|Stylistic origins||NWOBHM, symphonic rock, progressive metal, neo-classical metal|
|Cultural origins||mid-late 1990s, Continental Europe (mainly Scandinavia and the Netherlands)
(this regards symphonic metal proper; for symphonic variations on other styles of metal, especially extreme metal, the cultural origins are in late 1980s-early to mid 1990s in Switzerland and Scandinavia)
|Typical instruments||Guitar - Bass - Keyboards - Piano - Drums - Violin - other acoustic and electronic instruments - occasionally backing choirs|
|Symphonic power metal
Symphonic gothic metal
Symphonic black metal
|Timeline of heavy metal|
Symphonic metal is metal music that has symphonic elements; that is, elements that are borrowed from other music genres (i.e. classical music, progressive rock) but usually with more keyboards or acoustic guitars and typically an operatic female lead vocalist.
When referring to bands from other genres, it refers to bands who use minor classical and operatic themes in their music similar to that found in the symphonic metal genre, to show they are more "symphonic" than other bands within their genre. Although many symphonic metal bands base their style solidly on classical music, a few follow a theatrical, more epic approach to this genre by including or basing their style in Film Music or movie soundtracks. A popular example of this type of approach would be the works of the successful Finnish symphonic metal band Nightwish and the Dutch symphonic gothic/power metal band Epica.
|Nightwish is one of the prime acts on symphonic metal scene. The use of keyboard through traditional piano and strings and the soprano vocals of Tarja Turunen, until her departure from the band in 2005, were parts of their original sound.|
Keyboards are normally the focal point of the music.[dubious ] While other instruments typically play relatively simple parts, the keyboard parts can be very complex and technically challenging, often played in a wide variety of classical styles and emulating anything up to and including full orchestral arrangements. An actual orchestra is sometimes employed, both live and in the studio, to similar effect.
It is more difficult to generalise about the guitar and bass work found in this style. As with gothic metal, this can often be described as a synthesis of other rock and metal styles, with black metal, death metal, power metal, and progressive metal elements being the most common; but unlike in gothic metal, elements of classical music are frequently present as well. Many of these bands at least sometimes use these instruments (as well as the lead vocals) to play simple, catchy melodies which make symphonic metal (along with power metal, which shares this characteristic) one of the more accessible current metal subgenres.
Songs are often highly atmospheric, though more upbeat than those of other metal subgenres; even songs with morbid themes routinely feature prominent major-key fanfares. Particularly central to creating mood and atmosphere is the choice of keyboard sounds.
Lyrics cover a broad range of topics. As with two of symphonic metal's otherwise most dissimilar influences, power metal and opera, fantasy and mythological themes are common. Concept albums styled after operas or epic poems are not uncommon.
Bands in this genre often feature a female lead vocalist, most commonly a mezzo-soprano. There is sometimes a second, male vocalist, as is also common in gothic metal. Growling, death metal style vocals are rare, but not unknown. Further backup up to and including a full choir is sometimes employed. Male vocalists are more common in the symphonic power metal category.
It is very common for bands, especially female fronted bands to perform operatic vocals. Those bands are referred to as Operatic symphonic metal for example Nightwish (Tarja Turunen), Epica, Haggard, Therion, Operatika, Dremora, Dol Ammad, Visions of Atlantis, Aesma Daeva, Almora. Operatic style is not exclusively tied to symphonic metal, it appears also in avant-garde metal, progressive metal, gothic metal and melodic metal.
Origins and evolution
An early symphonic metal band was the American thrash metal group Believer, whose song "Dies Irae" on their 1991 album Sanity Obscure foreshadowed the operatic approach used by the bands Therion and Nightwish. According to Jeff Wagner in his book Mean Deviation, the song was a creative watershed in metal, and except for Mekong Delta, no other extreme metal band at the time had merged the genre with classical music so seamlessly. The roots of symphonic metal are found in early death metal and gothic metal bands, who made some use of symphonic elements in their music.
Particularly important was Therion's use of a live orchestra and classical compositional techniques; gradually these elements became a more important part of Therion's music than their death metal roots. Another key early influence was Finnish progressive metal band Waltari's album Yeah! Yeah! Die! Die! Death Metal Symphony in Deep C. Following this, operatic female vocals, classical instrumentation, and progressive elements became a staple in Dark Tranquillity's sound.
Nightwish and Within Temptation both released their first albums in 1997, each heavily influenced by Therion's symphonic turn. Within Temptation was more influenced by gothic metal, and therefore musically simpler than the more power metal-influenced Nightwish, but both bands shared two key symphonic metal elements - powerful female lead vocals from Tarja Turunen and Sharon den Adel respectively, and the heavy use of classically influenced keyboard playing.
Many new symphonic metal bands appeared or came to wide attention in the early to mid 2000s, including Rain Fell Within, After Forever, Epica, Delain, Haggard, Leaves' Eyes, Xandria, and Edenbridge, all featuring the characteristic keyboards and female vocals. Power metal, with its relatively upbeat fantasy themes and stylized keyboard sounds, tended to be an important influence on these groups.
The term "symphonic metal" has sometimes been applied to individual songs or albums by bands that are primarily death metal, doom metal, gothic metal, power metal, or even black metal. While this article has mainly discussed symphonic metal as a distinct subgenre, it is worth noting that the term is sometimes used to describe stylistic elements that can be found in nearly any heavy metal sub-genre.
Symphonic metal subgenres
The term "symphonic metal" is used to denote any metal band that makes use of symphonic or orchestral elements; "symphonic metal" then is not so much a genre as a cross-generic designation. A few bands refer to themselves as "symphonic metal," particularly Aesma Daeva, and the term could probably be applied to generically ambiguous metal bands like Epica and Nightwish
Symphonic black metal
Symphonic black metal has similar components as melodic black metal, but uses keyboarding or instruments normally found in symphonic or classical music. It can also include black metal bands that make heavy usage of atmospheric keyboarding in the music, akin to symphonic metal or gothic metal. The symphonic aspects of this genre are normally integral parts of a band, and as such are commonly used throughout the whole duration of a song. The prototypical symphonic black metal bands are Dimmu Borgir and Emperor.
Symphonic power metal
Symphonic power metal refers to power metal bands that make extensive usage of keyboards, or instruments normally found in classical music similar to symphonic metal. These additional elements are often used as key elements of the music when compared to normal power metal, contributing not only an extra layer to the music, but a greater variety of sound. Bands in this genre often feature clean vocals with some bands adding relatively small quantities of screams or growls.
The prototypical symphonic power metal bands are PathFinder and Nightwish. Songs by Nightwish that illustrate the genre well are "Wishmaster" from the album Wishmaster, "Ghost Love Score" from the album Once and "The Poet and the Pendulum" on the album Dark Passion Play. These songs follow the epic scope and extended formal structures characteristic of power metal while making extensive use of orchestral elements.
Another band fitting this description is Rhapsody of Fire, with a blend of guitars, drums and extremely large soundscapes including, in their later years, a full choir and a symphonic orchestra. They have a heavy influence from the early classical music and especially the baroque music, and all of their albums a part of an epic saga set in high fantasy worlds. Songs by Rhapsody of Fire that illustrate the genre well are "The Mystic Prophecy of the Demonknight" on the album Triumph or Agony and "Emerald Sword" from the album Symphony of Enchanted Lands. Other examples of bands fitting this description are Dark Moor, Kamelot, Phoenix Rising, Sonata Arctica, Serenity or Versailles.
Symphonic gothic metal
One of the first gothic metal bands to release a full album featuring "Beauty and the Beast" vocals, where death metal vocals are contrasted with clean female vocals, was the Norwegian Theatre of Tragedy in 1995. Other bands, such as the Dutch Within Temptation in 1996, expanded on this approach. A debut album Enter was unveiled in the following year, followed shortly by an EP The Dance. Both releases made use of the beauty and beast approach delivered by vocalists Sharon den Adel and Robert Westerholt. Their second full length Mother Earth was released in 2000 and dispensed entirely with the death metal vocals, instead "relying solely on den Adel's majestic vocal ability". The album was a commercial success with their lead single "Ice Queen" topping the charts in Belgium and their native Netherlands. Their third album The Silent Force arrived in 2004 as an "ambitious project featuring a full orchestra and 80-voice choir accompanying the band". The result was another commercial success across Europe and introduced "the world of heavy guitars and female vocals" to "a mainstream audience".
Within Temptation's brand of gothic metal combines "the guitar-driven force of hard rock with the sweep and grandeur of symphonic music". The critic Chad Bowar of About.com describes their style as "the optimum balance" between "the melody and hooks of mainstream rock, the depth and complexity of classical music and the dark edge of gothic metal". The commercial success of Within Temptation has since resulted in the emergence of a large number of other female-fronted gothic metal bands, particularly in the Netherlands.
Another Dutch band in the symphonic gothic metal strain is After Forever. Their debut album Prison of Desire in 2000 was "a courageous, albeit flawed first study into an admittedly daunting undertaking: to wed heavy metal with progressive rock arrangements and classical music orchestration - then top it all of with equal parts gruesome cookie-monster vocals and a fully qualified opera singer". Founding member, guitarist and vocalist Mark Jansen departed After Forever only a few months after the release of this album. Jansen would go on to form Epica, another Dutch band that performs a blend of gothic and symphonic metal. A debut album The Phantom Agony emerged in 2003 with music that combines Jansen's death grunts with the "angelic tones of a classically trained mezzo-soprano, Simone Simons, over a lush foundation of symphonic power metal". The music of Epica has been described as combination of "a dark, haunting gothic atmosphere with bombastic and symphonic music". Like Within Temptation and After Forever, Epica has been known to make use of an orchestra. Their 2007 album The Divine Conspiracy was a chart success in their home country.
This blend of symphonic and gothic metal has also been arrived at from the opposite direction. The band Nightwish from Finland began as a symphonic power metal act and introduced gothic elements on their 2004 album Once, particularly on the single "Nemo". They continued to mix their style of "bombastic, symphonic and cinematic" metal with a gothic atmosphere on their next album Dark Passion Play in 2007. The Swedish group Therion also introduced gothic elements to their brand of symphonic metal on their 2007 album Gothic Kabbalah.
- Power metal
- Avant-garde metal
- List of symphonic metal bands
- Melodic death metal
- Neo-classical metal
- Progressive metal
- Symphonic rock
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