Sylph

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For other uses, see Sylph (disambiguation).
Sylph
Wesnoth Sylph (Kathrin Polikeit).png
Grouping Mythological
Sub grouping Air spirit, Elemental
Similar creatures Angels, Fairies
Mythology Western tradition
Other name(s) Sylphid
Habitat Air

Sylph (also called sylphid) is a mythological spirit of the air.[1] The term originates in the works of Paracelsus, who describes sylphs as invisible beings of the air, his elementals of air.[2]

Since the term sylph itself originates with Paracelsus, there is relatively little pre-Paracelsian legend and mythology that can be confidently associated with it, but a significant number of subsequent literary and occult works have been inspired the idea.

Etymology[edit]

The word is possibly a portmanteau from Latin sylvestris and nympha,[3] sylvestris being a common synonym for sylph in Paracelsus. Anthon and Trollope note a similar usage in the Aeneid, where silvestris is taken as an elliptical form of nympha silvestris[4] ("forest nymph"). Jacob Grimm uses this phrase as a gloss for the Anglo-Saxon wudu-mær (roughly equivalent to "woodmare"), which he also takes as a metaphorical name for an echo.[5] Jan Baptist van Helmont, a near contemporary of Paracelsus and coiner of the word "gas," uses sylvestris in the sense of "wild" to describe gaseous emissions, which may be connected to the Paracelsian usage.[6] An alternative theory is that it derives from the Ancient Greek σίλφη, which a number of etymological sources gloss as "moth,"[7] though the most authoritative reference for Ancient Greek, A Greek–English Lexicon, is unaware of this sense and defines it as a "cockroach" or "book worm." French etymological sources often derive it from a Latin word sylphus, glossed as "genius" (in the Latin sense, a type of spirit) and only known from inscriptions rather than literary Latin.[8]

Alchemy and literature[edit]

The Swiss German physician and alchemist Paracelsus first coined the term sylph in the 16th century to describe an air spirit in his overarching scheme of elemental spirits associated with the four Classical elements. Paracelsus drew from earlier sources, but his systematic treatment of the idea was definitive, with the names of three of the four types having originated in his works. These ideas were adopted in Rosicrucianism and were widely encountered in subsequent hermetic literature.

The French pseudo-novel Comte de Gabalis (1670) was important in passing sylphs into the literary sphere. It appears to have originated the derivative term "sylphid" (French sylphide), which it uses as the feminine counterpart to "sylph".

One of the best-known discussions of sylphs comes with Alexander Pope. In Rape of the Lock (final ed. 1717), Pope satirizes French Rosicrucian and alchemical writings when he invents a theory to explain the sylph. In a parody of heroic poetry and the "dark" and "mysterious" alchemical literature, and in particular the sometimes esoterically Classical heroic poetry of the 18th century in England and France, Pope pretends to have a new alchemy, in which the sylph is the mystically, chemically condensed humors of peevish women. In Pope's poem, women who are full of spleen and vanity turn into sylphs when they die because their spirits are too full of dark vapors to ascend to the skies. Belinda, the heroine of Pope's poem, is attended by a small army of sylphs, who foster her vanity and guard her beauty.

The poem is a parody of Paracelsian ideas, inasmuch as Pope imitates the pseudo-science of alchemy to explain the seriousness with which vain women approach the dressing room. In a slight parody of the divine battle in Pope's Rape of the Lock, when the Baron of the poem attempts to cut a lock of Belinda's hair, the sylphs interpose their airy bodies between the blades of the scissors (to no effect whatsoever).[9]

Ariel, the chief sylph in The Rape of the Lock, has the same name as Prospero's servant in Shakespeare's The Tempest (ca. 1611), and Shakespeare's character is described literally as an "airy spirit" in the dramatis personae.[10] This name is generally thought to have been original with Shakespeare, though the exact inspiration for the character is unclear.[11] Pope explicitly cited Comte de Gabalis as a source for elemental lore in the dedication.

Willow, a character in Terry Brooks' Magic Kingdom of Landover series of novels (1986), is a sylph and the wife of protagonist Ben Holiday. She is the daughter of the River Master and a wood elemental, giving her pale green skin and emerald hair. Her dual nature is reflected in the fact that she must transform into a willow tree once every 21 days to maintain her life force. She has a tense and distant relationship with her father, as her existence serves as a permanent reminder to him of the brief relationship he desires to reclaim, but never can. And so it is to her mother that she turns for guidance.

Fairy link[edit]

Because of their association with the ballet La Sylphide, where sylphs are identified with fairies and the medieval legends of fairyland, as well as a confusion with other "airy spirits" (e.g., in William Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream), a slender girl may be referred to as a sylph.

Sylph has passed into general language as a term for minor spirits, elementals, or faeries of the air. Fantasy authors will sometimes employ sylphs in their fiction, for example creating giant artistic clouds in the skies with airy wings.[12]

Hermetic Teachings[edit]

There are four orders of elements and each has a ruling elemental over it:[13]

  1. Spirits of Earth - Gnomes
  2. Spirits of Air - Sylphs
  3. Spirits of Water - Undines
  4. Spirits of Fire - Salamanders

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "sylph". Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford Dictionary. Retrieved 11 December 2013. 
  2. ^ "sylph - definition of sylph". The Free Dictionary. Retrieved 11 December 2013. 
  3. ^ Edgecombe, R.S. (2002). "The Mountain Sylph: A Forgotten Exemplar of English Romantic Opera". The Opera Quarterly 18 (1): 26–39. 
  4. ^ Virgilius Maro, Publius (1847). Anthon, C.; Trollope, W., eds. P. Virgilii Maronis Æneis. The Æneïd of Virgil, with Engl. notes. London: Tegg and Co. p. 486. 
  5. ^ Grimm, Jacob (1888). Stallybras, J.S., ed. Teutonic Mythology IV. London: George Bell and Sons. p. 1413. 
  6. ^ Pagel, Walter; Rosenberg, Charles (2007). Joan Baptista Van Helmont: Reformer of Science and Medicine. Cambridge University Press. pp. 66–68. 
  7. ^ E.g. Nelson, Thomas (1922). Nelson's New Dictionary of the English Language. Thomas Nelson & sons. p. 318 - entry sylph. Retrieved 27 April 2015. 
  8. ^ E.g. Spitters, Thomas H. (2005). Vocabulaire Général de la Littérature Française Du XXème Siècle (in French). lulu.com. p. 186. 
  9. ^ Eiss, Harry (2011). Divine Madness. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. pp. 196–197. ISBN 1443833290. 
  10. ^ Shakespeare, William. The Tempest. Vol. XLVI, Part 5. The Harvard Classics. New York: P.F. Collier & Son, 1909–14; Bartleby.com, 2001. www.bartleby.com/46/5/
  11. ^ Johnson, W. Stacy. "The Genesis of Ariel." Shakespeare Quarterly. (July 1951) 2.3 pgs. 205-210
  12. ^ John Grant and John Clute, The Encyclopedia of Fantasy, "Elemental" p 313-4, ISBN 0-312-19869-8
  13. ^ Regardie (2002).

Bibliography

  • Regardie, Israel (2002). The Golden Dawn: the Original Account of the Teachings, Rites & Ceremonies of the Hermetic Order. Llewellyn Publications. ISBN 9780875426631. 
  • von Hohenheim (Paracelsus), Theophrast (1933). Sudhoff, K.; Matthießen, W., eds. Sämtliche Werke: Abt. 1, v. 14, sec. 7, Liber de nymphis, sylphis, pygmaeis et salamandris et de caeteris spiritibus. Munich: Oldenbourg. 
  • de Montfaucon de Villars, N. (1913). the Brothers, ed. Comte de Gabalis. London: The Old Bourne Press. 
  • Pope, Alexander (2006). Joseph Black, Leonard Conolly, Kate Flint, Isobel Grundy, Don LePan, Roy Liuzza, Jerome J., Anne Lake Prescott, Barry V. Quallis, Claire Waters, ed. The Rape of the Lock. The Broadview Anthology of British Literature. Broadview Press. pp. 443–456.