|Traded as||SIX: SYNN NYSE: SYT|
|Key people||Martin Taylor (Chairman)
Michael Mack (CEO)
|Products||Seeds, pesticides, flowers|
|Revenue||US $14.202 billion (2012)|
|Operating income||US $2.292 billion (2012)|
|Profit||US $1.872 billion (2012)|
|Total assets||US $17.24 billion (end 2011)|
|Total equity||US $7.503 billion (end 2011)|
|Employees||26,000 (end 2011)|
Syngenta AG is a large global Swiss specialized chemicals company which markets seeds and pesticides. Syngenta is involved in biotechnology and genomic research. The company was ranked third in total seeds and biotechnology sales in 2009 in the commercial market. Sales in 2010 were approximately US$ 11.6 billion. Syngenta employs over 27,000 people in over 90 countries. Syngenta is listed on both the Swiss stock exchange and in New York.
Novartis was formed of the 1995 merger of the three Swiss companies: Geigy, which has roots back to 1758; Sandoz Laboratories which was founded in 1876; and Ciba, founded in 1884. Ciba and Geigy had merged in 1971 and had concentrated mainly on crop protection in its agro division, Sandoz more on seeds.
Zeneca Agrochemicals was part of AstraZeneca, and formerly of Imperial Chemical Industries. ICI was formed in the UK in 1926. Two years later, work began at the Agricultural Research Station at Jealott’s Hill near Bracknell.
In 2004, Syngenta Seeds purchased Garst, the North American corn and soybean business of Advanta, as well as Golden Harvest. On December 5, 2004, the European Union ended a six-year moratorium when it approved imports of two varieties of genetically modified corn sold by Monsanto and its Swiss rival, Syngenta.
In 2005, Syngenta opposed a Swiss ban on genetically engineered organisms. On November 28, 2005, Swiss supported a five-year-ban on the farming of genetically modified crops, underscoring the problems facing the European Commission and biotech companies like Syngenta, Bayer and Monsanto as they try to overcome consumer doubts about safety.
Syngenta has eight primary product lines. The company develops, markets and sells these worldwide:
- Field Crops
Syngenta's field crops include both hybrid seeds and genetically engineered seeds, some of which enter the food chain and become part of genetically modified food. According to Syngenta, in the US their "proprietary triple stack corn seeds expanded to represent around 25 percent of units sold."  In 2010 the US EPA granted registration approval for insecticidal trait stacks including Syngenta's AGRISURE VIPTERA™ gene, which offers resistance to certain corn pests. Syngenta also cross-licenses its proprietary genes with Dow AgroSciences and thus is able to include Dow's Herculex®1 I and Herculex® RW insect resistance traits in its seeds. It also sells a VMAX® soybean that is resistant to glyphosate herbicide.
Key Syngenta brands include Aatrex (atrazine), Actara, Amistar (azoxystrobin), Callisto, Cruiser (TMX, Thiamethoxam), Daconil (Chlorothalonil), DualGold, Golden Harvest, Garst, Lumax (a selective herbicide), Northrup-King (NK), Rogers[disambiguation needed], S&G, Gramoxone (paraquat), and Vigor (TMX, Thiamethoxam).
In 2007, Queensland University in Australia contracted with Syngenta to research different inputs for biofuels as a renewable energy source.
Board of directors
Syngenta is led by Chairman Michel Demaré. The other Directors are Vinita Bali, Stefan Borgas, Gunnar Brock, David Lawrence, Michael Mack (CEO), Eleni Gabre-Madhin, Eveline Saupper, Jacques Vincent, and Jürg Witmer
Legal issues and controversies
Syngenta and its predecessor companies have been involved in numerous legal actions and controversies over the years.
A series of fatalities due to accidental consumption of the company’s herbicide, Gramoxone (Paraquat) occurred in the 1960s. Because the product was used in a number of suicides during the 1970s and 1980s, blue dye, foul odor, and a powerful emetic were added to discourage misuse.
Atrazine has been banned in several Wisconsin counties in the United States and in the European Union. There has been controversy over atrazine's effects on amphibians but the EPA has concluded "that atrazine does not adversely affect amphibian gonadal development".
The European Commission decided to suspend use of the company's insecticide Cruiser (TMX, Thiamethoxam) on crops pollinated by bees. Syngenta together with Bayer is challenging this ban in court. 
Syngenta's predecessor, Ciba-Geigy, introduced the insecticide Galecron chlordimeform in 1966, and it was removed from the market in 1988. In 1976, Ciba-Geigy told regulatory authorities that it was temporarily withdrawing chlordimeform because ongoing long-term toxicology studies - particularly studies to determine if long-term exposure could cause cancer - showed that it was causing cancer, and that it has already started to monitor its workers' exposure and had found chlordimeform and its metabolites in the urine of its workers.:8–9 Ciba-Geigy then applied for, and was granted, permission to market Galecron at lower doses for use only on cotton. However as further long term monitoring data was obtained, regulators banned chlordimeform in 1988. In a 1995 class action in the US, Ciba-Geigy agreed to cover costs for employee health monitoring and treatment. In 2005, Syngenta reported that employee health monitoring was continuing at the company's Monthey, Switzerland site 
The following year Syngenta filed suit against Monsanto and a number of other companies claiming infringement of its U.S. biotechnology patents covering transgenic corn and cotton. In 2004, the company again filed suit against Monsanto, claiming antitrust violations related to the U.S. biotech corn seed market, and Monsanto countersued. Monsanto and Syngenta settled all the litigation in 2008.
On 21 October 2007, a Brazilian peasant organization, the Landless Workers' Movement (Portuguese: Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais Sem Terra - MST), led a group of landless farmers in an occupation of one of the company's seed research farms, in protest against genetically-engineered ("genetically modified") vegetables and in hopes of obtaining land for landless families to cultivate. After the occupation had begun, a team from NF Security arrived in a minibus and a fight with gunfire ensued. A protestor and a security guard were killed, and some protesters and security guards were wounded.
The Brazilian police investigation completed in November 2007 blamed the confrontation and death of the protestor on nine employees and the owner of NF Security; the leader of MST was blamed for trespassing. The inquiry found that the protester was fatally shot in the abdomen and in the leg. The security guard was shot in the head. Eight others were injured, five of them landless.
The Civil Court of Cascavel granted an order for the repossession of the site on December 20, 2007 and on June 12, 2008, the remaining MST members left the Santa Teresa site they had been occupying. On October 14, 2008, Syngenta donated the 123-hectare station to the Agronomy Institute of Paraná (IAPAR) for research into biodiversity, recovery of degraded areas and agriculture production systems, as well as environmental education programs.
Lobbying in the US
Syngenta's contributions to US federal candidates, parties, and outside groups totaled $267,902 during 2012, ranking it 10th on the list of companies in its sector. Its lobbying expenditures in the US during 2012 were $1,150,000, ranking it 7th in its sector.
Farmers Support Team
Syngenta sponsors several agricultural programs in developing nations. SFI created its flagship program, the Farmer Support Team (FST). The FST is a nationwide program in the Philippine archipelago. It works with farmers in all the major rice, fruit, and vegetable production provinces of the country. It began by helping Filipino farmers gain greater understanding and achieve higher productivity through trainings in Integrated Pest Management (IPM), Integrated Crop Management (ICM) and Total Crop Management (TCM).
The objectives and goals of the Syngenta Foundation are "to work with rural communities in the semiarid regions of the world and improve their livelihoods."
The Syngenta Foundation addressed the World Food Day Symposium in 2005 as an output of the Millennium Ecosystem Report.
Awards and community involvement
In October 2008, Syngenta Crop Protection Canada, Inc. was recognized as one of Waterloo Area's Top Employers, as announced in the Waterloo Region Record, Guelph Mercury and Cambridge Times. In 2011, Syngenta was named among the top 10 employers in biotechnology by Science magazine. The company was also recognized by the 2011 Dow Jones Sustainability Index (DJSI) as one of the best performing chemical companies worldwide. Syngenta was one of only five chemical companies in the World and Europe indices based on economic, social and environmental performance.
Notes and references
- Syngenta 2012 Full Year Results
- "Annual Results 2011". Syngenta AG. Retrieved 8 February 2012.
- Shand, Hope (Summer 2012). "The Big Six: A Profile of Corporate Power in Seeds, Agrochemicals & Biotech" (PDF). The Heritage Farm Companion. Retrieved 31 May 2013.
- Andrew Ross Sorkin for the New York Times. December 03, 1999 AstraZeneca and Novartis To Shed Agricultural Units Accessed May 27, 2013
- Staff, PRNewsWire. November 13, 2000. Syngenta Begins Trading on the New York Stock Exchange Accessed May 27, 2013
- Staff, The Mineralogical Record Biographical Archive. J.R. Geigy (1830-1917)
- Syngenta buys Advanta
- Syngenta to Acquire Golden Harvest
- "European roadblock to biotech crops starts to crumble".
- Swiss Adopt Five-Year GMO Farming Ban
- "Swiss Voters Approve Ban on Genetically Altered Crops".
- "Reasons for Selection 2007 Canada's Top 100 Employers".
- CleanTech, Syngenta Queensland University
- Syngenta, Board of Directors
- Blumenstyk, Goldie (October 31, 2003). "The Price of Research". The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved 2008-04-18.
- USEPA. White Paper on the Potential for Atrazine to Affect Amphibian Gonadal Development; Submitted to the FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel for Review and Comment; October 9–12, 2007.
- European Commission. Bees & Pesticides: Commission to proceed with plan to better protect bees; Press Release, 29 April 2013.
- World Health Organization Chlordimeform Environmental Health Criteria, No 199. ISBN 9789241571999
- Environmental Protection Agency Office Of Pesticide Programs Case Number 0141 Guidance for the Reregistration Of Pesticide Products Containing Chlordimeform or Chlordimeform Hydrochloride As Active Ingredients 059701 and 059702
- Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR), 1978 Chlordimeform
- Monsanto and Syngenta Settle All Litigation Between the Companies. Patent Docs (May 30, 2008).
- Doyle, Leonard (November 5, 2007). "Brazilian land activist killed in dispute over experimental GM farm". The Independent. Retrieved 2013-05-26.
- Miguel Portela for CONTAG (Confederação Nacional dos Trabalhadores na Agricultura) Press Office. November 21, 2007 Polícia indicia seguranças por morte English translation via Google
- Marcus Vinícius for Bem Paraná. December 28, 2007. A multa continua English translation via Google
- Staff, Bem Paraná. June 11, 2008. Desocupação da fazenda da multinacional Syngenta é finalizada English translation via Google
- Instituto Agronômico do Paraná October 14, 2008. Antiga fazenda experimental da Syngenta Seeds abrigará centro de pesquisa do IAPAR English translation via Google
- The Center for Responsive Politics Agricultural Services & Products: Top Contributors to Federal Candidates, Parties, and Outside Groups Accessed May 27, 2013
- The Center for Responsive Politics. Agricultural Services & Products: Lobbying, 2012 Accessed May 27, 2013
- Syngenta Foundation for Sustainable Agriculture, About the Syngenta Foundation 
- "Reasons for Selection, 2009 Waterloo Area's Top Employers Competition".
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