|Sydney (Kingsford Smith) Airport
|IATA: SYD – ICAO: YSSY|
|Operator||Sydney Airport Corporation Limited|
|Location||Mascot, New South Wales, Australia|
|Elevation AMSL||21 ft / 6 m|
|Airfreight in tonnes (2009)||471,000|
Passenger and aircraft movements from the Department of Infrastructure and Transport
Freight from Sydney Airport
Sydney (Kingsford Smith) Airport (also known as Kingsford-Smith Airport and Sydney Airport) (IATA: SYD, ICAO: YSSY) (ASX: SYD) is located in the suburbs of Arncliffe and Mascot in Sydney, New South Wales. It is the only major airport serving Sydney, and is a primary hub for Qantas, as well as a secondary hub for Virgin Australia and Jetstar Airways. Situated next to Botany Bay, the airport has three runways, colloquially known as the "east–west", "north–south" and "third" runways.
Sydney Airport is one of the oldest continuously operated airports in the world, and the busiest airport in Australia, handling 36 million passengers in 2010 and 289,741 aircraft movements in 2009. It was the 27th busiest airport in the world in 2010. The airport is managed by Sydney Airport Corporation Limited (SACL) and the current CEO is Kerrie Mather. Flights from Sydney link with all states and territories of Australia. Currently 47 domestic and 43 international destinations are served to Sydney direct.
1920–30: Early history 
The area that the airport was situated was originally a bullock paddock. Nigel Love, a former wartime pilot, was looking into the possibilities for aviation in Australia. He was interested in establishing the nation's first aircraft manufacturing company, this required him to establish a factory and an aerodrome close to the city. His search for a potential site eventually led him to a real estate office in Sydney which was aware of some land owned by the Kensington Race Club (that was kept as a hedge against losing its government-owned site at Randwick). It had been used by a local abattoir, which was closing down, to graze sheep and cattle. This land appealed to Love, the surface was perfectly flat and was covered with a pasture of buffalo grass. This grass which had been grazed so evenly by the sheep and cattle running on it that it required little to make it serviceable to land aircraft. In addition, the approaches on all four sides had no obstructions, it was bounded by a racecourse, gardens, a river and Botany Bay.
Love established Mascot as a private concern, leasing 200 acres (0.81 km2) from the Kensington Race Club for three years. It initially had a small canvas structure but was later equipped with an imported Richards hangar. The first flight from Mascot was on 19 November 1919 when Love carried freelance movie photographer Billy Marshall up in an Avro. The official opening flight took place on 9 January 1920, also performed by Love.
In 1921 the federal government purchased 161 acres (0.65 km2) in Mascot for the purpose of creating a public airfield. In 1923, when Love's three-year lease expired, the Mascot land was compulsorily acquired by the federal government from the racing club. The first regular flights began in 1924.
In 1933 the first gravel runways were built. Cooks River was diverted away from the area in 1947–52 to provide more land for the airport and other small streams were filled. When Mascot was declared an aerodrome in 1920 it was known as Sydney Airport, in 1953 it was renamed Sydney (Kingsford Smith) Airport in honour of Sir Charles Kingsford Smith, who was a pioneering Australian aviator. Up to the early sixties the majority of Sydney-siders referred to the airport as Mascot. The first paved runway was 07/25 and the next one constructed was 16/34 (now 16R/34L), jutting into Botany Bay, starting in 1959, to accommodate large jets. 07/25 is used mainly by lighter aircraft, although large four engine jet aircraft still periodically land on the runway from the east, when south-westerly winds are blowing in Sydney. 16R is presently the longest operational runway in Australia, with 14,300 ft (4,400 m) paved length and 12,850 ft (3,920 m) between the zebra thresholds.
Modern history 
By the 1960s the need for a new international terminal had become apparent, and work commenced in late 1966. Much of the new terminal was designed by Paynter and Dixon Industries. The plans for the design are held by the State Library of New South Wales.
The new terminal was officially opened on 3 May 1970, by Queen Elizabeth II. The first Boeing 747 "Jumbo Jet" to serve the airport, Pan American's Clipper Flying Cloud (N734PA), arrived on 4 October 1970. In the 1970s the north-south runway was expanded to become one of the longest runways in the southern hemisphere. The international terminal was expanded in 1992 and has undergone several refurbishments since then.
The limitations of having only two runways that crossed each other had become apparent and various governments grappled with Sydney's airport capacity for decades. Eventually, the controversial decision to build a third runway was made. The third runway was built parallel to the existing runway 16/34, entirely on reclaimed land from Botany Bay. A proposed new airport on the outskirts of Sydney was shelved in 2004, before being reexamined in 2009-2012 showing that Kingsford Smith airport will not be able to cope by 2030
Following completion, the "third runway" (as it is known to Sydneysiders) remained controversial because of increased aircraft movements, especially over many inner suburbs. The 1990s saw the formation of the No Aircraft Noise Party, although it failed to win a parliamentary seat in any of the elections it contested. There has been general acquiescence in the arrangements for Sydney Airport that were introduced by the Howard government shortly after its election, namely to maintain curfews between 11pm and 6am, rotate runway operation and fan flight paths out, especially over water (especially Botany Bay) wherever possible and continue the use of noise abatement on aircraft on departure.
In 1995 the Australian Parliament passed the Sydney Airport Curfew Act 1995, which limits the operating hours of the airport. This was done in an effort to curb complaints about aircraft noise. The curfew prevents aircraft from taking off or landing between the hours of 11pm and 6am. A limited number of scheduled and approved take-offs and landings are permitted respectively in the "shoulder periods" of 11pm to midnight and 5am to 6am, by Section 12 of the Act. The Act does not stop all aircraft movements overnight, but limits movements by restricting the types of aircraft that can operate, the runways they can use and the number of flights allowed. During extreme weather, flights are often delayed and it is often the case that people on late flights are unable to travel on a given day. As of 2009, fines for violating curfew have been levied against four airlines, with a maximum fine of $550,000 applicable.
In addition to the curfew, Sydney Airport also has a cap of 80 aircraft movements per hour which cannot be exceeded, leading to increased delays during peak hours.
In 2002, the Australian Government sold Sydney Airports Corporation Limited (later renamed Sydney Airport Corporation Limited, SACL), the management authority for the airport, to Southern Cross Airports Corporation Holdings Ltd. 82.93 per cent of SACL is owned by MAp Airports International Limited, a subsidiary of Macquarie Bank, Sydney Airport Intervest GmbH own 12.11 per cent and Ontario Teachers' Australia Trust own 4.96 per cent. SACL holds a 99 year lease on the airport which remains Crown land.
Since the international terminal's original completion, it has undergone two large expansions. One such expansion is underway and will stretch over twenty years (2005–25). This will include an additional high-rise office block, the construction of a multi-level car park, the expansion of both international and domestic terminals. These expansions—and other plans and policies by Macquarie Bank for airport operations—are seen as controversial, as they are performed without the legal oversight of local councils, which usually act as the local planning authority for such developments. As of April 2006, some of the proposed development has been scaled back.
Sydney Airport's International terminal underwent a $500 million renovation that was completed in mid 2010. The upgrade includes a new baggage system, an extra 7,300 m2 (78,577 sq ft) of space for shops and passenger waiting areas and other improvements.
In March 2010, the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission released a report sharply critical of price gouging at Sydney airport, ranking it fifth out of five airports. The report noted Sydney Airport recorded the highest average prices at $13.63 per passenger, compared to the lowest of $7.96 at Melbourne Airport, while the price of short-term parking had almost doubled in the 2008–09 financial year, from $28 to $50 for four hours. The report also accused the airport of abusing its monopoly power.
In December 2011, Sydney Airport announced a proposal to divide the airport into two airline alliance-based precincts integrating international, domestic and regional services under the one roof by 2019. The current domestic Terminal 2 and Terminal 3 would be used by Qantas, Jetstar and members of the oneworld airline alliance while today's international Terminal 1 would be used by Virgin Australia and its international partners. Other international airlines would continue to operate from T1.
In September 2012, Sydney Airport CEO Kerrie Mather announced the airport had abandoned the proposal to create alliance-based terminals in favour of "one based around specific airline requirements and (passenger) transfer flows".
In March 2013. Air India announced plans to restart daily flights from Delhi to Sydney which may take off either in late 2013 or early 2014. 
Sydney Airport has three passenger terminals. The International Terminal is separated from the other two by a runway, therefore connecting passengers need to allow for longer transfer times. Sydney Airport requires minimum connection times:
- From domestic flight to domestic flight: 30 minutes
- From domestic flight to international flight: 1 hour
- From international flight to domestic flight: 1 hour 15 minutes
- From international flight to international flight: 1 hour
The airport provides a shuttle service between the terminals at a cost of A$5.50.
Terminal 1 
Terminal 1 was opened on 3 May 1970, replacing the old Overseas Passenger Terminal (which was located where Terminal 3 stands now) and has been greatly expanded since then. Today it is known as the International Terminal, located in the airport's north western sector. It has 30 gates (Concourse B with 8–37 and Concourse C with 50–63) served by aerobridges, as well as a number of remote bays. It can accommodate the Airbus A380, which fly routes to Singapore (Singapore Airlines), London via Dubai, Los Angeles and Hong Kong (on some routes) (Qantas), Dubai and Auckland (Emirates). The terminal building is split into three levels, one each for arrivals, departures and airline offices. The departure level has 20 rows of check-in desks each with 10 single desks making a total of 200 check-in desks. The terminal also has an observation deck located on the rooftop. The terminal hosts six airline lounges: Two for Qantas, and one each for Air New Zealand, Singapore Airlines, Malaysia Airlines and Emirates. The terminal underwent a major $500 million redevelopment that was completed in 2010, by which the shopping complex was expanded, outbound customs operations were centralised and the floor space of the terminal increased to 254,000 square metres.
Terminal 2 
Terminal 2, located in the airport's north-eastern section, was the former home of Ansett Australia's domestic operations. It features 15 parking bays served by aerobridges and a number of non-contact bays. Today it serves Virgin Australia, Jetstar, Tiger Airways, Regional Express Airlines, Aeropelican Air Services and Qantaslink services operated by Eastern Australia Airlines. There are lounges for Qantas, Virgin Australia and Regional Express Airlines.
Terminal 3 
Terminal 3 is a domestic terminal, serving Qantas and Qantaslink flights to Canberra. Originally, it was home for Trans Australia Airlines (later named Australian Airlines). Like Terminal 2 it is located in the north-eastern section. The current terminal building is largely the result of extensions made during the late 1990s. There are 14 parking bays served by aerobridges, including two served by dual aerobridges. Terminal 3 features a large Qantas Club lounge, along with a dedicated Business Class and Chairmans lounge. Terminal 3 also has a 'Heritage Collection', dedicated to Qantas, It includes Many collections from the Airlines' 90 years of service, It also has a view of the airports apron and is used commonly by plane-spotters. It is located Adjacent Gate 13.
Other terminals 
Sydney Airport had a fourth passenger terminal, east of Terminal 2. This was formerly known as Domestic Express and was used by Regional Express Airlines; and low-cost carriers Virgin Blue (now known as Virgin Australia) and the now-defunct Impulse Airlines; during the time Terminal 2 was closed following the collapse of Ansett Australia. It is now used by DHL Express and Tasman Cargo Airlines as an office building.
The dedicated Freight Terminal is located north of Terminal 1. It is used for international freight operations, except for Tasman Cargo Airlines' trans-Tasman services. It is also used as overflow parking when terminal 1 gates are all occupied.
Airlines and destinations 
- ^1 Despite this being an international destination, the flight departs from (domestic) Terminal 2 and makes an intermediate stop en route for processing.
- ^2 These flights may make an intermediate domestic stop en route to their listed final destination; however the airlines have no traffic rights to carry passengers solely between Sydney and the intermediate Australian stop.
- ^3 Each of these freight companies has its own facility (each located on different parts of the airport) and does not operate from the International freight terminal
Second airport proposals 
The local, state and federal governments have investigated the viability of building a second major airport in Sydney since the 1940s. Between 1987 and 2000 domestic flights through Sydney more than doubled to nearly 27 million, and international passengers served increased from 8 million to 15 million. The Sydney region passenger demand is forecast to reach 87 million passengers by 2035, more than doubling, and to double again by 2060. Close to half of all scheduled flights in Australia take off or land at Kingsford Smith. In 1998 the airport handled 45 per cent of international passengers in Australia.
The Federal Government has bought most of the required land in a proposed site at Badgerys Creek, west of Sydney. This site would be accessible by the Westlink M7 motorway. There are currently three proposals for the airport layout, featuring different arrangement of terminals in the centre of the proposed three runways. Despite acquiring almost all the land necessary for the building of the Badgerys Creek airport, and multiple studies and reports commissioned that recommend building the airport, in 1995 new airport leasing legislation was blocked in the Australian Senate, and construction was delayed until after the 2000 Sydney Olympics. All the major Australian airlines including Qantas indicated they would prefer additional development of Kingsford-Smith Airport. In 1998 most local authorities reversed their previous support of the new airport and protested against potential noise and pollution impacts. After the 2001 terrorist attacks decimated the air travel industry, the national government announced its belief that the current Sydney airport could accommodate additional air travel demands for at least another decade. Following this, the State Government released land for housing all across Badgerys Creek, effectively eliminating the site as a potential airport.
The issue of a second airport for Sydney arose again after the Rudd government was elected in 2007. Convinced that capacity at the current airport will be exhausted, it soughted a new site. It is believed that various options, including a freight-only airport operation, will be considered. Camden, converting part or all of Richmond and Canberra will be investigated for feasibility, while Bankstown and Badgerys Creek, according to sources, will not.
Traffic and statistics 
|Rank||Airport||Passengers handled||% Change|
|3||Queensland, Gold Coast||2,442,900||8.8|
|4||Western Australia, Perth||1,811,400||4.6|
|5||South Australia, Adelaide||1,751,200||1.7|
|6||Australian Capital Territory, Canberra||1,053,200||1.5|
|9||Queensland, Sunshine Coast||463,600||2.4|
|10||New South Wales, Coffs Harbour||320,200||3.9|
|11||New South Wales, Ballina||280,700||6.7|
|12||Northern Territory, Darwin(a)||263,900||NA|
(a) The Darwin - Sydney route includes data from May 2012. Hence this route may be ranked higher.
|Rank||Airport||Passengers handled||% change|
|1||New Zealand, Auckland||1,366,947||2.6|
|3||Hong Kong, Hong Kong||943,037||0.4|
|4||United States, Los Angeles||879,391||6.2|
|6||United Arab Emirates, Dubai||554,376||35.5|
|7||Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur||492,3961||35.8|
|9||New Zealand, Christchurch||443,209||0.0|
|10||United States, Honolulu||394,094||25.5|
|11||United Arab Emirates, Abu Dhabi||376,578||7.7|
|14||United Kingdom, London-Heathrow||353,624||20.4|
For the year ending January 2012, Sydney Airport served 21,857,015 (-1.9%) domestic, 2,006,365 (-0.7%) regional and 11,765,273 (2.3%) international passengers. In all there were 35,628,653 (-0.5%) passengers, a slight decrease from the year ending January 2011 which had 35,793,792 passengers.
The airport is accessible via the Airport Link underground rail line. The International railway station is located below the International terminal, while the Domestic railway station is located under the car park between the domestic terminals (Terminal 2 and Terminal 3). While the stations are part of the Cityrail suburban network, they are privately owned and operated by the Airport Link consortium. As a result, a single ticket to the city is $15.40 (day-return ticket $25.80), which includes an airport station surcharge (GatePass) of $12 ($19 for a day-return GatePass).
The trains that service the airport are regular suburban trains. Unlike special airport trains at other airports, these do not have special provisions for customers with luggage, do not operate express to the airport and may have all seats occupied by commuters (peak hours) before the trains arrive at the airport.
Shuttle Bus 
Shuttle Bus will drive passengers to the city and deliver them to the door of their hotel. You can buy a ticket for a shuttle bus to your hotel from the information desk at T3 for $15. The cheaper option is to book online in advance, which will be around $12.
Sydney Buses operates Route 400 from Burwood to Bondi Junction railway stations and stops at the International and Domestic terminals. It connects the eastern suburbs, Inner West and St George areas to the airport.
Private shuttle buses also service the airport from the Sutherland Shire, Blue Mountains and Central Coast.
Sydney Airport, being located within a dense urban area, has road connections in all directions. Southern Cross Drive (M1), a motorway, is the fastest link with the city centre. The only other motorway, the M5 South Western Motorway (including the M5 East Freeway) links the airport with the south-western suburbs of Sydney.
A ring road runs around the airport consisting of Airport Drive, Qantas Drive, General Holmes Drive, M5 East Freeway and Marsh Street. General Holmes Drive features a tunnel under the main north-south runway and three taxiways as well as providing access to an aircraft viewing area. Inside the airport a part-ring road — Ross Smith Avenue (named after Ross MacPherson Smith) — connects the Domestic Terminal with the control tower, the general aviation area, car-rental company storage yards, long-term car park, heliport, various retail operations and a hotel. A perimeter road runs inside the secured area for authorised vehicles only.
The Airport runs several official car parks—Domestic Short Term, Domestic Remote Long Term, and International Short/Long Term.
Pedestrian and bicycle 
The International Terminal is located beside a wide pedestrian and bicycle path. It links Mascot and Sydney City in the north-east with Tempe (via a foot bridge over Alexandra Canal) and Botany Bay to the south-west. All terminals offer bicycle racks and are also easily accessible by foot from nearby areas.
Accidents and incidents 
- On 19 July 1945 a Consolidated C-87 Liberator Express operated by the Royal Air Force bound for Manus Island failed to gain altitude after taking off from runway 22, struck trees and crashed into Muddy Creek, north of Brighton. The aircraft exploded on impact, killing all 12 passengers and crew on board. All the victims were service personnel, five from the RAF, one from the Royal New Zealand Air Force and six from the Royal Navy.
- On 18 June 1950 a Douglas DC-3 of Ansett Airways taxiing for take-off from Sydney's now non-existent runway 22 for a night-time passenger flight to Brisbane, hit and partially derailed a coal train travelling on the railway line that crossed the runway. Only the co-pilot was injured.
- On 30 November 1961, Ansett-ANA Flight 325, a Vickers Viscount, crashed into Botany Bay shortly after take-off. The starboard wing failed after the aircraft flew into a thunderstorm. All 15 people on board were killed.
- On 1 December 1969, Boeing 707-321B N892PA of Pan Am Flight 812 overran the runway during take-off due to bird strikes. The accident investigation established that the aircraft struck a flock of seagulls, with a minimum of 11 individual bird strikes to the leading edges of the wings and engines 1, 2, and 3. In particular, blade 14 of number 2 engine was damaged by a single bird carcass and lost power before the decision to abandon the take-off (which occurred at or near V1). The aircraft came to rest 560 ft (170 m) beyond the end of runway 34 (now runway 34L). During the crash, number 2 engine hit the ground and was damaged. The nose and left main landing gears failed and the aircraft came to rest supported by engines 1 and 2, the nose, and the remainder of the main landing gear. There were no injuries or fatalities amongst the 125 passengers and 11 crew. The accident investigation concluded that the overrun was not inevitable.
- On 21 February 1980, VH-AAV, a Beechcraft Super King Air took off from Sydney Airport and suffered an engine failure. The pilot flew the aircraft back to the Airport and attempted to land but crashed into the sea wall. All 13 people on board died in the accident.
- On 24 April 1994, Douglas DC-3 VH-EDC of South Pacific Airmotive had an engine malfunction shortly after take-off on a charter flight to Norfolk Island. The engine was feathered but airspeed decayed and it was found to be impossible to maintain height. A successful ditching was carried out into Botany Bay. All four crew and 21 passengers safely evacuated the aircraft. The investigation revealed that the propeller was not fully feathered.
- On 23 March 2009, Terminal 3 was the scene of a brawl involving 10 people in the two rival bikie gangs, the Hells Angels and Comancheros. The brawl left one man dead and was witnessed by over 50 travelers, CCTV cameras and airport staff including airport security who could do little to intervene.
See also 
- Transport in Australia
- Ascot Racecourse, Sydney
- RAAF Mascot
- United States Army Air Forces in Australia (World War II)
- List of airports in New South Wales
- List of airports in Greater Sydney
- PDF). AIP En Route Supplement from Airservices Australia, effective 7 March 2013 (
- Airport traffic data[dead link]
- Sydney Airport Historical Traffic[dead link]
- Sydney Airport aviation activity forecast[dead link]
- "Geographical Names Register Extract: Sydney (Kingsford Smith) Airport". Geographical Names Register (GNR) of NSW. Geographical Names Board of New South Wales. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
- Fact Sheet[dead link] Sydney Airport
- "2010 final". Aci.aero. Retrieved 2013-01-27.
- Sydney Airport – An Overview[dead link] Sydney Airport
- Steve Creedy (24 November 2009). "Bullock paddock grew to nation's busiest air hub". The Australian. News Corp. Retrieved 7 February 2010.
- "Paynter and Dixon". The Sun Herald. 26 April 1970. p. 57.
- "George Surtees architectural and design drawings, ca. 1950's-1989". Skip Navigation LinksManuscripts, Oral History and Pictures Search. State Library of New South Wales. Retrieved 22 March 2013.
- "Airport Curfews – General Information" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-01-27.
- Creedy, Steve (6 May 2009). "Jetstar fined for airport curfew breach". news.com.au (News Limited). Retrieved 31 May 2009.
- "Sydney Airport Runway Movement Cap Report for December quarter 2010" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-01-27.
- "Ownership". Sydneyairport.com.au. Retrieved 26 October 2010.[dead link]
- Sydney Morning Herald. 21 April 2006 issue
- "International Terminal – Expansion and Upgrade". Sydneyairport.com.au. Retrieved 26 October 2010.[dead link]
- West, Andrew; Matt, O'Sullivan (12 March 2010). "ACCC slams price gouging at Sydney Airport". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 26 October 2010.
- "New Vision To Integrate International, Domestic and Regional Services". Sydneyairport.com.au. Retrieved 5 December 2011.
- "Sydney Airport scraps plans for alliance-based mega-terminals". AusBT.com.au. Retrieved 21 September 2012.
- "Air India announces flights to Australia".
- "Master Plan". Sydneyairport.com.au. Retrieved 30 May 2011.[dead link]
- [dead link]
- "Sydney - Orange". Brindabellaairlines.com.au. Retrieved 2013-01-27.
- "About Qantas - Media Room - Media Releases - Qantas announces direct Sydney to Gladstone services". Qantas.com.au. Retrieved 2013-01-27.
- "Media Statement" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-02-10.
- "Skytrans Reveals New Toowoomba-Sydney Fares and Schedule" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-01-27.
- "Tiger’s Paw Print Expands – Four New Routes on Sale Today!" - Tiger Airways Australia Media Release retrieved 6 February 2013
- Ben, Exclusive By (2012-11-24). "Fur flies in Tiger price war". adelaidenow. Retrieved 2013-01-27.
- "Second Sydney Airport — A Chronology". www.aph.gov.au. Retrieved 23 July 2008.[dead link]
- "No airport cap or curfew change: Albanese". Sydney Morning Herald (www.news.smh.com.au). AAP. 2 March 2012. Retrieved 4 March 2012.
- Philip Laird (2001). "Where We Are Now". Back on Track (UNSW Press). p. 29. ISBN 0-86840-411-X.
- Farr, Malcolm (5 May 2008). "Search on for second Sydney airport". The Daily Telegraph (www.news.com.au). Retrieved 23 July 2008.
- "Australian Domestic Airline Activity—Monthly Publications". Bitre.gov.au. 2013-01-22. Retrieved 2013-01-27.
- "International Airline Activity—Annual Publications". Bitre.gov.au. 2012-04. Retrieved 2013-05-14.
- "Sydney Airport Link". Airport Link. Retrieved 6 February 2010.
- "Sydney Airport". Rail Corp. Retrieved 6 February 2010.
- "Sydney Buses Timetable – Burwood to Bondi Junction". Sydney Buses. Retrieved 6 February 2010.[dead link]
- "Sydney Airport Carparks". Sydney Airport Website. Sydney Airport Corporation Limited. 17 December 2010. Retrieved 17 December 2010.
- "Crash of a C-87 Liberator Express 1 mile west of Mascot Airfield on 19 July 1945". Retrieved 24 July 2012.
- Job, Macarthur (1992). Air Crash, Volume 2. Weston Creek, ACT: Aerospace Publications. p. 153. ISBN 1-875671-01-3.
- "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 2 October 2009.
- Air Safety Investigation Branch, Melbourne (1970). Accident Investigation Report – Boeing 707-321B Aircraft N892PA at Sydney (Kingsford-Smith) Airport, on 1st December 1969. Melbourne: Department of Civil Aviation, Australia. Retrieved 26 October 2010.[dead link]
- "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 2 October 2009.
- Dylan Welch, Les Kennedy and Ellie Harvey (23 March 2009). "Bikie killed in Sydney Airport brawl". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Sydney Airport|