Symphony No. 2 (Rachmaninoff)
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Symphony No. 2 in E minor, Op. 27 is a symphony by the Russian composer Sergei Rachmaninoff, written in 1906–07. The premiere was conducted by the composer himself in St. Petersburg on 8 February 1908. Its duration is approximately 60 minutes when performed uncut; cut performances can be as short as 35 minutes. The score is dedicated to Sergei Taneyev, a Russian composer, teacher, theorist, author, and pupil of Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky.
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At the time his Symphony No. 2 was composed, Rachmaninoff had had two successful seasons as the conductor of the Imperial Opera at the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow. He considered himself first and foremost a composer and felt that the performance schedule was detracting from his time to compose. He then moved his wife and infant daughter to Dresden, Germany, to spend more time composing and to also escape the political tumult that would put Russia on the path to revolution. The family remained in Dresden for three years, spending summers at Rachmaninoff's in-law's estate of Ivanovka. It was during this time that Rachmaninoff wrote not only his Second Symphony, but also the tone poem Isle of the Dead.
Rachmaninoff was not altogether convinced that he was a gifted symphonist. At its 1897 premiere, his Symphony No. 1 (conducted by Alexander Glazunov) was considered an utter disaster; criticism of it was so harsh that it sent the young composer into a bout of depression. Even after the success of his Piano Concerto No. 2 (which won the Glinka Award and 500 rubles in 1904), Rachmaninoff still lacked confidence in his writing. He was very unhappy with the first draft of his Second Symphony but after months of revision he finished the work and conducted the premiere in 1908 to great applause. The work earned him another Glinka Award ten months later. The triumph regained Rachmaninoff's sense of self-worth as a symphonist.
Because of its formidable length, Symphony No. 2 was subjected to many revisions, particularly in the 1940s and 1950s, that reduced the piece from nearly an hour to 35 minutes. Prior to 1970, the piece was usually performed in one of its revised (i.e., shorter) versions. Since then, orchestras have used the complete version almost exclusively, though sometimes with the omission of a repeat in the first movement.
The symphony is scored for full orchestra with 3 flutes (the 3rd doubling on piccolo), 3 oboes (the 3rd doubling on cor anglais), 2 clarinets in A and B♭, bass clarinet in A and B♭, 2 bassoons, 4 horns, 3 trumpets, 3 trombones, tuba, timpani, snare drum, bass drum, cymbals, glockenspiel, and strings.
The symphony is in four movements:
- Largo — Allegro moderato (E minor)
- Allegro molto (A minor)
- Adagio (A major)
- Allegro vivace (E major)
The first movement begins with a slow introduction followed by an allegro in sonata form. Rachmaninoff's choice to compose a movement in sonata-allegro form (including a full repeat of the exposition) is an indicator of his pronounced conservatism compared to other symphonists during the early twentieth century.
This movement really only resembles a scherzo insofar as it relates to the early- to mid-Romantic tradition of symphonic movements, i.e. first movement allegro, slow movement, fast scherzo, and final allegro. The movement opens with a lively ostinato in the upper strings.
This theme, again related to the work’s motif, sings through primarily in the first violin, echoed by a solo clarinet and the oboe section. The symphony reaches its climax in this movement, this development is considered the complement for the first movement Largo introduction.
The final movement is set in sonata-rondo form. The development incorporates ideas from the previous movements.
Use in popular media
A section of the symphony's second movement is used several times in the 2014 film Birdman, directed by Alejandro González Iñárritu, and is even used in the trailers promoting it. It is featured as part of a score composed by Mexican jazz drummer Antonio Sánchez.
Notable recordings include the following:
- Nikolai Sokoloff conducting the Cleveland Orchestra, 1928, Brunswick/Cleveland Orchestra 75th Anniversary Edition, Cleveland Orchestra, (cut, mono) (the recording premiere)
- Nikolai Golovanov conducting the Moscow Radio Symphony Orchestra, 1945, Boheme/Melodiya (cut, mono)
- Artur Rodziński conducting the New York Philharmonic, 1945, EMI (cut, mono)
- Dimitri Mitropoulos conducting the Minneapolis Symphony Orchestra, 1947, RCA Victor/Lys (cut, mono)
- William Steinberg conducting the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra, 1953, EMI (cut, mono)
- Kurt Sanderling conducting the Leningrad Philharmonic Orchestra, 1956, Deutsche Grammophon (cut, mono)
- Paul Paray conducting the Detroit Symphony Orchestra, 1957, Mercury Records (cut)
- Sir Adrian Boult conducting the London Philharmonic Orchestra, 1957, RCA Victor Red Seal / Decca (cut, mono or stereo)
- Eugene Ormandy conducting the Philadelphia Orchestra, 1959, Sony (cut)
- Alfred Wallenstein conducting the Los Angeles Philharmonic Orchestra, 1960, Capitol Records (cut)
- André Previn conducting the London Symphony Orchestra, c. 1967 RCA (cut)
- Paul Kletzki conducting the Orchestre de la Suisse Romande, 1968, Decca/London (first commercially recorded performance without cuts)
- André Previn conducting the London Symphony Orchestra, 1973, EMI (complete)
- Edo de Waart conducting the Rotterdam Philharmonic Orchestra, 1977, Decca (complete)
- Eugene Ormandy conducting the Philadelphia Orchestra, 1973, RCA (complete)
- Yuri Temirkanov conducting the USSR State Symphony Orchestra, 1977
- Yuri Temirkanov conducting the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra, 1978, EMI (complete)
- Vladimir Ashkenazy conducting the Concertgebouw Orchestra, 1982, Decca (complete, with first movement repeat)
- Lorin Maazel conducting the Berliner Philharmoniker, 1983, Deutsche Grammophon (complete)
- Simon Rattle conducting the Los Angeles Philharmonic Orchestra, 1984, EMI (complete)
- Dmitri Kitayenko conducting the Moscow Philharmonic Orchestra, 1985, Melodiya (complete, with first movement repeat)
- André Previn conducting the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra, 1985, Telarc (complete)
- Gennady Rozhdestvensky conducting the London Symphony Orchestra, 1988, IMP/MCA Classics (complete, with first movement repeat)
- Andrew Litton conducting the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra, 1990, Virgin Classics (complete, with first movement repeat)
- Yuri Temirkanov conducting the St. Petersburg Philharmonic Orchestra, 1991, RCA (complete, with first movement repeat)
- Mikhail Pletnev conducting the Russian National Orchestra, 1993, Deutsche Grammophon (complete)
- Vernon Handley conducting the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra, 1994, RPM (complete, with first movement repeat)
- Mariss Jansons conducting the St. Petersburg Philharmonic Orchestra, 1994, EMI (complete)
- Valery Polyansky conducting the Russian State Symphony Orchestra, 1997, Chandos Records (complete)
- Iván Fischer conducting the Budapest Festival Orchestra, 2004, Channel Classics Records (complete)
The theme from the third movement was used for pop singer Eric Carmen's 1976 song, "Never Gonna Fall in Love Again". This melody was also used by jazz pianist Danilo Pérez as the main theme of his tune "If I Ever Forget You" on his Across the Crystal Sea 2008 album.
On 22 April 2008 Brilliant Classics music distributors released Alexander Warenberg's arrangement of the symphony for piano and orchestra, titling it "Rachmaninoff's Piano Concerto No. 5". Warenberg arranged Rachmaninoff's Symphony No. 2 as a concertante work for piano and orchestra. The work contains a majority of the source material from the symphony (about 40%) with some original scoring by Warenberg, modification of the original score and a change to many of the harmonies "to improve the sound and balance". Warenberg's arrangement calls for a three movement concerto with a new second movement and a revised finale "to create a tighter and more effective emotional climax to the concerto’s finale."
- Harrison, p. 113
- "Geoffrey Norris, "Lost symphony in a Co-op bag"". Telegraph.co.uk. 15 March 2007. Retrieved 2014-03-04.
- http://www.sso.com.au/sysfiles/attachments/PROG44_071109_T&SRach2_SSO.pdf[dead link]
- Laki, Peter (2004). "Symphony No.2 in E minor, Op.27". Cleveland Orchestra. Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2014-03-04.
- "Arkivmusic.com". Rachmaninoff/Warenberg: Piano Concerto "No. 5. Retrieved 2011-07-03.
- Warenberg (arkivmusic.com)[vague]
- Harrison, Max, Rachmaninoff: Life, Works, Recordings (London and New York: Continuum, 2005). ISBN 0-8264-5344-9.
- Symphony No. 2: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project
- Arkady Chubrik Classic Music Collection: Rachmaninov, free recordings (Russian)
- Program notes from the Kennedy Center
- Program notes from Carnegie Hall