:42.92 OR 5
Women's 200 m breaststroke 2 August Final Rebecca Soni United States 2:19.59 WR 6
Women's 100 m freestyle 2 August Final Ranomi Kromowidjojo Netherlands 53.00 OR 6
Women's 200 m backstroke 3 August Final Missy Franklin United States 2:04.06 WR 7
Women's 50 m freestyle 4 August Final Ranomi Kromowidjojo Netherlands 24.05 OR 8
Women's 4 × 100 m medley relay 4 August Final Missy Franklin (58.50)
Rebecca Soni (1:04.82)
Dana Vollmer (55.48)
Allison Schmitt (53.25)
United States 3:52.05 WR 8
  • All world records (WR) are subsequently Olympic records (OR).

Controversies[edit]

In the women's 400-metre individual medley, Chinese Ye Shiwen won in a world-record time of 4:28.43. After the race, Ye was had allegations against her suggesting the use of drugs that drew comment from the International Olympic Committee and FINA who defended Ye. Ye has never tested positive of any performance-enhancing drugs. Some claim the accusations were a result of xenophobism towards the Chinese.

In the final of the 100-metre breaststroke, South African Cameron van der Burgh won in a world-record time of 58.46, bettering the previous record of 58.58 held by Brenton Rickard of Australia. After the race however, underwater camera footage showed winner van der Burgh did three illegal butterfly kicks on the underwater pullout (rules allow for one kick).[13] Van der Burgh later admitted to the illegal move and justified the act by saying if he was not doing it, "you are falling behind or giving yourself a disadvantage."[14]

Gallery of the medalists[edit]

Some of the Olympic medalists in London:

References[edit]

  1. ^ "London 2012: Swimming". London 2012. Retrieved 27 December 2010. 
  2. ^ a b Adrega, Pedro; Chiarello, Sarah (4 August 2012). "Swimming day 8 – USA end on a high note, Phelps retires with 22 medals!". London 2012 (FINA). Retrieved 30 June 2013. 
  3. ^ "2012 London Olympics: Michael Phelps Leads All Swimmers With Six Medals". Swimming World Magazine. 5 August 2012. Retrieved 4 August 2012. 
  4. ^ Nye, James (3 July 2013). "Greatest Olympian of all time bows out with gold: Michael Phelps wins 18th race as U.S. swim team dominates last day in the pool". Mail Online. Retrieved 4 August 2012. 
  5. ^ Tan, Jingjing (3 July 2013). "Great breakthrough for Chinese swimming in Olympic pool". Xinhua News Agency. Retrieved 5 August 2012. 
  6. ^ Hoy, Greg (3 July 2013). "Swimmers outraged over pre-Games treatment". ABC News Australia. Retrieved 7 August 2012. 
  7. ^ Akutsu, Atsushi (3 July 2013). "Olympics/Swimming: Japan fails to strike gold but medal haul points to bright future". The Asahi Shimbun. Retrieved 14 August 2012. 
  8. ^ a b "Swimming: Results and Schedule". London 2012. NBC Olympics. Retrieved 30 June 2013. 
  9. ^ "FINA By Law 9". London 2012. FINA. Retrieved 17 December 2010. 
  10. ^ "764 Qualifying times for London Olympic Games 2012". London 2012. FINA. Retrieved 17 December 2010. 
  11. ^ "FINA Press Release 2010–79: FINA Bureau Meeting in Dubai (UAE)". London 2012. FINA. 14 December 2010. Retrieved 17 December 2010. 
  12. ^ "London 2012 – Swimming – Qualified Swimmers". London 2012. FINA. 6 July 2012. Retrieved 6 July 2012. 
  13. ^ "Illegal Triple-Dolphin Kicks Seen in World Record Breaststroke Swim". SwimSwam. 31 July 2011. Retrieved 8 October 2012. 
  14. ^ "South African Cameron van der Burgh admits using illegal dolphin kicks to win gold medal". The Australian. 4 August 2012. Retrieved 8 October 2012. 

External links[edit]