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Syriac or Syrian Christianity (Syriac: ܡܫܝܚܝܘܬܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܬܐ / mšiḥāiūṯā suryāiṯā) is a term describing the multiple Churches of Eastern Christianity whose services tend to feature liturgical use of ancient Syriac, a dialect of Middle Aramaic that emerged in Assyria in the 5th century BC, and is of direct relation to the Aramaic of Jesus.
With a history going back to the 1st century AD, in modern times Syriac Christianity is represented by denominations primarily in the Middle East and in Kerala, India. Christianity began in the Middle East in Jerusalem among Aramaic-speaking Semitic peoples of Judah (modern Israel). It quickly spread to Sassanid-ruled Mesopotamia & Assyria (modern Iraq), Roman-ruled Syria (ancient Aramea), Phoenicia (modern Lebanon), Asia Minor (modern Turkey), Persia (modern Iran) and Egypt. From there it spread to Greece, Armenia, Georgia, the Caucasus region and on into India, North Africa, Rome, Ethiopia and Arabia.
Syriac Christianity is divided into two major traditions: The East Syrian Rite, historically centered in Assyria/Mesopotamia, and the West Syrian Rite, centered in Antioch and the Mediterranean coast (the Levant). The East Syrian Rite tradition was historically associated with the Assyrian founded Church of the East, and is currently employed by the Middle Eastern churches that descend from it, the Assyrian Church of the East, the Ancient Church of the East, and the Chaldean Catholic Church (the members of these churches are Eastern Aramaic-speaking ethnic Assyrians), as well as by the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church of India. The West Syrian tradition is used by the Syriac Orthodox Church, the Maronite Church, the Syriac Catholic Church, and churches that descend from them, as well as by the Malankara Churches of India, which follow the Saint Thomas Christian tradition.
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Syriac Christian heritage is transmitted through various Neo Aramaic dialects (particularly the Syriac dialect of Assyria and Upper Mesopotamia) of old Aramaic. Unlike the Greek Christian culture, Assyrian Christian culture borrowed much from early Rabbinic Judaism and its own indigenous ancient Mesopotamian culture. Whereas Latin and Greek Christian cultures became protected by the Roman and Byzantine empires respectively, Syriac Christianity often found itself marginalised and sometimes actively persecuted by the Zoroastrian rulers of the Parthian Empire and succeeding Sassanid Empire. Antioch was the political capital of this culture, and was the seat of the Patriarchs of the church. However, Antioch was heavily Hellenized, and the Assyrian cities of Edessa, Nisibis and Sassanid Ctesiphon became Syriac cultural centres.
The early literature of Syriac Christianity includes the Diatessaron of Tatian; the Curetonian Gospels and the Syriac Sinaiticus; the Peshitta Bible; the Doctrine of Addai and the writings of Aphrahat; and the hymns of Ephrem the Syrian.
The first division between Syriac Christians and Western Christianity occurred in the 5th century, following the First Council of Ephesus in 431, when the Assyrian Christians of the Sassanid Persian Empire were separated from those in the west over the Nestorian Schism. This split owed just as much to the politics of the day as it did to theological orthodoxy. Ctesiphon, which was at the time also the Sassanid capital, eventually became the capital of the Church of the East.
After the Council of Chalcedon in 451, many Syriac Christians within the Roman Empire rebelled against its decisions. The Patriarchate of Antioch was then divided between a Chalcedonian and non-Chalcedonian communion. The Chalcedonians were often labelled 'Melkites' (Emperor's Party), while their opponents were labelled as Monophysites (those who believe in the one rather than two natures of Christ) and Jacobites (after Jacob Baradaeus). The Maronite Church found itself caught between the two (allegedly embracing Monothelitism), but claims to have always remained faithful to the Catholic Church and in communion with the bishop of Rome, the Pope.
Names and ethnicity
The term "Syrian" (and by extension "Syriac") was originally an Indo-European corruption of "Assyrian", and was used by speakers of Indo-European languages exclusively in relation to Assyria in northern Mesopotamia, from the period of the Neo Assyrian Empire onwards. During the Seleucid Empire, its Greek rulers applied the name not only to Assyria proper, but also to Biblical Aramea in the Levant, which had been a colony of Assyria during the Middle Assyrian Empire (1366-1020 BC) and Neo Assyrian Empire (911-605 BC). When they lost Assyria itself to the Parthian Empire, they retained the name "Syria" but only applied it to what had been Aramea, which they still retained. This led to the Greco-Roman and later European tradition of referring to both Assyrians/Mesopotamians and Arameans as "Syrians" and "Syriacs", despite both being historically, ethnically, linguistically, genetically and geographically distinct from one another.
The Assyrians (Syriac: ܣܘܪܝܝܐ, Arabic: سُريان), that is, Eastern Aramaic-speakers in Assyria and Mesopotamia in the late 1st millennium BC, adopted Christianity very early, from the 1st century A.D. onwards. The Neo-Assyrian kingdom of Osroene was the first Christian kingdom in history.
In 431 A.D. the Council of Ephesus declared Nestorianism to be a heresy. The Nestorian priests, who were persecuted in the Byzantine Empire, sought refuge in Mesopotamia where the Church of the East was dominant, then part of the Sassanid Empire. There was a synthesis between the Assyrian Church and Nestorian doctrine. From there they spread Christianity to Persia, India, China, and Mongolia. This was the beginning of the Nestorian Church, the eastern branch of Syrian Christianity. The western branch, the Jacobite Church, appeared after the Council of Chalcedon condemned Monophysitism in 451 A.D.
Members of the Assyrian Church of the East, Ancient Church of the East, the Chaldean Catholic, Assyrian Pentecostal Church church as well as those Syriac Orthodox and Syriac Catholic Christians from northern Iraq and northesat Syria are ethnic Assyrians, descendants of ancient Assyrians. This ethnic group still speak Akkadian infused Eastern Aramaic dialects and are indigenous to northern Iraq, south eastern Turkey, north eastern Syria and north western Iran.
Many now largely Arabic speaking Syriac Orthodox and Syriac Catholics from the bulk of Syria (excluding the northeast) and south central Turkey prefer a Syriac-Aramean national identity while others adhere to a purely religious Syriac identity.
A small number of mainly United States based Chaldean Catholics have also adopted a Chaldean or Chaldo-Assyrian national identity, despite there being no historical, archaeological, written, linguistic or geographical evidence whatsoever to support any link to the long extinct Chaldeans. These people are in fact ethnic Assyrians.
The older Assyrian designation has almost completely replaced the word Nestorian (which is seen by Assyrians as pejorative and meaningless as an ethnic term). However, the word Nestorian continues to be used in some Western academic literature.
The use of the word Syriac (which originally referred to the Syrian language, a dialect of Middle Aramaic which arose in Assyria) instead of Syrian became common after the establishment of the modern nation of Syria after World War I. The word 'Syrian' has become ambiguous in English since it can refer now to a citizen of Syria regardless of ethnicity, and is also now largely accepted to have originally meant Assyrian. In Arabic, however, the word for a 'citizen of Syria' has a different form (سوري sūrī) from the traditional word for an ethnic Assyrian/Syrian (سُرياني suryānī).
Churches of the Syriac tradition
- West Syrian Rite
- The Syriac Orthodox Church (Non-Chalcedonian Oriental Orthodox Church of Antioch and all the East)
- The Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church (Autocephalous; Non-Chalcedonian Oriental Orthodox Church of India)
- The West Syrian Rite Churches under the Catholic Church
- The Malankara Marthoma Syrian Church. (Mar Thoma Church), an Eastern Oriental church based in Kerala, India. Mar Thoma church is in communion with the Anglican Church.
- The Malabar Independent Syrian Church (Thozhiyur church), an independent church based in Kerala, India. Thozhiyur church is in communion with the Mar Thoma Church.
- East Syrian Rite
- Church of the East, or Nestorian Church, once widely spread through Asia
- The Assyrian Church of the East, the continuation of the Church of the East, which emerged from the split with the Chaldean Church in the 16th century
- The Ancient Church of the East, split from the Assyrian Church of the East in the 1960s
- The East Syrian Rite Churches under the Catholic Church
- The Chaldean Catholic Church (originally called The Church of Assyria and Mosul), an East Syrian Rite Eastern Catholic Church, only emerged from the Church of the East following the split with the Assyrian Church in the 1683 AD.
- The Syro-Malabar Catholic Church, an East Syrian Rite Eastern Catholic Church based in Kerala, India
- Church of the East, or Nestorian Church, once widely spread through Asia
Syrian Christians were involved in the mission to India, and many of the ancient churches of India are in communion with their Syriac cousins. These Indian Christians are known as Saint Thomas Christians.
In modern times, various Evangelical denominations began to send representatives among the Syriac peoples. As a result, several Evangelical groups, particularly the "Assyrian Pentecostal Church" (most in America, Iran, and Iraq) have been established. However, despite these Assyrian protestants having been converted from the Assyrian Church of the East and Chaldean Catholic Church, due to their recent historical origin, such groups and others are not normally classified among those Eastern Churches to which the term "Syriac Christianity" is traditionally applied.
- Assyrian Church of the East
- Chaldean Catholic Church
- Ancient Church of the East
- Assyrian people
- Name of Syria
- Terms for Syriac Christians
- Assyrian continuity
- West Syrian Rite
- East Syrian Rite
- Saint Thomas Christians
- Saint Thomas Christian Churches
- Allen C. Myers, ed (1987). "Aramaic". The Eerdmans Bible Dictionary. Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans. p. 72. ISBN 0-8028-2402-1. "It is generally agreed that Aramaic was the common language of Palestine in the first century A.D. Jesus and his disciples spoke the Galilean dialect, which was distinguished from that of Jerusalem (Matt. 26:73).". Israeli scholars have established that Hebrew was also in popular use. Most Jewish teaching from the first century is recorded in Hebrew.
- ^ Rollinger, Robert (2006). "The terms "Assyria" and "Syria" again" (PDF). Journal of Near Eastern Studies 65 (4): 284–287. doi:10.1086/511103.
- ^ Tekoglu, R. & Lemaire, A. (2000). La bilingue royale louvito-phénicienne de Çineköy. Comptes rendus de l’Académie des inscriptions, et belleslettres, année 2000, 960-1006.
- Inscription From 800 BC Shows the Origin of the Name 'Syria'
- ^ Yepiskoposian et al., Iran and the Caucasus, Volume 10, Number 2, 2006, pp. 191-208(18), "Genetic Testing of Language Replacement Hypothesis in Southwest Asia"
- T.V. Philip, East of the Euphrates: Early Christianity in Asia
- Baum, Wilhelm; Winkler, Dietmar W. (2003). The Church of the East: a concise history. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-29770-7.
- Jacobite Syrian Church
- (French) - Translation into English Syriac Christianity on WikiSyr
- (French) - Translation into English Syriac Catholic Circle
- Qambel Maran- Syriac chants from South India- a review and liturgical music tradition of Syriac Christians revisited
- Traditions and rituals among the Syrian Christians of Kerala
- Audio Aramaic-Bible
- A Comprehensive Bibliography On Syriac Christianity