|Traded as||NASDAQ: SYMC
S&P 500 Component
|Founded||Sunnyvale, California, U.S. (March 1, 1982 )|
|Headquarters||350 Ellis Street, Mountain View, California, U.S.|
|Key people||Steve Bennett
(Chairman, President and CEO)
|Products||Norton AntiVirus, Norton One, Norton 360, Norton Internet Security, Symantec Endpoint Protection, Enterprise Vault, Veritas Cluster Server, Veritas Storage Foundation, Symantec Ghost, NetBackup, Norton DNS, OnlineFamily.Norton|
|Revenue||US$ 6.73 billion (2012)|
|Operating income||US$ 1.07 billion (2012)|
|Profit||US$ 1.17 billion (2012)|
|Total assets||US$ 13.02 billion (2012)|
|Total equity||US$ 5.09 billion (2012)|
|Divisions||List of divisions|
Symantec Corporation / / is an American computer security, backup and availability solutions software corporation headquartered in Mountain View, California, United States. It is a Fortune 500 company and a member of the S&P 500 stock market index.
- 1 History
- 2 Norton products
- 3 Enterprise software
- 4 Mergers and acquisitions
- 5 Recent security concerns and controversies
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
1982 to 1989
Founded in 1982 by Gary Hendrix with a National Science Foundation grant, Symantec was originally focused on artificial intelligence-related projects, including a database program. Hendrix hired several Stanford University natural language processing researchers as the company's first employees, among them Barry Greenstein (professional poker player and developer of the word processor component within Q&A).
In 1984 it became clear that the advanced natural language and database system that Symantec had developed could not be ported from DEC minicomputers to the PC. This left Symantec without a product, but with expertise in natural language database query systems and technology. As a result, later in 1984 Symantec was acquired by another, smaller software startup company, C&E Software, founded by Denis Coleman and Gordon Eubanks and headed by Eubanks. C&E Software was in the process of developing an integrated file management and word processing program.
The merged company retained the name Symantec, and Eubanks became its chairman, Vern Raburn, the former CEO of the original Symantec, remained as CEO of the combined company. Soon after the merger, Eubanks and Raburn recruited Rod Turner into Symantec as its executive vice president for marketing, sales, product management and international business. Turner had been in interviews and discussions with C&E Software in early 1984 about becoming the president of C&E. These discussions had ended when the two companies merged. The new Symantec combined the file management and word processing functionality that C&E had planned, and added an advanced Natural Language query system (designed by Gary Hendrix and engineered by Dan Gordon) that set new standards for ease of database query and report generation. The natural language system was named "The Intelligent Assistant". Turner chose the name of Q&A for Symantec's flagship product, in large part because the name lent itself to use in a short, easily merchandised logo. Brett Walter designed the user interface of Q&A (Brett Walter, Director of Product Management). Q&A was released in November 1985.
During 1986, Vern Raburn and Gordon Eubanks swapped roles, and Eubanks became CEO and president of Symantec, while Raburn became its chairman. Subsequent to this change, Raburn had little involvement with Symantec, and in a few years time, Eubanks added the Chairmanship to his other roles.
After a slow start for sales of Q&A in the fall of 1985 and spring of 1986, Turner signed up a new advertising agency called Elliot Dickens, embarked on an aggressive new advertising campaign, and came up with the "Six Pack Program" in which all Symantec employees, regardless of role, went on the road, training and selling dealer sales staff nationwide in the United States. Turner named it Six Pack because employees were to work six days a week, see six dealerships per day, train six sales representatives per store and stay with friends free or at Motel 6. Simultaneously, a promotion was run jointly with SofSell (which was Symantec's exclusive wholesale distributor in the United States for the first year that Q&A was on the market). This promotion was very successful in encouraging dealers to try Q&A.
During this time, Symantec was advised by Jim Lally and John Doerr — both were board members of Symantec at that stage — (Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers) that if Symantec would cut its expenses and grow revenues enough to achieve cash flow break-even, then KPCB would back the company in raising more venture capital. To accomplish this, the management team worked out a salary reduction schedule where the chairman and the CEO would take zero pay, all vice presidents would take a 50% pay cut, and all other employees' pay was cut by 15%. Two employees were laid off. Eubanks also negotiated a sizable rent reduction on the office space the company had leased in the days of the original Symantec. These expense reductions, combined with strong international sales of Q&A, enabled the company to attain break-even. Because all team members were sharing in the suffering of reduced income, and because of the unifying affects of the Six Pack Program, Symantec's morale during this period was very high — the more so when one considers that the company had a very uncertain future at this time.
The significantly increased traction for Q&A from this re-launch grew Symantec's revenues substantially, along with early success for Q&A in international markets (uniquely a German version was shipped three weeks after the United States version, and it was the first software in the world that supported German Natural Language) following Turner's having placed emphasis on establishing international sales distribution and multiple language versions of Q&A from initial shipment.
In 1985, Rod Turner negotiated the publishing agreement with David Whitney for Symantec's second product, which Turner named NoteIt (an annotation utility for Lotus 1-2-3). It was evident to Turner that NoteIt would confuse the dealer channel if it was launched under the Symantec name, because Symantec had built up interest by that stage in Q&A (but not yet shipped it), and because the low price point for the utility would not be initially attractive to the dealer channel until demand had been built up. Turner felt that the product should be marketed under a unique brand name. Turner and Gordon E. Eubanks, Jr., then chairman of Symantec Corporation, agreed to form a new division of Symantec, and Eubanks delegated the choice of name to Turner. Turner chose the name Turner Hall Publishing, to be a new division of Symantec devoted to publishing third-party software and hardware. The objective of the division was to diversify revenues and accelerate the growth of Symantec. Turner chose the name Turner Hall Publishing, using his last name and that of Dottie Hall (Director of Marketing Communications) in order to convey the sense of a stable, long established, company. Turner Hall Publishing's first offering was Note-It, a notation utility add-in for Lotus 1-2-3, which was developed by David Whitney, and licensed to Symantec. Its second product was the Turner Hall Card, which was a 256k RAM, half slot memory card, initially made to inexpensively increase the available memory for Symantec's then flagship product, Q&A. The Turner Hall division also marketed the card as a standalone product. Turner Hall's third product, also a 1-2-3 add-in was SQZ! a Lotus 1-2-3 spreadsheet compression utility developed by Chris Graham Synex Systems. In the summer of 1986 Eubanks and Turner recruited Tom Byers from Digital Research, to expand the Turner Hall Publishing product family and lead the Turner Hall effort.
By the winter of 1986–87, the Turner Hall Publishing division had achieved success with NoteIt, the Turner Hall Card, and SQZ!. The popularity of these products, while contributing a relatively small portion of revenues to Symantec, conveyed the impression that Symantec was already a diversified company, and indeed, many industry participants were under the impression that Symantec had acquired Turner Hall Publishing. In 1987, Byers recruited Ted Schlein into the Turner Hall Product Group to assist in building the product family and in marketing.
Revenues from Q&A, and from Symantec's early launch into the international marketplace, combined with Turner Hall Publishing, generated the market presence and scale that enabled Symantec to make its first merger/acquisition, in February 1987, that of BreakThrough Software, maker of the TimeLine project management software for DOS. Because this was the first time that Symantec had acquired a business that had revenues, inventory, and customers, Eubanks chose to change nothing at BreakThrough Software for six months, and the actual merger logistics started in the summer of 1987, with Turner being appointed by Eubanks as general manager of the TimeLine business unit, Turner was made responsible for the successful integration of the company into Symantec and ongoing growth of the business, with P&L. There was a heavy emphasis placed on making the minimum disruption by Eubanks and Turner.
Soon after the acquisition of TimeLine/Breakthrough Software, Eubanks reorganized Symantec, structuring the company around product-centric groups, each having its own development, quality assurance, technical support and product marketing functions, and a General Manager with profit and loss responsibility. Sales, finance and operations were centralized functions that were shared. This structure lent itself well to Symantec's further growth through mergers and acquisitions. Eubanks made Turner general manager of the new TimeLine Product Group, and simultaneously of the Q&A Product Group, and made Tom Byers general manager of the Turner Hall Product Group. Turner continued to build and lead the company's international business and marketing for the whole company.
At the TimeLine Product Group, Turner drove strong marketing, promotion and sales programs in order to accelerate momentum. By 1989 this merger was very successful—product group morale was high, TimeLine development continued apace, and the increased sales and marketing efforts applied built the TimeLine into the clear market lead in PC project management software on DOS. Both the Q&A and TimeLine product groups were healthily profitable. The profit stream and merger success set the stage for subsequent merger and acquisition activity by the company, and indeed funded the losses of some of the product groups that were subsequently acquired. In 1989, Eubanks hired John Laing as VP worldwide sales, and Turner transferred the international division to Laing. Eubanks also recruited Bob Dykes to be Executive Vice President for Operations and Finance, in anticipation of the upcoming IPO. In July 1989 Symantec had its IPO.
1990 to 1999
In May 1990 Symantec announced its intent to merge with and acquire Peter Norton Computing, a developer of various utilities for DOS. Turner was appointed as product group manager for the Norton business, and made responsible for the merger, with P&L responsibility. Ted Schlein was made product group manager for the Q&A business.
The Peter Norton group merger logistical effort began immediately while the companies sought approval for the merger, and in August 1990, Symantec concluded the purchase—by this time the combination of the companies was already complete. Symantec's consumer antivirus and data management utilities are still marketed under the Norton name. At the time of the merger, Symantec had built upon its Turner Hall Publishing presence in the utility market, by introducing Symantec Antivirus for the Macintosh (SAM), and Symantec Utilities for the Macintosh (SUM). These two products were already market leaders on the Mac, and this success made the Norton merger more strategic. Symantec had already begun development of a DOS-based antivirus program one year before the merger with Norton. The management team had decided to enter the antivirus market in part because it was felt that the antivirus market entailed a great deal of ongoing work to stay ahead of new viruses. The team felt that Microsoft would be unlikely to find this effort attractive, which would lengthen the viability of the market for Symantec. Turner decided to use the Norton name for obvious reasons, on what became the Norton Antivirus, which Turner and the Norton team launched in 1991. At the time of the merger, Norton revenues were approximately 20 to 25% of the combined entity. By 1993, while being led by Turner, Norton product group revenues had grown to be approximately 82% of Symantec's total.
At one time Symantec was also known for its development tools, particularly the THINK Pascal, THINK C, Symantec C++, and Visual Cafe packages that were popular on the Macintosh and IBM PC compatible platforms. These product lines resulted from acquisitions made by the company in the late 1980s and early 1990s. These businesses and the Living Videotext acquisition were consistently unprofitable for Symantec, and these losses diverted expenditures away from both the Q&A for Windows and the TimeLine for Windows development efforts during the critical period from 1988 through 1992. Symantec exited this business in the late-1990s as competitors such as Metrowerks, Microsoft, and Borland gained significant market share.
2000 to Present
From 1999 to April 2009 Symantec was led by CEO John W Thompson, a former VP at IBM. At the time, Thompson was the only African-American leading a major US technology company.
In April 2009 the company's long-time Symantec executive Enrique Salem took over as CEO. Under Salem, Symantec completed the acquisition of Verisign's Certificate Authority business, dramatically increasing their share of that market.
Salem was abruptly fired in 2012 for disappointing earnings performance and replaced by Steve Bennett, a former CEO of Intuit and GE executive.
In January 2013, Symantec CEO Steve Bennett announced a major corporate reorganization, with a goal of reducing costs and improving Symantec's product line. He said that sales and marketing "had been high costs but did not provide quality outcomes". He concluded that "Our system is just broken".
- Robert Enderle of CIO.com reviewed the reorganization and noted that Bennett was following the General Electric model of being product-focused instead of customer-focused. He concluded "Eliminating middle management removes a large number of highly paid employees. This will tactically improve Symantec's bottom line but reduce skills needed to ensure high-quality products in the long term."
In 2009, Symantec's Norton products included Norton 360, Norton AntiVirus (for Windows and Mac), Norton Internet Security (for Windows and Mac), Norton SystemWorks (which now contains Norton Utilities), Norton Save & Restore, Norton Ghost, Norton pcAnywhere, Norton Smartphone Security, Norton Partition Magic, Norton Online Backup, and OnlineFamily.Norton.
The Symantec Security Response organization (formerly Symantec Antivirus Research Center) is an antivirus and computer security research group with over 400 full-time employees.
In 2012, PCTools iAntiVirus was rebranded as a Norton product under the name iAntivirus, and released to the Mac App Store. Also in 2012, the Norton Partner Portal was relaunched to support sales to consumers throughout the EMEA and LAM regions.
||This section appears to be written like an advertisement. (June 2013)|
Approximately two-thirds of the company's revenue is derived from software designed for companies and large organizations—i.e., enterprise software.
Symantec substantially grew its enterprise business when it acquired VERITAS Software. Its flagship enterprise security software are Symantec Endpoint Protection and Symantec Protection Suite (Small Business Edition) for five or more users.
Endpoint Protection has continuous update capability as well as user defined update schedule. Furthermore it has proactive intrusion prevention capability, malware, spam protection, and content filtering. The latest version of Symantec Endpoint Protection is 12.1.
Protection Suite (Small Business Edition) is tailored for small business with minimal to almost no IT staff at affordable price levels. The package includes End Point security, as well as system backup and recovery. The system backup and recovery complements Ghost solution suite. In small business, the system backup and recovery works better for PC and system protection and Ghost from minimal technical expertise point of view. The suite also has some Exchange protection features. The protection suite 4 has a tool to remove malware from infected PCs. Reference: Symantec product specification.
As of September 25, 2011 the latest released version of Small Business protection suite is 4. There are many fraudulent emails claiming to offer free upgrades to version 4.
Symantec is also monitoring the Internet with the Symantec Global Intelligence Network, Deepsight, and publish an annual free report Internet Security Threat Report. This continuous threats knowledge is permitting Symantec to propose managed security services, from their Security Operations Center.
Symantec propose Enterprises to:
- Develop and Enforce IT Policies with Control Compliance Suite
- Protect Information with Data Loss Prevention Suite and Encryption (alias PGP)
- Authenticate Identities with VeriSign Identify and Authentication
- Manage Systems with Altiris IT Management Suite
- Protect the Infrastructure with Symantec Protection Suite (including SEP, ex-SAV: Symantec Antivirus, but also BackupExec from Veritas Software)
Mergers and acquisitions
In 1993, Symantec acquired ACT! from Contact Software International. Symantec sold ACT! to SalesLogix in 1999. At the time it was the world's most popular CRM application for Windows and Macintosh.
On December 16, 2004, Veritas and Symantec announced their plans for a merger. With Veritas valued at $13.5 billion, it was the largest software industry merger to date. Symantec's shareholders voted to approve the merger on June 24, 2005; the deal closed successfully on July 2, 2005. July 5, 2005, was the first day of business for the U.S. offices of the new, combined software company. As a result of this merger, Symantec includes storage- and availability-related products in its portfolio, namely Veritas File System (VxFS), Veritas Volume Manager (VxVM), Veritas Volume Replicator (VVR), Veritas Cluster Server (VCS), NetBackup (NBU), Backup Exec (BE), and Enterprise Vault (EV).
On August 16, 2005, Symantec acquired Sygate, a security software firm based in Fremont, California, with about 200 staff. As of November 30, 2005, all Sygate personal firewall products were discontinued by Symantec, and now appear[original research?] to be part of Norton Personal Firewall.
On January 29, 2007, Symantec announced plans to acquire Altiris, and on April 6, 2007, the acquisition was completed. Altiris specializes in service-oriented management software that allows organizations to manage IT assets. It also provides software for web services, security, and systems management products. Established in 1998, Altiris is headquartered in Lindon, Utah.
Application Performance Management business
- On January 17, 2008, Symantec announced that it was spinning off its Application Performance Management (APM) business and the i3 product line to Vector Capital. Precise Software Solutions took over development, product management, marketing, and sales for the APM business, launching as an independent company on September 17, 2008.
On August 18, 2008, Symantec announced the signing of an agreement to acquire PC Tools. Under the agreement, PC Tools would maintain separate operations. The financial terms of the acquisition were not disclosed.
In May 2013, Symantec announced they were discontinuing the PC Tools line of internet security software.
On October 9, 2008, Symantec announced its intent to acquire Gloucester-based MessageLabs (spun off from Star Internet in 2007) to boost its Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) business. Symantec purchased the online messaging and Web security provider for about $695 million in cash. The acquisition closed on November 17, 2008.
PGP and Guardian Edge
On April 29, 2010, Symantec announced its intent to acquire PGP and Guardian Edge. The acquisitions closed on June 4, 2010, and provided access to established encryption, key management, and technologies to Symantec's customers.
On May 19, 2010, Symantec signed a definitive agreement to acquire Verisign’s authentication business unit, which included the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) Certificate, Public Key Infrastructure (PKI), Verisign Trust, and Verisign Identity Protection (VIP) authentication services. The acquisition closed on August 9, 2010. In August 2012, Symantec completed its rebranding of the Verisign SSL Certificate Service by renaming the Verisign Trust Seal the Norton Secured Seal.
On May 19, 2011, Symantec announced the acquisition of ClearWell Systems for approximately $390 million.
On January 17, 2012, Symantec announced the acquisition of cloud email-archiving company LiveOffice. The acquisition price was $115 million. Last year,[ambiguous] Symantec joined the cloud storage and backup sector with its Enterprise Vault.cloud and Cloud Storage for Enterprise Vault solutions, in addition to a cloud messaging solution, Symantec Instant Messaging Security cloud (IMS.cloud). Symantec stated that the acquisition would add to its information governance products, allowing customers to store information on-premises, in Symantec's data centers, or both.
On March 2, 2012, Symantec completed the acquisition of Odyssey Software. Odyssey Software's main product was Athena, which was device management software that extended Microsoft System Center solutions, adding the ability to manage, support, and control mobile and embedded devices, such as smartphones and ruggedized handhelds.
Symantec completed its acquisition of Nukona, a provider of mobile application management (MAM), on April 2, 2012. The acquisition agreement between Symantec and Nukona was announced on March 20, 2012.
Recent security concerns and controversies
On August 9, 2004, the company announced that it discovered an error in its calculation of deferred revenue, which represented an accumulated adjustment of $20 million.
The arrival of the year 2010 triggered a bug in Symantec Endpoint. Symantec reported that malware and intrusion protection updates with "a date greater than December 31, 2009 11:59pm [were] considered to be 'out of date.'" The company created and distributed a workaround for the issue.
Scan evasion vulnerability
In March 2010, it was reported that Symantec AntiVirus and Symantec Client Security were prone to a vulnerability that might allow an attacker to bypass on-demand virus scanning, and permit malicious files to escape detection.
Denial-of-service attack vulnerabilities
In January 2011, multiple vulnerabilities in Symantec products that could be exploited by a denial-of-service attack, and thereby compromise a system, were reported. The products involved were Symantec AntiVirus Corporate Edition Server and Symantec System Center.
The November 12, 2012 Vulnerability Bulletin of the U.S. Computer Emergency Response Team (US-CERT) reported the following vulnerability for older versions of Symantec's Antivirus system: "The decomposer engine in Symantec Endpoint Protection (SEP) 11.0, Symantec Endpoint Protection Small Business Edition 12.0, Symantec AntiVirus Corporate Edition (SAVCE) 10.x, and Symantec Scan Engine (SSE) before 5.2.8 does not properly perform bounds checks of the contents of CAB archives, which allows remote attackers to cause a denial of service (application crash) or possibly execute arbitrary code via a crafted file."
The problem relates to older versions of the systems and a patch is available. US-CERT rated the seriousness of this vulnerability as a 9.7 on a 10-point scale. The "decomposer engine" is a component of the scanning system that opens containers, such as compressed files, so that the scanner can evaluate the files within.
In January 2012, James Gross filed a lawsuit against Symantec for distributing fake scareware scanners that purportedly alerted users issues with their computers. Gross claimed that after the scan, only some of the errors and problems were corrected, and he was prompted by the scanner to purchase software in order to remove the rest. Gross bought the software, but claimed that it did not speed up his computer or remove the detected viruses. He hired a digital forensics expert to back up this claim. Symantec denied the allegations and said that it would contest the case. The suit sparked renewed debate about the tactics used by some security software companies, which are similar to those used by crimeware.
Source code theft
On January 17, 2012, Symantec disclosed that its network had been hacked. A hacker known as "Yama Tough" had obtained the source code for some Symantec software by hacking an Indian government server. Yama Tough released parts of the code, and threatened to release more. According to Chris Paden, a Symantec spokesman, the source code that was taken was for Enterprise products that were between five and six years old.
On September 25, 2012, an affiliate of the hacker group Anonymous published source code from Norton Utilities. Symantec confirmed that it was part of the code that had been stolen earlier, and that the leak included code for 2006 versions of Norton Utilities, pcAnywhere, and Norton Antivirus.
Verisign data breach
In February 2012, it was reported that Verisign's network and data had been hacked repeatedly in 2010, but that the breaches had not been disclosed publicly until they were noted in an SEC filing in October 2011. Verisign did not provide information about whether the breach included its certificate authority business, which was acquired by Symantec in late 2010. Oliver Lavery, Director of Security and Research for nCircle, asked rhetorically, "Can we trust any site using Verisign SSL certificates? Without more clarity, the logical answer is no."
On February 17, 2012, details of an exploit of pcAnywhere were posted. The exploit would allow attackers to crash pcAnywhere on computers running Windows. Symantec released a hotfix for the issue twelve days later.
Hacking of The New York Times network
According to Mandiant, Symantec security products used by the New York Times detected only one of 45 pieces of malware that were installed by Chinese hackers on the newspaper's network during a three-month period in late 2012. Symantec responded:
"Advanced attacks like the ones the New York Times described in the following article, <http://nyti.ms/TZtr5z>, underscore how important it is for companies, countries and consumers to make sure they are using the full capability of security solutions. The advanced capabilities in our endpoint [sic] offerings, including our unique reputation-based technology and behavior-based blocking, specifically target sophisticated attacks. Turning on only the signature-based anti-virus components of endpoint [sic] solutions alone are not enough in a world that is changing daily from attacks and threats. We encourage customers to be very aggressive in deploying solutions that offer a combined approach to security. Anti-virus software alone is not enough".
As of June 2013, the widely respected Customer Service Scoreboard rated Symantec's customer service as "disappointing".
- Comparison of antivirus software
- Huawei Symantec, a joint venture between Huawei and Symantec
- List of computer viruses
- List of mergers and acquisitions by Symantec
- Symantec behavior analysis technologies SONAR and AntiBot
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- Symantec CEO on reorg: 'our system is just broken' - Computerworld
- Symantec Reorganization Offers a Lesson on Knowing When to Leave - CIO.com
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- "Symantec to Sell Application Performance Management Business to Vector Capital". Symantec.com. Retrieved November 9, 2010.
- "The new Precise to redefine application performance management". precise.com. Retrieved April 7, 2011.
- "Download PC Performance & Computer Registry Software | PC Tools by Symantec". Pctools.com. 2013-05-18. Retrieved 2013-07-11.
- "VeriSign® Rebrands To Norton™ - Get Norton™ Secured Seal For Your Site". Trustico.com. 2012-04-15. Retrieved 2013-07-11.
- Symantec acquires Odyssey Software
- "Symantec Completes Acquisition of Nukona". Symantec.com. Retrieved 2012-10-30.
- "Symantec Finds Deferred Revenue Error, Restates July Quarter Results, Updates Q2 Guidance".
- "End of Decade Causes Problems for Symantec | News". ITBusinessEdge.com. Retrieved 2012-10-30.
- Symantec AntiVirus Scan Evasion Vulnerability
- Security Advisories Relating to Symantec Products - Symantec Event Manipulation Potential Scan Bypass - 2010-02-17T15:36:27 PST | Symantec
- Multiple vulnerabilities in Symantec products
- Vulnerability Summary for the Week of November 12, 2012 | US-CERT
- Yin, Sara (2012-01-12). "Symantec Sued for Scareware Tactics". Securitywatch.pcmag.com. Retrieved 2012-02-10.
- Gregg Keizer (2012-01-17). "Symantec backtracks, admits own network hacked". Computerworld. Retrieved 2012-02-10.
- "Claims by Anonymous about Symantec Source Code". Symantec. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
- VeriSign Hacked: What We Don't Know Might Hurt Us | PCWorld
- VeriSign Hacked Multiple Times in 2010 | News & Opinion | PCMag.com
- "Claims by Anonymous about Symantec Source Code". Symantec.
- Perlroth, Nicole (January 31, 2013). "Hackers in China Attacked The Times for Last 4 Months". The New York Times. Retrieved June 10, 2013.
- Symantec Statement Regarding New York Times Cyber Attack | Symantec Connect Community
- "Symantec customer service complaints, reviews, ratings and comments". Customerservicescoreboard.com. Retrieved 10 June 2013.
- Official website
- History of Symantec
- Norton Official Site
- Verisign Official Site
- PCTools Official Site
- Norton Partner Portal
- Barrygreenstein.com with an article from the Los Angeles Times on Barry Greenstein, his poker career, and his work at Symantec as employee number five