Syriac Catholic Church

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Syriac Catholic Church
Syriac Catholic Church logo.jpg
Founder Traces ultimate origins to Apostle St. Peter. Patriarchs Ignatius Andrew Akijan (1662) and Ignatius Michael III Jarweh (1782)
Independence Apostolic Era
Recognition 1662 with the Catholic Church
Primate Patriarch of Antioch and all the East of the Syrians Ignatius Joseph III Yonan
Headquarters Beirut, Lebanon
Territory Near-East
Possessions Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, United States, Canada, France, Sweden, Venezuela, Brazil and Australia
Language Syriac, Aramaic[1]
Members 158,000[2]
Website http://syr-cath.org/ (Arabic)
Seat of the Syriac Catholic Church in Damascus

The Syriac Catholic Church (Classical Syriac: ܥܕܬܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܬܐ ܩܬܘܠܝܩܝܬܐ ʿīṯo suryaiṯo qaṯolīqaiṯo) is a Christian church in the Levant having practices and rites in common with the Syriac Orthodox Church. Being one of the 22 Eastern Catholic Churches the Syriac Catholic Church has full autonomy and is a self-governed sui iuris Church.

The Patriarch of Antioch of this church has the title of Patriarch of Antioch and all the East of the Syrians.[3] and resides in Beirut.

Mor Ignatius Joseph III Younan became patriarch in 2009.

History[edit]

The Syriac Catholic Church belongs to the See of Antioch (which, prior to his departure to Rome, Saint Peter had established) and extends it roots back to the origins of Christianity in the Orient. And in the Acts of the Apostles we are told that it is in Antioch where the followers of Jesus for the first time were called "Christians" (Acts 11:26).

In the time of the first Ecumenical Councils, the Patriarch of Antioch held the ecclesiastical authority over the Diocese of the Orient, which was to be extended from the Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. Its scholarly mission in both languages: the Greek and Syriac was to provide the world and the Universal Church with eminent saints, scholars, hermits, martyrs and pastors. Among these great people are Saint Ephrem (373), Doctor of the Church, Saint Jacob of Sarug (521) Dionysius Bar Salibi (1171), Gregorius X Bar Hebraeus (1286) and more recently Bishop Mor Flavianus Michael Malke.

Organisation[edit]

Leadership[edit]

As of 2013 the Patriarch was Moran Mor Ignatius Joseph III Younan, resident in Beirut, Lebanon

In modern history the leaders of the Syriac Catholic Church have been among others: Patriarch Michael III Jarweh, Archbishop Clemens Daoud, Patriarch Ephrem Rahmani, Vicomte de Tarrazi, Monsignor Ishac Armaleh, Ignatius Gabriel I Tappuni, Chorbishop Gabriel Khoury-Sarkis, Ignatius Antony II Hayyek, Ignatius Moses I Daoud, Ignatius Peter VIII Abdalahad, and Ignatius Joseph III Yonan.

The Syriac Church leadership has produced a variety of scholarly writings in a variety of topics. For example Patriarch Ephrem Rahmani was widely praised for his work in Syriac and is responsible for Pope Benedict XV recognising Saint Ephrem as a Doctor of the Church.[4] Likewise Patriarch Ignatius Behnam II Beni is known for imploring eastern theology to defend the Primacy of Rome.[5]

The Patriarch of Antioch and all the East of the Syrians presides upon the Patriarchal Eparchy of Beirut and leads spiritually all the Syriac Catholic Community around the world.

The community includes two archdioceses in Iraq, four in Syria, one in Egypt and Sudan, a Patriarchal Vicariate in Israel, a Patriarchal Vicariate in Turkey and the Eparchy of Our Lady of Deliverance in the United States and Canada.

Jurisdiction[edit]

The Syriac Catholic Church was formally and officially united with Rome in 1781.

Our Lady of Deliverance Syriac Catholic Diocese in the United States and Canada has nine parishes; seven in the United States and two in Canada.

  • Patriarchal Eparchy of Beirut, Lebanon
  • Metropolitan Archeparchy of Damascus, Syria
  • Metropolitan Archeparchy of Homs, Syria
  • Archeparchy of Aleppo, Syria
  • Archeparchy of Hassaké-Nisibi, Syria
  • Archeparchy of Mossul, Iraq
  • Archeparchy of Baghdad, Iraq
  • Eparchy of Cairo, Egypt
  • Eparchy of Our Lady of Deliverance of Newark, New Jersey
  • Apostolic Exarchate for Venezuela
  • Patriarchal Exarchate of Turkey
  • Patriarchal Exarchate of Basra, Iraq and the Gulf
  • Patriarchal Exarchate of Jerusalem and Amman, Jordan
  • Patriarchal Dependency of Sudan

Current hierarchy[edit]

  • Moran Mor Ignatius Joseph III Younan (Patriarch of Antioch)
  • Jihad Mtanos Battah (Curial Bishop of Antioch and Titular Bishop of Phaena)
  • Basile Georges Casmoussa (Archbishop {personal title} and Curial Bishop of Antioch)
  • Flavien Joseph Melki (Curial Bishop of Antioch and Titular Archbishop of Dara dei Siri)
  • Jules Mikhael Al-Jamil (Auxiliary Bishop of Antioch and Titular Archbishop of Tagritum)
  • Gregorios Elias Tabé (Archbishop of Damascus)
  • Théophile Georges Kassab (Archbishop of Homs; deceased)
  • Denys Antoine Chahda (Archbishop of Aleppo)
  • Jacques Behnan Hindo (Archbishop of Hassaké-Nisibi)
  • Youhanna Boutros Moshe (Archbishop of Mossul)
  • Ephrem Yousif Abba Mansoor (Archbishop of Baghdad)
  • Athanase Matti Shaba Matoka (Archbishop Emeritus of Baghdad)
  • Clément-Joseph Hannouche (Bishop of Cairo)
  • Yousif Benham Habash (Bishop of Our Lady of Deliverance of Newark)
  • Timoteo Hikmat Beylouni (Apostolic Exarch of Venezuela and Titular Bishop of Sabrata)
  • Iwannis Louis Awad (Apostolic Exarch Emeritus of Venezuela and Titular Bishop of Zeugma in Syria)
  • Michael Berbari (Patriarchal Vicar of Australia and New Zealand)

As of 2010 the Church was estimated to have 159,000 faithful, 10 bishops, 85 parishes, 106 secular priests, 12 religious-order priests, 102 men and women in religious orders, 11 permanent deacons, and 31 seminarians.[6]

The formation of the Church[edit]

During the Crusades there were many examples of warm relations between Catholic and Syriac Orthodox bishops. Some of these bishops seemed favourable to union with Rome, but no concrete results were achieved. There was also a decree of union between the Syriac Orthodox and Rome at the Council of Florence November 30, 1444 but the effects of this decree were rapidly annulled by opponents of the union among the Syriac hierarchy.

Jesuit and Capuchin missionaries began to work among the Syriac Orthodox faithful at Aleppo in 1626. So many of them were received into communion with Rome that in 1662, when the Patriarchate had fallen vacant, the Catholic party was able to elect one of its own, Andrew Akijan, as Patriarch of the Syriac Church. This provoked a split in the community, and after Akijan’s death in 1677 two opposing patriarchs were elected, one being the uncle of the other, representing the two parties (one pro-Catholic, the other anti-Catholic). But when the Catholic Patriarch died in 1702, this very brief line of Catholic Patriarchs upon the Syriac Church's See of Antioch died out with him.

The Ottoman government supported the Syriac Orthodox's agitation against the Syriac Catholics, and throughout the 18th century the Syriac Catholics underwent suffering and much persecution. There were long periods when no Syriac Catholic bishops were functioning, and the community was forced to go entirely underground.

In 1782 the Syriac Orthodox Holy Synod elected Metropolitan Michael Jarweh of Aleppo as Patriarch. Shortly after he was enthroned, he declared himself Catholic and in unity with the Pope of Rome. After this declaration Jarweh took refuge in Lebanon and built the still-extant monastery of Our Lady at Sharfeh. Since Jarweh there has been an unbroken succession of Syriac Catholic Patriarchs.

In 1829 the Ottoman government granted legal recognition to the Armenian Catholic Church, and in 1845 the Syriac Catholic Church was granted its own civil emancipation. Meanwhile, the residence of the Patriarch was shifted to Aleppo in 1831. However, after the riots in 1850, the Patriarchal See was shifted again to Mardin in 1854.

The steady Syriac Catholic expansion at the expense of the Syriac Orthodox was ended by the persecutions and massacres that took place during World War I (Assyrian genocide). In that context, the Syriac Catholic Patriarchal See was therefore moved to Beirut, to which many Ottoman Christians had fled from massacres.

The Syriac Catholic Patriarch always takes the name "Ignatius" in addition to another name. Although Syriac Catholic priests were bound to celibacy by the Syriac Catholic local Synod of Sharfeh in 1888, there are now a number of married priests. A patriarchal seminary and printing house are located at Sharfeh Monastery in Lebanon.

Liturgy[edit]

The Syriac Rite is rooted in the old tradition of both the churches of Jerusalem and Antioch and has ties with the ancient Jewish Berakah and is usually called the Western Syriac Rite.

The Syriac Catholic Church follows a similar tradition to other Eastern Catholic Churches who use the West Syrian Rite, such as the Maronites and Syro-Malankara Christians. This rite is clearly distinct from the Greek Byzantine rite of Antioch of the Melkite Catholics and their Orthodox counterparts.

The Liturgy of the Syriac Catholic church is very similar to their Orthodox Counterparts

Distinction between the Anaphora and the Liturgy[edit]

Often when compared with the Latin Church the meaning of Anaphora and Liturgy can be mixed up. However, there is a clear distinction in the Syriac Church. The Liturgy of St James the Just is the skeleton of the whole Qurbono Qadisho with all the prayers before the Anaphora being exactly the same no-matter which anaphora used. The Liturgy of St James the Just comprises:

  1. The First Service
    1. Prosthesis
  2. The Second Service
    1. Reading from the Holy Books
      1. The Trisagion
      2. Antiphon before the Pauline Epistle (Galatians 1:8-9)
      3. The Epistle of Saint Paul
  3. The Third Service
    1. The Husoyo (Liturgy of Absolution)
      1. The Proemion
      2. The Sedro (Main Prayer)
      3. The Etro (Fragrance/incense prayer)
  4. The Anaphora
    1. The Kiss of peace
    2. Veiling and placing of the hands prayer
    3. The Dialogue
    4. Preface
    5. Sanctus (Qadish)
    6. Words of Institution
    7. Anamnesis
    8. Epiclesis
    9. Petitions
    10. Fracturing
    11. Liturgy of Repentance
      1. Lord's Prayer (Abun dbashmayo)
    12. Invitation to Holy Communion
    13. The Procession of the Holy Mysteries
    14. Prayer of Thanksgiving
    15. The Dismissal of the Faithful

In the books of the Patriarchal Sharfet seminary, this order is clearly strict, with the Deacon and Congregation prayer being the same no matter which Anaphora is used. The only prayer that changes when a different Anaphora is used is that of the priest.

Fans[edit]

The Syriac Catholic Church uses fans with bells on them and engraved with seraphim during the Qurbono. Usually someone in the minor orders would shake these fans behind a Bishop to symbolise the Seraphim. They are also used during the consecration where two men would shake them over the altar during moments in the epliclesis and words of institution when the priest says "he took and broke" and "this is my body/blood".

The Syriac Catholic Fans look similar to this but with bells on the edges

Thurible[edit]

The thurible of the Syriac Catholic Church consists of 9 bells representing the 9 levels of angels.

Symbols[edit]

Liturgical symbols are used when a bishop is not present and used at similar times to when the fans are used.

Liturgy of the Hours[edit]

The Liturgy of the Hours is exactly the same as in the Syriac Orthodox. There are two versions of this the Phenqitho and the Shhimo. The former is the more complicated 7 volume version. While the latter is the simple version.

Liturgical ranking[edit]

Likewise the ranking of clerics in the Syriac Church is extremely similar to that of the Syriac Orthodox Church. The most notable differences are:

  • Not all celibate Priests take on monastic vows. In the Syriac Orthodox Church all celibate priests are monks.
  • There is a solid distinction between the major orders and minor orders in the Syriac Catholic Church:
  • A man is tonsured as soon as he receives his first minor order of Mzamrono (Cantor).

Major Orders[edit]

Minor Orders[edit]

Language[edit]

The liturgical language of the Syriac Catholic Church, Syriac, is a dialect of Aramaic. The Qurbono Qadisho (literally: Holy Mass or Holy Offering/Sacrifice) of the Syriac Church uses a variety of Anaphoras. With the Anaphora of the 12 Apostles being the one mostly in use with the Liturgy of St James the Just.

Their ancient semitic language is known as Aramaic (or "Syriac" after the time of Christ since the majority of people who spoke this language belonged to the province of "Syria"). It is the language spoken by Jesus, Mary and the Apostles. Many of the ancient hymns of the Church are still maintained in this native tongue although several have been translated into Arabic, English, French and other languages.

Syriac is still spoken in some few communities in eastern Syria and northern Iraq, but for most Arabic is the vernacular language.[1]

Martyrs[edit]

Throughout the History of the Syriac Church there have been many martyrs. A recent example is Flavianus Michael Malke.

Syriac Catholics in Iraq[edit]

On 31 October 2010, 58 Iraqi Syriac Catholics were killed by Muslim extremists while attending Sunday Mass, 78 others were wounded. The attack by Muslim terrorists on the congregation of Our Lady of Deliverance Syriac Catholic Church was the bloodiest single attack on an Iraqi Christian church in recent history.[7]

Two priests, Fathers Saad Abdallah Tha'ir and Waseem Tabeeh, were killed.[8] Another, Father Qatin, was seriously wounded but recovered.[9][10]

See also[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Syrian Catholic Church
  2. ^ http://www.cnewa.org/source-images/Roberson-eastcath-statistics/eastcatholic-stat10.pdf
  3. ^ The title of Patriarch of Antioch is also claimed by four other churches.
  4. ^ http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/benedict_xv/encyclicals/documents/hf_ben-xv_enc_05101920_principi-apostolorum-petro_en.html
  5. ^ http://archive.org/details/a546936000bennuoft
  6. ^ Ronald Roberson (source: Annuario Pontificio) (August 22, 2010). "The Eastern Catholic Churches 2010". Catholic Near East Welfare Association. 
  7. ^ "Muslim Terrorists Murder 58 Iraqi Christians in Church". Retrieved 2010-11-14. 
  8. ^ article at undergroundfr.org, 2010-11-03 (in French), Retrieved on 2010-11-04. "Trois prêtres (Saad Abdallah Tha'ir, Waseem Tabeeh et Raphael Qatin) et des dizaines de chrétiens ont été tués."
  9. ^ "erratum: le père Raphael Qatin n’est pas décédé" aed-france.org 2010-11-05 (in French). Retrieved 8 November 2010.
  10. ^ "Iraqi Christians Hold Mass In Assaulted Church" NPR.org, 2010-11-07. Retrieved 8 November 2010.

External links[edit]

Eparchies, Churches and Monasteries[edit]