The Swiss Family Robinson
Illustration for an English edition by Harry Rountree (1907)
|Author||Johann David Wyss|
|Original title||Der Schweizerische Robinson|
|Illustrator||Johann Emmanuel Wyss|
|Publisher||Johann Rudolph Wyss (the author's son)|
|Media type||Print (Hardback & Paperback)|
The Swiss Family Robinson (German: Der Schweizerische Robinson) is a novel by Johann David Wyss, first published in 1812, about a Swiss family named Robinson shipwrecked in the East Indies en route to Port Jackson, Australia.
Written by Swiss pastor Johann David Wyss and edited by his son Johann Rudolf Wyss and illustrated by his son Johann Emmanuel Wyss, the novel was intended to teach his four sons about family values, good husbandry, the uses of the natural world and self-reliance. Wyss' attitude toward education is in line with the teachings of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and many of the episodes have to do with Christian-oriented moral lessons such as frugality, husbandry, acceptance, cooperation, etc. The adventures are presented as a series of lessons in natural history and the physical sciences, and resemble other, similar educational books for children in this period, such as Charlotte Turner Smith's Rural Walks: in Dialogues intended for the use of Young Persons (1795), Rambles Further: A continuation of Rural Walks (1796), A Natural History of Birds, intended chiefly for young persons (1807). But the novel differs in that it is modeled on Defoe's Robinson Crusoe, a genuine adventure story, and presents a geographically impossible array of mammals, birds, reptiles, and plants (including the bamboos, cassavas, cinnamon trees, coconut palm trees, fir trees, flax, Myrica cerifera, rice, rubber plant potatoes, sago palms, and an entirely fictitious kind of sugarcane) that probably could never have existed together on a single island for the children's edification, nourishment, clothing and convenience.
Over the years there have been many versions of the story with episodes added, changed, or deleted. Perhaps the best-known English version is by William H. G. Kingston, first published in 1879. It is based on Isabelle de Montolieu's 1813 French adaptation and 1824 continuation (from chapter 37) Le Robinson suisse, ou, Journal d'un père de famille, naufragé avec ses enfants in which were added further adventures of Fritz, Franz, Ernest, and Jack. Other English editions that claim to include the whole of the Wyss-Montolieu narrative are by W. H. Davenport Adams (1869–1910) and Mrs H. B. Paull (1879). As Carpenter and Prichard write in The Oxford Companion to Children's Literature (Oxford, 1995), "with all the expansions and contractions over the past two centuries (this includes a long history of abridgments, condensations, Christianizing, and Disney products), Wyss's original narrative has long since been obscured." The closest English translation to the original is William Godwin's 1816 translation, reprinted by Penguin Classics.
Although movie and TV adaptations typically name the family "Robinson", it is not a Swiss name; the "Robinson" of the title refers to Robinson Crusoe. The German name translates as the Swiss Robinson, and identifies the novel as belonging to the Robinsonade genre, rather than as a story about a family named Robinson.
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The novel opens with the family in the hold of a sailing ship, weathering a great storm. Only the Robinson family is saved when the vessel breaks apart on a reef and the crew and other passengers jump into lifeboats without waiting for the little family to join them. As the ship tosses about, the father prays that God will spare them. There is plenty of food on board, and after they eat, the boys go to sleep, leaving the father and the mother to guard them.
The ship survives the night, and the family finds themselves within sight of a tropical island. The next morning, the decide to get to the island they can see beyond the reef. With much effort, they construct a vessel out of tubs. After they fill the tubs with food and ammunition and all other articles of value they can safely carry, they row toward the island. Two dogs from the ship swim beside them, and the boys are glad they will have pets when they reach their new home. The ship's cargo of livestock, dogs, guns & powder, carpentry tools, books, a disassembled pinnace, and provisions have survived.
Their first task on reaching the island is to erect a tent of sailcloth they brought from the ship. They gather moss and dry it so that they will have some protection from the ground when they sleep. They are able to find a lobster and to shoot some game, thus to add fresh food to their supplies. Since they have no utensils for eating, they use shells for spoons, all dipping out of the iron kettle that they brought from the ship. They released some geese and pigeons while they were still on the ship and brought two hens and two cocks with them. The father knows that they must prepare for a long time on the island, and his thoughts are as much on provisions for the future as for their immediate wants.
The father and Fritz, the oldest son, spend the next day exploring the island. They find gourds from which they can make dishes and spoons, and many edible fruits and roots. Coconuts, growing in abundance, provide a treat for the mother and the younger boys. Fritz captures a small monkey, which he takes back for a pet. The younger boys are enchanted with the mischievous little animal.
The Robinsons spend the next few days securing themselves against hunger and danger from wild animals. The father and Fritz make several trips to the ship in their efforts to bring ashore everything that they can possibly use. The domesticated animals on the ship are towed back to the island. There is also a great store of firearms and ammunition, hammocks for sleeping, carpenter’s tools, lumber, cooking utensils, silverware, and dishes.
While the father and Fritz are salvaging these supplies, the mother and the younger boys are working on the shore, sowing seeds, examining the contents of the kegs that floated to shore, and in every way possible making the tent a more livable home. The mother and boys also explore the island to find a spot for a more permanent home. When the father and Fritz can join them, the whole family helps to construct a tree house that will give them protection from wild animals that they fear might dwell on the island.
Through the following weeks, each day brings a new adventure of some kind. There are encounters with wild birds and terrifying animals. Ernest, the second son, studied nature with great interest before their ill-fated voyage, and he identifies many of the animals and birds.
The middle of the book is a series of vignettes, covering several years. The father and older boys explore various environments about the island, discover various (improbable) plants and animals that aren't normally seen in the same place. They build a large tree house, complete with a library, and otherwise follow the nomadic custom of keeping several redoubts available across their domain to shelter in during journeys, or live in as weather & local tasks dictate. They also use the carpentry tools and local resources to build mechanical contraptions.
Eventually, Fritz, the oldest boy, receives a message asking for help, and he goes off. He finds Jenny (called "Emily" in some later translations), whom he brings back to his family. Soon afterwards, a ship is blown into the area of the family's island, and they are reunited with the outside world.
- William – The father. He is the narrator of the story and leads the family. He knows a great deal of information on everything from roots to hunting, demonstrating bravery and self-reliance.
- Elizabeth – The mother. She is intelligent and resourceful, arming herself even before leaving the ship with a "magic bag" filled with supplies, including sewing materials and seeds for food crops. She is also a remarkably versatile cook, taking on anything from Porcupine Soup to Roast Penguin.
- Fritz – The oldest of the four boys, he is 15. Fritz is intelligent but impetuous. Fritz is the strongest and accompanies his father on many quests.
- Ernest – The second oldest of the boys, he is 13. Ernest is the most intelligent, but a less physically active boy, often described by his father as "indolent". Like Fritz however, he comes to be an excellent shot.
- Jack – The third oldest of the boys, 11 years old. He is thoughtless, bold, vivacious, and the quickest of the group.
- Franz (sometimes translated as Francis) – The youngest of the boys, he is 8 years old when the story opens. He usually stays home with his mother.
- Emily Montrose (called Jenny in the original German text) – An English girl found on Smoking Rock near the end of the novel. She is shy, but soon is adopted into the family.
- Nip (also called Knips or Nips in some editions) – An orphan monkey adopted by the family after their dogs have killed its mother. The family use him as a test subject for unfamiliar foods.
- Fangs – A jackal that was tamed by the family.
The novels in one form or another have also been adapted numerous times, sometimes changing location and/or time period:
- Willis the pilot: a sequel to The Swiss family Robinson; or, Adventures of an emigrant family wrecked on an unknown coast of the Pacific Ocean (1858) has been attributed to Johann Wyss or to Johanna Spyri, author of Heidi.
- Second Fatherland (Seconde Patrie, 1900), by Jules Verne takes up the story at the point where Wyss's tale left off. It has also been published in two volumes, Their Island Home and Castaways of the Flag.
- Al-Ṭurfa al-Šahiyya fī aḫbār al-ʿAʾila al-Swīsiyya, Arabic translation (c. 1900)
- Swiss Family Robinson (1940 film)
- Swiss Cheese Family Robinson (Mighty Mouse episode, 1947)
- Swiss Family Robinson (1960 Walt Disney film)
- The Swiss Family Robinson (1976)
- The Adventures of Swiss Family Robinson (1998)
- English Family Robinson (1957)
- Swiss Family Robinson (1974) — Canadian series starring Chris Wiggins
- Swiss Family Robinson (1975) — American series starring Martin Milner
- The Swiss Family Robinson: Flone of the Mysterious Island—(1981) anime series.
- The Adventures of Swiss Family Robinson (1998) — New Zealand series starring Richard Thomas
Made for TV movies
- The Swiss Family Robinson (1958)
- The Swiss Family Robinson (1973)
- The Swiss Family Robinson (1973)
- The Swiss Family Robinson (1975)
- Beverly Hills Family Robinson (1998)
- The New Swiss Family Robinson (1998) — starring Jane Seymour
- Stranded (2002)
Comic book series
- Space Family Robinson (1962 to 1984)
- Swiss Family Robinson written by Jerry Montoya and performed at B Street Theatre in Sacramento, California in 2009.
Computer adventure game
- Swiss Family Robinson (computer game) created in 1984 by Tom Snyder Productions for the Apple II and Commodore 64, published under the Windham Classics label. The player takes the role of Fritz, the eldest brother.
- The New Swiss Family Robinson by Owen Wister (1882).
- "A Note on Wyss's Swiss Family Robinson, Montolieu's Le Robinson suisse, and Kingston's 1879 text" by Ellan Moody.
- John Seelye, ed. The Swiss Family Robinson. Penguin Classics. 2007. ISBN 978-0-14-310499-5
- Weber, Marie-Hélène (1993). Robinson et robinsonnades: étude comparée de "Robinson Crusoe" de Defoe, "Le Robinson suisse" de J.R. Wyss, "L'Ile mystérieuse" de J. Verne, "Sa majesté des mouches" de W. Golding, "Vendredi ou les limbes du Pacifique" de M. Tournier, Ed. Universitaires du Sud.
- Wyss, Johann. The Swiss Family Robinson, ed. John Seelye. Penguin Classics, 2007. The only unabridged complete text genuinely by Wyss (and his son) currently in print.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to The Swiss Family Robinson.|
- The Swiss Family Robinson, available at Internet Archive (original edition scanned books with illustrations in color)
- The Swiss Family Robinson, available at Google Books (original edition scanned books with illustrations)
- The Swiss Family Robinson at Project Gutenberg (plain text and HTML). Version unknown, ca. 1850, missing two pages of text.
- The Swiss Family Robinson at Project Gutenberg (plain text). Kingston's 1879 translation.
- "A Note on Wyss's Swiss Family Robinson, Montolieu's Le Robinson suisse, and Kingston's 1879 text", by Ellen Moody. Information about the book and its many versions.