Synoptic table of the principal old world prehistoric cultures

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The synoptic table of the principal old world prehistoric cultures gives a rough picture of the relationships between the various principal cultures of prehistory outside the Americas, Antarctica, Australia and Oceania. It also serves as an index of the broad features of that prehistory to be followed through links to articles. Literate cultures are shown in brackets ().

Table[edit]

The Principal prehistoric cultures of the Old World
Prehistoric Europe
Prehistoric Africa
Prehistoric Asia
Period & Climate Europe North Africa,
West Africa and Sahara
Central Africa,
South and East Africa
Middle East South Asia, and
Central Asia
East Asia and South-East Asia
1000 Before Present (BP)



(Middle Ages) (Caliphate) (Sahelian kingdoms) Mapungubwe (Caliphate) (Middle Kingdoms) (Song Dynasty)
2000 BP



Iron Age (and Roman Empire) (Ancient North Africa),
Nok, Ile-Ife
Bantu expansion (Classical Antiquity) (Iron Age India) (Han Dynasty)
11th century BC (3000 BP)




Urnfield culture

Bronze Age

Copper Age in Niger

Nok
Bantu expansion
Late Bronze Age
Early Iron Age
development of
Indian Iron Age
Chinese Bronze Age, Late and Final Jōmon in Japan
4000 BP




Bell beaker
Chalcolithic
corded ware
domestication of the horse
Neolithic of Tichit

Tenerean
Middle Bronze Age (Sumer) Indus Valley civilisation

writing
Chinese Neolithic
of Longshan
5000 BP




Yamna culture,
enclosed villages
Chalcolithic
of Central Europe
Beginning of the Hunter-gatherer art
of South Africa
Early Bronze Age Regionalization Era
6000 BP




Samara culture

Lower Neolithic
Danubian Neolithic

Mediterranean
and Egyptian Neolithic
Beginning of Neolithic in East Africa Uruk period
Chalcolithic
(copper metallurgy)
Mehrgarh Neolithic
of Yang-Shao
rice-growing (?)
7000 BP




Cardial and Linear Pottery
(agriculture, stock-rearing, Pottery)

oldest European megaliths[1]

Starčevo and Vinča culture
agriculture, stock-rearing (pigs, bovine, sheep)



Chalcolithic (copper metallurgy)

Neolithic of the Sahara/Sahel
Ubaid period
ceramic Cyprus

more megaliths than earlier, spreading southward into Levant and Cyprus[1][2]
Mehrgarh, Bhirrana in India Hongshan culture of Northeast Asia (c. 4700 BC/6700 BP)

8000 BP




Tardenoisian cultures
(gathering of legumes)
Neolithic (Greece and the Eastern Mediterranean )
Sesklo and Choirokoitia
Neolithic with ceramic
Ubaid period
Mehrgarh, Bhirrana (India) Neolithic of northern China

9000 BP




Sauveterrian cultures

Komornica culture
Wiltonian Pre-ceramic B
Pre-ceramic A
Neolithic in Asia Minor
(wheat, barley)
hunter gatherers
of Jōmon (ancient Japan)
10,000 BP




Ahrensburg culture,
Azilian and Asiloid cultures (northern Spain, southern France)

Capsian Goats domestication Zagros in Iran
First towns Near East at Aşıklı Höyük and Jericho

Hoabinhian of Southeast Asia
11,000 BP




Backed point culture (Federmesser)

Mezine (Ukraine)

Magosian

Natufian

Oldest known megaliths: Hattians or their predecessors[2]

Kandivili
12,000 BP Holocene began
glacial ended (12,000 BP)
glacial at its coldest (20,000 BP)

Magdalenian
Solutrean
Epigravettian
Hamburg culture

Ibero-Maurisian
Mushabian
Sebilian
Lupemban culture



Kebarian
Athlitian


Beginning of Neolithic religion at Göbekli Tepe (southern Anatolia)
Bhimbetka rock paintings south Asia pre-Jōmon ceramic (Japan)
20,000 BP





Gravettian

Pavlovian

Aurignacian (art)

Kostienki (western Russia)


Antelian

Aurignacian (art)
Sơn Vi culture (northern Vietnam)
30,000 BP

Châtelperronian
Homo neanderthalensis, Homo sapiens

Aurignacian (art)
Szeletian culture (Hungary)



Aterian


Stillbay






Bhimbetka rock paintings, Balangoda Culture
Angara Culture


Sen-Doki
40,000 BP




Homo neanderthalensis, Homo sapiens Emirian


Jabroudian
50,000 BP



Mousterian
Homo neanderthalensis



Mousterian
Homo neanderthalensis


Fauresmithian
Homo sapiens

Mousterian

Homo neanderthalensis




Soanian



Ngandong
culture
80,000 BP



latest glacial began (95,000 BP)

Homo neanderthalensis

Micoquien (the Netherlands)

Homo neanderthalensis

Micoquien
Mousteroid
Homo sapiens


Homo neanderthalensis
100,000 BP


glacial ended (130,000 BP)



Upper Acheulean
Homo neanderthalensis


Homo neanderthalensis Sangoan
Homo sapiens



Homo neanderthalensis

Acheulean

Soanian
200,000 BP
glacial began (352,000 BP)

Homo neanderthalensis


Tayacian (southern France)


Homo neanderthalensis
Homo sapiens

Acheulean



Homo neanderthalensis
artwork 250,000 BP[3]

Acheulean

300,000 BP





middle Acheulean
Homo neanderthalensis


Clactonian (England)




Pre-Soanian
500,000 BP




Lower Acheulean
Homo heidelbergensis
Homo neanderthalensis
worked pebbles

Lower Acheulean
Homo neanderthalensis Homo erectus pekinensis

1,000,000 BP




worked pebbles
Homo antecessor (northern Spain, England, France)

Homo erectus
worked pebbles


lower Acheulean


Oldowan

worked pebbles
2,000,000 BP


Homo habilis,[4]Homo ergaster Bhimbetka findings cupules[5]


See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Egyptian pyramids=2630BCE (Djoser); French Carnac stones=3000~4500BCE; Dolmens=5000BCE in Western Europe, progressing to Russia, as well as progressing thru Italy & Cyprus then reaching Israel/Jordan/Syria 4000~3000BCE; Gilgal Refaim Stonehenge in Mideast associated w/the era & builders of Dolmens, aka "Rogem Hiri," also=3000-4000BCE but this is only the top-layer, an as-yet unexcavated layer is discovered underneath
  2. ^ a b A.: Gobekli Tepe PPNA level: ~9000BCE. B.: Atlit Yam=semi-circle of megaliths in Mediterranean Sea south of Haifa (Natufians), "sudden" abandonment 6270BCE~6700BCE noted by archaeologist--see "Marchant, Jo (25 Nov 2009)" ref in Yam Atlit article--ergo, is necessarily older than 6270BCE but no date of construction found.
  3. ^ Israel Museum exhibits figurine/sculptureNational Library of Australia
  4. ^ Wilford, John Noble. "Fossils in Kenya Challenge Linear Evolution". New York Times. Retrieved 21 May 2013. 
  5. ^ Chakravarty, Kalyan Kumar; Bednarik, Robert S. (1997). Indian Rock Art: And Its Global Context. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. p. 59. ISBN 9788120814646.