Polish composer Krzysztof Penderecki wrote his Symphony No. 2 during the winter of 1979–80. Sometimes referred to as the "Christmas Symphony" (quotations of the Christmas carol "Silent Night" occur repeatedly throughout the symphony), neither the score nor the parts (Schott Music, Mainz 45 791) make any reference to this moniker.
The harmonic idiom of the symphony is unabashedly tonal and romantic,[according to whom?] akin to that of Bruckner, and is seen by many[who?] at the time of the symphony's completion as a betrayal to the prevailing avant-garde style, to which Penderecki himself had previously contributed significantly (as demonstrated in his Threnody to the Victims of Hiroshima). However, this reversion to a romantic style had already been hinted at in his St. Luke Passion and Violin Concerto No. 1 of a few years earlier. This change in style was to become permanent, and his music since has been coined as neo-romantic in style.[who?]