Symphony No. 4 (Schumann)
The Symphony No. 4 in D minor, Op. 120, composed by Robert Schumann, was completed in 1841 (first version). Schumann heavily revised the symphony in 1851, and it was this version that reached publication.
Clara Schumann, Robert's widow, later claimed on the first page of the score to the symphony—as published in 1882 as part of her husband's complete works (Robert Schumanns Werke, Herausgegeben von Clara Schumann, published by Breitkopf & Härtel)—that the symphony had merely been sketched in 1841 but was only fully orchestrated ("vollständig instrumentiert") in 1851. However, this was untrue, and Johannes Brahms, who greatly preferred the earlier version of the symphony, published that version in 1891 despite Clara's strenuous objections.
- Ziemlich langsam - Lebhaft (D minor)
- Romanze: Ziemlich langsam (A minor)
- Scherzo: Lebhaft (D minor)
- Langsam; Lebhaft (D major)
- Andante con moto - Allegro di molto (D minor)
- Romanza: Andante (A minor)
- Scherzo: Presto (D minor)
- Largo - Finale: Allegro vivace (D major)
Schumann's biographer Peter Ostwald comments that this earlier version is "lighter and more transparent in texture" than the revision, but that Clara "always insisted that the later, heavier, and more stately version [of 1851] was the better one." (Both versions are included on the recent recording of Schumann's complete symphonies by John Eliot Gardiner cited below.)
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- John Daverio, "Robert Schumann: Orchestral Works-A Quest for Mastery of the Grand Form," liner notes to Robert Schumann: Complete Symphonies, performed by Orchestre Révolutionaire et Romantique conducted by John Eliot Gardiner (Archiv Production 289 457 591-2). (Used for publication dates of both versions, other details; also used tempo indications of 1841 version from liner notes.)
- Peter Ostwald, Schumann: The Inner Voices of a Musical Genius. (Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1985.) ISBN 1-55553-014-1. (Used p. 246n. on Brahms' publication of the earlier version.)
- Robert Schumann, Complete Symphonies in Full Score. (NY: Dover Publications, 1980.) ISBN 0-486-24013-4. (Reprint of Clara Schumann's edition of the symphonies; includes her note on p. 310.)