Synucleins are a family of soluble proteins common to vertebrates, primarily expressed in neural tissue and in certain tumors. [2 ] [3 ]
Family members [ edit ]
The synuclein family includes three known proteins:
alpha-synuclein, beta-synuclein, and gamma-synuclein. Interest in the synuclein family began when alpha-synuclein was found to be mutated in several families with autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease. [2 ]
All synucleins have in common a highly conserved
alpha-helical lipid-binding motif with similarity to the class-A2 lipid-binding domains of the exchangeable apolipoproteins. Synuclein family members are not found outside vertebrates, although they have some conserved structural similarity with plant 'late-embryo-abundant' proteins. [3 ]
Function [ edit ]
Normal cellular functions have not been determined for any of the synuclein proteins. Some data suggest a role in the regulation of membrane stability and/or turnover. Mutations in alpha-synuclein are associated with early-onset familial Parkinson's disease and the protein aggregates abnormally in
Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Lewy body disease, and other neurodegenerative diseases. [4 ] The gamma-synuclein protein's expression in [5 ] breast tumors is a marker for tumor progression. [6 ]
Human proteins containing this domain [ edit ]
SNCA; SNCB; SNCG;
References [ edit ]
^ Ulmer TS, Bax A, Cole NB, Nussbaum RL (March 2005). "Structure and dynamics of micelle-bound human alpha-synuclein". J. Biol. Chem. 280 (10): 9595–603. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M411805200. PMID 15615727.
^ a b Lavedan C (September 1998). "The synuclein family". Genome Res. 8 (9): 871–80. doi: 10.1101/gr.8.9.871. PMID 9750188.
^ a b George JM (2002). "The synucleins". Genome Biol. 3 (1): REVIEWS3002. doi: 10.1186/gb-2001-3-1-reviews3002. PMC 150459. PMID 11806835.
^ Ma QL, Chan P, Yoshii M, Uéda K (April 2003). "Alpha-synuclein aggregation and neurodegenerative diseases". J. Alzheimers Dis. 5 (2): 139–48. PMID 12719631.
^ Goedert M (July 2001). "Alpha-synuclein and neurodegenerative diseases". Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 2 (7): 492–501. doi: 10.1038/35081564. PMID 11433374.
^ Bruening W, Giasson BI, Klein-Szanto AJ, Lee VM, Trojanowski JQ, Godwin AK (May 2000). "Synucleins are expressed in the majority of breast and ovarian carcinomas and in preneoplastic lesions of the ovary". Cancer 88 (9): 2154–63. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(20000501)88:9<2154::AID-CNCR23>3.0.CO;2-9. PMID 10813729.
External links [ edit ]