Syrian Kurdistan

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Western Kurdistan
Rojavayê Kurdistanê

Flag
Anthem: 
Status de facto Autonomous region of Syria
Capital Qamişlo (Qamishli)
37°03′N 41°13′E / 37.050°N 41.217°E / 37.050; 41.217
languages Kurdish
Arabic[1]
Aramaic
Demonym Kurd
Government Interim government
 -  President Salih Muslim Muhammad
Autonomous region
 -  Autonomy Proposed July 2013 
 -  Autonomy Declared November 2013 
 -  Regional government established November 2013 
 -  Interim Constitution Adopted January 2014 
Time zone UTC+3
Drives on the right
Calling code +963
Internet TLD .sy
Syrian Kurdistan
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Syrian Kurdistan

Syrian Kurdistan or Western Kurdistan (Kurdish: Rojavayê Kurdistan), also commonly referred to as simply Rojava[2] meaning the West in Kurdish, is a de facto autonomous region in northern and north-eastern Syria.[3] Syrian Kurdistan is part of the larger geographic area of Kurdistan, which refers to parts of eastern Turkey (Turkish Kurdistan), northern Iraq (Iraqi Kurdistan), northwestern Iran (Iranian Kurdistan) and northern Syria (Syrian Kurdistan) inhabited mainly by Kurds.[4] Kurdistan roughly encompasses the northwestern Zagros and the eastern Taurus mountain ranges.[5] Since 2012, much of Syrian Kurdistan has been controlled by Kurdish militias as part of the Syrian Civil War and in November 2013 representatives from Kurdish, Arab, Assyrian and other smaller minorities declared a de facto government in the region.[6]

Etymology[edit]

The name Kurdistan literally means Land of the Kurds. In the Iraqi Constitution, it is referred to as Kurdistan Region.[7] The name is prefixed by "Syrian" or "Western", referring to the relative geographic or political designation of the region. In the Kurdish language, the name is simply Rojava[2] meaning the West in Kurdish.

History[edit]

During the Syrian civil war[edit]

During the Syrian civil war, the Popular Protection Units (YPG) were created under the administration of the Kurdish Supreme Committee to control the Kurdish inhabited areas in Syria. On 19 July 2012, the YPG captured the city of Kobanê (Ayn al-Arab), and the next day captured Amûdê and Efrîn.[8] The two main Kurdish groups, the Kurdish National Council (KNC) and the Democratic Union Party (PYD), afterwards formed a joint leadership council to run the captured cities.[8] By 24 July, the Syrian Kurdish cities of Dêrika Hemko (Al-Malikiyah), Serê Kaniyê (Ra's al-'Ayn), Dirbêsî (Al-Darbasiyah) and Girkê Legê (Al-Ma'bada) had also come under the control of the Popular Protection Units. The only major Kurdish inhabited cities that remained under government control were Hasaka and Qamishli.[9][10]

Geography[edit]

The Autonomous Government is made up of three cantons (Cizîr (Al-Jazeera), Kobanê and Efrîn)

Notable Kurdish inhabited cities in Syria[edit]

Current military situation in Syria.
  Kurdish Self-Administration
  Other rebels

For a more detailed map, see Cities and towns during the Syrian Civil War

Arab cities in northeastern Syria[edit]

Assyrian cities in northeastern Syria[edit]

  • Qamishli (ܒܝܬ ܙܐܠܝ̈ܢ Beṯ Zālin) (mixed population)
  • Al-Qahtaniyah (ܩܒܪ̈ܐ ܚܘܪ̈ܐ Qabre Ḥewore) (mixed population)
  • Al-Hasakah (ܚܣܟܗ, ܓܨܪܛܐ) (mixed population)
  • Khanik (ܚܢܝܟ)
  • Tell Chamiram
  • Tel Nasri
  • Tel Tamer (ܬܠ ܬܡܪ Tel Tamer)
  • Qesrok (ܩܨܪܟ Qasrok)
  • Al-Malikiyah (ܕܪܝܟ Derik)

Politics[edit]

The Kurdish Supreme Committee was an interim governing body of Syrian Kurdistan, which was founded by the Kurdish Democratic Union Party (PYD) and the Kurdish National Council (KNC), following the signing on 12 July 2012 of a cooperation agreement between the two parties in Hewlêr, Iraqi Kurdistan under the auspice of the Iraqi Kurdistan President Massoud Barzani.[11] The member board consisted of an equal number of PYD and KNC members.[12]

Military[edit]

The Kurdish Supreme Committee's armed wing is the Popular Protection Units, effectively forming the military force of Syrian Kurdistan.

Culture[edit]

Archaeological sites in northeastern Syria[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]