Synod of Hippo
The Synod of Hippo refers to the synod of 393 which was hosted in Hippo Regius in northern Africa during the early Christian Church. Additional synods were held in 394, 397, 401 and 426. Some were attended by Augustine of Hippo.
The synod of 393 is best known for two distinct acts. First, for the first time a council of bishops listed and approved a Christian Biblical canon that corresponds to the modern Roman Catholic canon while falling short of the Orthodox canon (including the books classed by Roman Catholics as deuterocanonical books and by Protestants as Apocrypha). The canon was later approved at the Council of Carthage pending ratification by the "Church across the sea", that is, Rome. Previous councils had approved similar, but slightly different, canons. The council also reaffirmed the apostolic origin of the requirement of clerical continence and reasserted it as a requirement for all the ordained, in addition requiring that all members of a person's household must be Christian before that person can be ordained.
- Francis, Havey (1907), "African Synods", The Catholic Encyclopedia, New York: Robert Appleton Company, retrieved 2013-03-01
- Schaff, Philip; Wace, Henry, "Cannon XXXVI", The Seven Ecumenical Councils, Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers: Second Series XIV, Grand Rapids: William B Eerdmans Publishing Company, retrieved 2013-03-01
- Schrader, Charles (October 1936), The Historical Development of the Papal Monarchy, The Catholic Historical Review (Catholic University of America Press) 22 (3): 259–282, ISSN 0008-8080, JSTOR 25013503
- Beaver, R Pierce (June 1936), The Organization of the Church of Africa on the Eve of the Vandal Invasion, Church History (Cambridge University Press) 5 (2): 168–181, doi:10.2307/3160527, ISSN 0009-6407, JSTOR 3160527
- Shepherd, Massey Jr. (1961), The Formation and Influence of Antiochene Liturgy, Dumbarton Oaks Papers (Dumbarton Oaks) 15: 23+25–44, doi:10.2307/1291174, ISSN 0070-7546, JSTOR 1291174