Sydney Josland

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Sydney Walter Josland

Sydney Walter Josland (30 January 1904 – 28 June 1991) was a New Zealand bacteriologist who specialised in research into Leptospirosis, Salmonella and the control of diseases in animals.

Early life and education[edit]

Born in Christchurch in 1904, Josland was the eldest son of Frederick Josland and Mary Amelia Kerr. He attended Christchurch Boys' High School. An uncle, Robert Kerr, had made a fortune in South Africa after the Boer War and had retired to Geneva in Switzerland where he invested money into Dr Henri Spahlinger's work on a vaccine for Tuberculosis.[1] Kerr had wanted Josland to study law and had offered to finance his studies.[2] The offer never came through, however, as Kerr died of Tuberculosis in Geneva on 7 April 1923, aged forty-seven. Perhaps influenced by his uncle's early death, Josland commenced studying towards a medical degree at the University of Otago in Dunedin. He did not finish the degree, due to financial constraints, but gained a Certificate of Proficiency in Bacteriology and Clinical Pathology from the University in 1926. He married Elsie Naviro Railton in Dunedin on 20 December 1927 and they had a son. Josland completed a Bachelor of Music degree from the University of Otago in 1935 and a Bachelor of Arts degree from Victoria University of Wellington in 1950.

Early scientific career[edit]

Sydney Walter Josland working at the Wallaceville Animal Research Centre in 1934.

Josland was initially a cadet in the Agricultural Department in Christchurch during which time he attended classes at Canterbury College.[3] In 1921, he was appointed Assistant in the Bacteriological Department of Southland Hospital in Invercargill, where he was employed for eighteen months.[4] Josland then became a Bacteriological Cadet attached to the Departments of Bacteriology and Pathology at the University of Otago Medical School where he worked under the supervision of Professors Eric D'Ath (Pathology), Alexander Drennan (Pathology) and Charles Ernest Hercus (Bacteriology).[5] During his time at the Medical School, among other things, Josland worked on the chemical methods of pollen extraction and the preparation of these extracts for the diagnosis and therapy of hay fever.[6] He also received training in recently developed methods of blood analysis from Dr Cedric Stanton Hicks.[7] Additionally, Josland spent a brief period employed as relieving bacteriologist at the District Hospital in Whangarei.[8]

Accompanied by his family, Josland arrived in Upper Hutt near Wellington in 1929, at the invitation of Dr Cyril Hopkirk, to set up a biochemistry laboratory at the Wallaceville Animal Research Centre.[9] He later became Chief Bacteriologist at the Centre, where, in addition to working under Dr Hopkirk, he worked under Dr Ira James Cunningham and Dr John Francis Filmer. Josland initiated the Technicians' Training Scheme at the Centre and supervised the training of technical staff.[10]

Until 1930, no organised biochemical work had been undertaken in New Zealand on the blood and urine of normal cattle and sheep.[11] Josland decided that his first priority should be an attempt to determine the normal values and limits for the purpose of standards.[12] This was done and became the standards upon which future biochemical investigations were based. Josland directed biochemical work towards various cattle and sheep diseases, including eclampsia, temporary sterility in cattle and pulpy kidney in lambs, blood from the latter showing no deviation from the normal.[13]

Josland undertook post-graduate training under the direction of Hedley Marston at the Animal Nutrition Laboratory of the Commonwealth Department of Scientific and Industrial Research in Adelaide, Australia in 1935.[14] Dr Lionel Bull was head of the Laboratory and staff conducted research into animal nutrition problems. At the time, studies were being made of coast disease, which affected sheep, and metabolism in ewes. One of the problems of drought-feeding was to find the minimum energy requirements of the animal.[15] Josland's main purpose in going to the Laboratory was to get some application in biochemistry in the investigation of diseases in animals. He also studied cobalt deficiency.[16] Upon his return to New Zealand, Josland commented that "[t]here seemed to be no dearth of money in Australia for research work [and] an amazing amount of money was made available from sources outside the Government, particularly the pastoral trusts and the banks".[17]

Working under Dr Filmer, Josland, together with six veterinary officers, two chemists and two staff from the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, investigated the facial eczema epidemic affecting stock in the Waikato District in 1938.[18]

Military career[edit]

Josland began his military career in the Cadet Service with the West Christchurch District High School and the Canterbury and Southland Regiments between 1917 and 1921. He was then in the ranks of the territorial service during 1922 and 1923 before being commissioned into the Otago Regiment in 1923. Before the Second World War, Josland was a Captain in the Twenty-fifth (Wellington) Battalion of the New Zealand Territorials. He went to the War as Second-in-Command of D Company in the Twenty-fifth Battalion (Third Echelon) of the Second New Zealand Expeditionary Force.[19] Josland served in Greece, Italy, the Middle East and North Africa. He learnt French and Italian and qualified in Arabic and Urdu. When the War was over, Josland returned to New Zealand with the rank of Lieutenant Colonel and was posted to the Retired List on 31 July 1946. He was presented with the Efficiency Decoration by the Governor-General of New Zealand, on 31 August 1950, for his services to the New Zealand Army.[20] A collection of poems by Josland, reflecting on his experiences and impressions of the Middle East, and later Italy, during the period from 1941 to 1945, was published in 2005.[21]

Post-war scientific career[edit]

Josland returned to the Wallaceville Animal Research Centre in 1946. The use of precise serological methods of antigenic analysis had made possible the identification of organisms of the Salmonella group which had been isolated from material of animal origin at Wallaceville. [22] Josland was able to isolate only two organisms - Salmonella Typhi Murium and Salmonella Cholera Suis.[23] This contrasted with overseas results where many types of Salmonella had been found.[24]

Josland was the first to investigate the use of a vaccine to control Salmonellosis in sheep.[25] He discovered an injection of formalised alum-precipitated Salmonella Typhi Murium vaccine resulted in low and inconsistent antibody response.[26] Even though a greater number of vaccinated animals survived following challenge, compared to unvaccinated animals, he concluded that prophylactic vaccination was of little use.[27] He was able to recommend control measures but stressed that early diagnosis by the clinician, confirmed by laboratory analysis, was important if hygiene and isolation measures were to be successful.[28]

Further investigations carried out by Josland lead to the isolation, in New Zealand, of the Salmonella organism from all species of farm animals, from watering holes, and from pastures contaminated by infected faeces of such animals, and he showed, in a series of comprehensive field studies, that the organism when deposited in dung, water or pasture, could remain viable for periods ranging up to twenty-eight weeks.[29] Josland also found that the survival of Salmonella was less on pasture exposed to sun compared to shaded pasture.[30]

In 1954, Josland resigned from the Wallaceville Animal Research Centre to become Chief Bacteriologist at the National Health Institute, Department of Health, in Wellington. The Institute carried out research and teaching, and provided specialised epidemiological and laboratory services in general bacteriology, bacteriophage typing, chemistry and virology.[31] Josland continued to specialize in research into Leptospirosis and Salmonella, working firstly under Dr James Blakelock, and later under Dr James Manning.[32]

He returned briefly to the Wallaceville Animal Research Centre in 1960 as Officer in Charge of the Small Animal Unit.[33]

Josland became an Associate of the New Zealand Institute of Chemistry in 1933 and later an Honorary Life Member of the New Zealand Association of Bacteriologists. From 1961 until his retirement in 1972, he taught science at Heretaunga College in Upper Hutt. He died in Lower Hutt in 1991.

Josland made considerable contributions to the knowledge of Leptospirosis and Salmonella and the control of diseases in animals in the fields of bacteriology, biochemistry and haematology.[34] He published thirty articles related to his research in Australasian medical and scientific journals.

Published articles[edit]

  • Josland, S. W., The Experimental Transmission of Salmonella Cholerae Suis Infection in Swine. New Zealand Department of Agriculture, Wellington, New Zealand.
  • Josland, S. W., Salmonellosis of Pigs. New Zealand Department of Agriculture, Wellington, New Zealand.
  • Josland, S. W., A Study of the Blood of Healthy Sheep and Cattle in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Science and Technology, Vol. XIV, No. 5, April 1933, pp298–308.
  • Josland, S. W., The Effect of Pregnancy and Parturition on Some Blood and Urinary Constituents in the Ewe. New Zealand Journal of Science and Technology, March 1934, pp359–363.
  • Cunningham, I. J. and Josland, S. W., The Determination of Magnesium in Blood Serum. New Zealand Journal of Science and Technology, Vol. XVI, No. 1, July 1934, pp28–29.
  • Josland, S. W. and Lugg, J. W. H., A Note on the Colorimetric Estimation of Cobalt in Solution by Means of Nitroso-R-Salt. Australian Journal of Experimental Biology and Medical Science, Vol. XIV, 27 July 1936.
  • Josland, S. W., The Effect of Feeding Cobalt to Rats. New Zealand Journal of Science and Technology, Vol. 18, October 1936, pp474–480.
  • Josland, S. W., Total Ash of Sheeps' Bones as an Index to Calcification. New Zealand Journal of Science and Technology, Vol. 18, January 1937, pp665–668.
  • Josland, S. W., The Effect of Feeding Excess of Cobalt to Healthy Sheep. New Zealand Journal of Science and Technology, Vol. 19, June 1937, pp31–37.
  • Askew, H. O. and Josland, S. W., The Rate of Excretion of Cobalt by Sheep After Drenching with Cobalt Chloride. New Zealand Journal of Science and Technology, Vol. 18, May 1937, pp888–892.
  • Josland, S. W. and McNaught, K. J., Further Observations on the Production of Cobalt Polycythaemia in Rats. New Zealand Journal of Science and Technology, Vol. 19, February 1938, pp536–540.
  • Josland, S. W., Salmonellosis of Swine in New Zealand. Australian Veterinary Journal, Vol. 23, October 1947, pp292–293.
  • Josland, S. W., The Identification of Salmonella with Special Reference to Serological Methods. Journal of the New Zealand Association of Bacteriologists, Vol. 3, No. 4, October 1948, pp51–54.
  • Josland, S. W., A Note on the Use of Hydroquinone Enrichment Media for the Isolation of Salmonella. Journal of the New Zealand Association of Bacteriologists, Vol. 4, No. 1, 1949, pp5–6.
  • Josland, S. W., The Identification of S. Bovis Morbificans Infection in New Zealand. Journal of the New Zealand Association of Bacteriologists, Vol. 4, No. 3, July 1949, pp34–35.
  • Josland, S. W., Salmonella Infections of Animals in New Zealand. Australian Veterinary Journal, Vol. 26, No. 9, September 1950, pp249–253.
  • Josland, S. W., Survival of Salmonella Typhi Murium on Various Substances Under Natural Conditions. Australian Veterinary Journal, Vol. 27, No. 10, October 1951, pp264–266.
  • Josland, S. W., A Further Note on the Serological Identification of Salmonella Cultures. Journal of the New Zealand Association of Bacteriologists, Vol. 7, No. 2, July 1952, pp31–34.
  • Josland, S. W., Salmonella Types in New Zealand. New Zealand Medical Journal, Vol. 51, No. 283, June 1952, pp180–184.
  • Josland, S. W., The Identification of Salmonella Saint Paul in New Zealand. Journal of the New Zealand Association of Bacteriologists, Vol. 8, No. 109, 1953, pp3–5.
  • Josland, S. W., The Identification of Salmonella Senftenberg in New Zealand. Journal of the New Zealand Association of Bacteriologists, Vol. 8, No. 2, April 1953, pp22–24.
  • Josland, S. W., Observations on the Aetiology of Bovine and Ovine Salmonellosis in New Zealand. New Zealand Veterinary Journal, Vol. 1, December 1953, pp131–136.
  • Josland, S. W., Additional Salmonella Types in New Zealand. New Zealand Medical Journal, Vol. 53, No. 297, October 1954, pp486–488.
  • Josland, S. W., The Immunogenic Properties of Salmonella Typhi Murium in Sheep. New Zealand Veterinary Journal, Vol. 2, March 1954, pp2–7.
  • Josland, S. W., The Infective and Immunogenic Properties of Salmonella Cholerae Suis in Weaner Pigs. New Zealand Veterinary Journal, Vol. 2, June 1954, pp41–46.
  • Josland, S. W., Observations on the Nutritional Requirements of Leptospirae and the Maintenance of Leptospiral Cultures. Journal of the New Zealand Association of Bacteriologists, Vol. 10, No. 3, October 1955, pp47–49.
  • Josland, S. W., Additional Salmonella Types in New Zealand. III. New Zealand Medical Journal, Vol. 55, No. 306, April 1956, pp139–140.
  • Allen, R. E., Cashmore, S., Josland, S. W. and Scott, H. M., Survey Work on Human Leptospirosis in New Zealand. New Zealand Medical Journal, Vol. 56, No. 312, April 1957, pp128–131.
  • Josland, S. W., Additional Salmonella Types in New Zealand. IV. New Zealand Medical Journal, Vol. 57, No. 318, April 1958, pp155–156.
  • Josland, S. W. and Norris, D. M., Additional Salmonella Types in New Zealand. V. New Zealand Medical Journal, Vol. 58, August 1959, pp504–506.

Additional articles[edit]

  • Josland, S. W., Infection with Salmonella Bovis Morbificans. Animal Health Notes, Vol. IX, No. 8, 19 August 1948, p134. Information Circular, Animal Research Centre, Wallaceville.
  • Josland, S. W., Salmonellosis of Cattle. Animal Health Notes, Vol. X, No. 9, 20 September 1948, pp157–159. Information Circular, Animal Research Centre, Wallaceville.

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Buddle, M. B., Letter dated 20 January 1961. Sydney Walter Josland Papers, MS-Group-2144, Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand.
  • D'Ath, E. F., Letter dated 2 August 1929. Sydney Walter Josland Papers, MS-Group-2144, Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand.
  • Department of Agriculture, Annual Report for 1930-31. Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives, 1931, Session I-II, H-29.
  • Department of Agriculture, Annual Report for 1935-36. Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives, 1936, Session I, H-29.
  • Disease in Stock. Eczema Epidemic. Waikato Investigation. Auckland Star, Volume LXIX, Issue 110, 12 May 1938, p12.
  • Hall, J. W., Letter dated 20 August 1927. Sydney Walter Josland Papers, MS-Group-2144, Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand.
  • Hickey F., Salmonella Infection in New Zealand. A Public Health Hazard. Investigations at Wallaceville. New Zealand Agriculturist, Vol. VII, No. 9, August 1952, pp3–4.
  • Jensen, H., Directory of New Zealand Science. The New Zealand Association of Scientific Workers, Wellington, New Zealand, 1962.
  • Josland, S. W., Letter dated 17 July 1981. Sydney Walter Josland Papers, MS-Group-2144, Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand.
  • Josland, S. W., Poems 1941 - 1945. Puriri Press, Auckland, New Zealand, 2005. ISBN 0-908943-29-6.
  • Kerslake, J. I., Salmonella Brandenburg in New Zealand Sheep: The Development of a Serological Diagnostic Test and a Case Control Study. A Thesis Presented in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Veterinary Studies at Massey University. University Thesis (M. V. Stud.), Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand, February 2003.
  • Local and General. Evening Post, Volume CIV, Issue 114, 10 November 1922, p6.
  • McLintock, A. H., (Ed.), Laboratory Services in An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand. R. E. Owen, Government Printer, Wellington, 1966.
  • Murray, C. J., Environmental Aspects of Salmonella in Wray, A. and Wray, C., (Editors), Salmonella in Domestic Animals. CAB International, Wallingford, United Kingdom, 2000. ISBN 0-85199-261-7.
  • Obituary. Upper Hutt Identity and Former Animal Research Centre Staff Member Dies. Upper Hutt Leader, September 1991.
  • Puttick, Sir E., Official History of New Zealand in the Second World War 1939-45. 25 Battalion. War History Branch, Department of Internal Affairs, Wellington, 1960.
  • Research Work. Activities in Australia. Evening Post, Volume CXX, Issue 1, 1 July 1935, p11.
  • Tenquist, J. D., Wallaceville Veterinary Laboratory: A History. MAF Technology, Wallaceville Animal Research Centre, Upper Hutt, New Zealand, 1990. ISBN 0-447-08124-X .