Synaptophysin

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Synaptophysin
Identifiers
Symbols SYP ; MRX96; MRXSYP
External IDs OMIM313475 MGI98467 HomoloGene2391 GeneCards: SYP Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE SYP 213200 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 6855 20977
Ensembl ENSG00000102003 ENSMUSG00000031144
UniProt P08247 Q62277
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_003179 NM_009305
RefSeq (protein) NP_003170 NP_033331
Location (UCSC) Chr HG1436_HG1432_PATCH:
49.05 – 49.06 Mb
Chr X:
7.64 – 7.65 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Synaptophysin, also known as the major synaptic vesicle protein p38, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SYP gene.[1][2]

Genomics[edit]

The gene is located on the short arm of X chromosome (Xp11.23-p11.22). It is 12,406 bases in length and lies on the Crick (minus) strand. The encoded protein has 313 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 33.845 kDa.

Molecular biology[edit]

The protein is a synaptic vesicle glycoprotein with four transmembrane domains weighing 38kDa. It is present in neuroendocrine cells and in virtually all neurons in the brain and spinal cord that participate in synaptic transmission. It acts as a marker for neuroendocrine tumors, and its ubiquity at the synapse has led to the use of synaptophysin immunostaining for quantification of synapses.[3]

The exact function of the protein is unknown: it interacts with the essential synaptic vesicle protein synaptobrevin, but when the synaptophysin gene is experimentally inactivated in animals, they still develop and function normally.[4] Recent research has shown, however, that elimination of synaptophysin in mice creates behavioral changes such as increased exploratory behavior, impaired object novelty recognition, and reduced spatial learning.[5]

Clinical importance[edit]

This gene has been implicated in X linked mental retardation.[6]

Using immunohistochemistry, synaptophysin can be demonstrated in a range of neural and neuroendocrine tissues, including cells of the adrenal medulla and pancreatic islets. As a specific marker for these tissues, it can be used to identify tumours arising from them, such as neuroblastoma, retinoblastoma, phaeochromocytoma, carcinoid, small-cell carcinoma, and medullary thyroid carcinoma, among others. Diagnostically, it is often used in combination with chromogranin A.[7]

See also[edit]

Interactions[edit]

Synaptophysin has been shown to interact with AP1G1[8] and SIAH2.[9]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Entrez Gene: SYP synaptophysin". 
  2. ^ Südhof TC, Lottspeich F, Greengard P, Mehl E, Jahn R (November 1987). "The cDNA and derived amino acid sequences for rat and human synaptophysin". Nucleic Acids Res. 15 (22): 9607. doi:10.1093/nar/15.22.9607. PMC 306499. PMID 3120152. 
  3. ^ Calhoun ME, Jucker M, Martin LJ, Thinakaran G, Price DL, Mouton PR (December 1996). "Comparative evaluation of synaptophysin-based methods for quantification of synapses". J. Neurocytol. 25 (12): 821–8. doi:10.1007/BF02284844. PMID 9023727. 
  4. ^ McMahon HT, Bolshakov VY, Janz R, Hammer RE, Siegelbaum SA, Südhof TC (May 1996). "Synaptophysin, a major synaptic vesicle protein, is not essential for neurotransmitter release". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93 (10): 4760–4. doi:10.1073/pnas.93.10.4760. PMC 39352. PMID 8643476. 
  5. ^ Schmitt U, Tanimoto N, Seeliger M, Schaeffel F, Leube RE (August 2009). "Detection of behavioral alterations and learning deficits in mice lacking synaptophysin". Neuroscience 162 (2): 234–43. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2009.04.046. PMID 19393300. 
  6. ^ Tarpey PS, Smith R, Pleasance E, et al. (May 2009). "A systematic, large-scale resequencing screen of X-chromosome coding exons in mental retardation". Nat. Genet. 41 (5): 535–43. doi:10.1038/ng.367. PMC 2872007. PMID 19377476. 
  7. ^ Leong, Anthony S-Y; Cooper, Kumarason; Leong, F Joel W-M (2003). Manual of Diagnostic Cytology (2 ed.). Greenwich Medical Media, Ltd. pp. 405–406. ISBN 1-84110-100-1. 
  8. ^ Horikawa HP, Kneussel M, El Far O, Betz H (November 2002). "Interaction of synaptophysin with the AP-1 adaptor protein gamma-adaptin". Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 21 (3): 454–62. doi:10.1006/mcne.2002.1191. PMID 12498786. 
  9. ^ Wheeler TC, Chin LS, Li Y, Roudabush FL, Li L (March 2002). "Regulation of synaptophysin degradation by mammalian homologues of seven in absentia". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (12): 10273–82. doi:10.1074/jbc.M107857200. PMID 11786535. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Kalina M, Lukinius A, Grimelius L, et al. (1991). "Ultrastructural localization of synaptophysin to the secretory granules of normal glucagon and insulin cells in human islets of Langerhans". Ultrastructural pathology 15 (3): 215–9. doi:10.3109/01913129109021883. PMID 1908157. 
  • Ozçelik T, Lafreniere RG, Archer BT, et al. (1990). "Synaptophysin: structure of the human gene and assignment to the X chromosome in man and mouse". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 47 (3): 551–61. PMC 1683862. PMID 1975480. 
  • Goto S, Hirano A, Pearson J (1990). "Calcineurin and synaptophysin in the human spinal cord of normal individuals and patients with familial dysautonomia". Acta Neuropathol. 79 (6): 647–52. doi:10.1007/BF00294243. PMID 2163183. 
  • de Koning JP, Schelen AM, Dong F, et al. (1996). "Specific involvement of tyrosine 764 of human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor in signal transduction mediated by p145/Shc/GRB2 or p90/GRB2 complexes". Blood 87 (1): 132–40. PMID 8547634. 
  • Zhang PJ, Rosenblum MK (1997). "Synaptophysin expression in the human spinal cord. Diagnostic implications of an immunohistochemical study". Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 20 (3): 273–6. doi:10.1097/00000478-199603000-00002. PMID 8772779. 
  • Bouwens L, Lu WG, De Krijger R (1997). "Proliferation and differentiation in the human fetal endocrine pancreas". Diabetologia 40 (4): 398–404. doi:10.1007/s001250050693. PMID 9112016. 
  • Fisher SE, Ciccodicola A, Tanaka K, et al. (1998). "Sequence-based exon prediction around the synaptophysin locus reveals a gene-rich area containing novel genes in human proximal Xp". Genomics 45 (2): 340–7. doi:10.1006/geno.1997.4941. PMID 9344658. 
  • Maggiano N, Lauriola L, Serra FG, et al. (1999). "Detection of synaptophysin-producing cells in human thymus by immunohistochemistry and nonradioactive in situ hybridization". J. Histochem. Cytochem. 47 (2): 237–43. doi:10.1177/002215549904700212. PMID 9889259. 
  • Portela-Gomes GM, Stridsberg M, Johansson H, Grimelius L (1999). "Co-localization of synaptophysin with different neuroendocrine hormones in the human gastrointestinal tract". Histochem. Cell Biol. 111 (1): 49–54. doi:10.1007/s004180050332. PMID 9930883. 
  • Davidsson P, Gottfries J, Bogdanovic N, et al. (1999). "The synaptic-vesicle-specific proteins rab3a and synaptophysin are reduced in thalamus and related cortical brain regions in schizophrenic brains". Schizophrenia Research 40 (1): 23–9. doi:10.1016/S0920-9964(99)00037-7. PMID 10541003. 
  • Cassiman D, van Pelt J, De Vos R, et al. (1999). "Synaptophysin: A Novel Marker for Human and Rat Hepatic Stellate Cells". Am. J. Pathol. 155 (6): 1831–9. doi:10.1016/S0002-9440(10)65501-0. PMC 1866940. PMID 10595912. 
  • Thiele C, Hannah MJ, Fahrenholz F, Huttner WB (2000). "Cholesterol binds to synaptophysin and is required for biogenesis of synaptic vesicles". Nat. Cell Biol. 2 (1): 42–9. doi:10.1038/71366. PMID 10620806. 
  • Nag TC, Wadhwa S (2001). "Differential expression of syntaxin-1 and synaptophysin in the developing and adult human retina". J. Biosci. 26 (2): 179–91. doi:10.1007/BF02703642. PMID 11426054. 
  • Bhangu PS, Genever PG, Spencer GJ, et al. (2001). "Evidence for targeted vesicular glutamate exocytosis in osteoblasts". Bone 29 (1): 16–23. doi:10.1016/S8756-3282(01)00482-3. PMID 11472886. 
  • Roudenok V, Kühnel W (2001). "The development of synaptophysin immunoreactivity in the human sympathetic ganglia". Ann. Anat. 183 (4): 345–51. doi:10.1016/S0940-9602(01)80177-1. PMID 11508360. 
  • Wheeler TC, Chin LS, Li Y, et al. (2002). "Regulation of synaptophysin degradation by mammalian homologues of seven in absentia". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (12): 10273–82. doi:10.1074/jbc.M107857200. PMID 11786535. 
  • Ulfig N, Chan WY (2003). "Expression of a kinase anchoring protein 79 and synaptophysin in the developing human red nucleus". Neurosignals 11 (2): 95–102. doi:10.1159/000058546. PMID 12077483. 
  • Yao I, Iida J, Nishimura W, Hata Y (2002). "Synaptic and nuclear localization of brain-enriched guanylate kinase-associated protein". J. Neurosci. 22 (13): 5354–64. PMID 12097487. 
  • Wistow G, Bernstein SL, Wyatt MK, et al. (2002). "Expressed sequence tag analysis of human retina for the NEIBank Project: retbindin, an abundant, novel retinal cDNA and alternative splicing of other retina-preferred gene transcripts". Mol. Vis. 8: 196–204. PMID 12107411. 

External links[edit]