Coalition of the Radical Left
|Coalition of the Radical Left|
|Συνασπισμός Ριζοσπαστικής Αριστεράς|
|Slogan||Ανοίγουμε δρόμο στην ελπίδα Anígume drómo stin elpída (We open a way to hope)|
|Founded||2004 (as an alliance)
22 May 2012 (as a party)
|Headquarters||39 Valtetsiou, 106 81 Athens, Greece|
|European affiliation||Party of the European Left, European Anticapitalist Left (observer)|
|European Parliament group||European United Left–Nordic Green Left|
|Colours||Red, green and purple|
|Politics of Greece
The Coalition of the Radical Left (Greek: Συνασπισμός Ριζοσπαστικής Αριστεράς, Synaspismós Rizospastikís Aristerás), known colloquially by its acronym SYRIZA (Greek: ΣΥΡΙΖΑ, pronounced [ˈsiɾiza]), is a left-wing political party in Greece, originally founded as a coalition of left-wing and radical left parties.
The coalition originally comprised a broad array of groups (thirteen in total) and independent politicians, including democratic socialists and green left groups, as well as Maoist, Trotskyist, and eurocommunist organisations. Its parliamentary leader is Alexis Tsipras, formerly president of Synaspismós, the largest group in the coalition. From 2013 the coalition became a unitary party, although it retained its name with the addition of "United Social Front".
- 1 History
- 2 Former constituent parties
- 3 Electoral results
- 4 European parliament
- 5 References
- 6 External links
Although Syriza was formally launched before the legislative election of 2004, the roots of the process that led to its formation can be traced back to the Space for Dialogue for the Unity and Common Action of the Left (Greek: Χώρος Διαλόγου για την Ενότητα και Κοινή Δράση της Αριστεράς) in 2001. The "Space" was composed of various organisations of the Greek Left that, despite different ideological and historical backgrounds, had shared common political action in several important issues that had arisen in Greece at the end of the 1990s, such as the Kosovo War, privatizations, social and civil rights, etc.
The "Space" provided the common ground from which the participating parties could work together on issues such as:
- Against the neoliberal reform of the pension and social security systems
- Opposition to new anti-terrorism legislation
- The preparation of the Greek participation at the 2001 international demonstration in Genoa.
Even though the "Space" was not a political organisation, but rather an effort to bring together the parties and organisations that attended, it gave birth to some electoral alliances for the local election of 2002, the most successful being the one led by Manolis Glezos for the super-prefecture of Athens-Piraeus. The "Space" also provided the common ground from which several of the member parties and organizations launched the Greek Social Forum, part of the larger European Social Forum.
2004 general election
The defining moment for the birth of Syriza came with the legislative election of 2004. Most of the participants of the "Space" sought to develop a common platform that could lead to an electoral alliance. This led to the eventual formation of the Coalition of the Radical Left, in January 2004.
The parties that originally formed the Coalition of the Radical Left in January 2004 were:
- Synaspismós (SYN)
- The Renewing Communist Ecological Left (AKOA)
- The Internationalist Workers Left (DEA)
- The Movement for the United in Action Left (KEDA) (a splinter group of the Communist Party of Greece)
- Active Citizens (a political organisation associated with Manolis Glezos)
- Other independent left-wing groups or activists
In the election, the coalition gathered 241,539 votes (3.3% of the total) and elected six members to parliament. All six were members of Synaspismós, the largest of the coalition parties. This led to much tension within the coalition.
Crisis and revitalisation
After the 2004 election, the smaller parties accused Synaspismós of not honoring an agreement to have one of its members of parliament resign so that Yannis Banias of the AKOA could take his seat. Tension built up and resulted in the split of the Internationalist Workers Left and the formation of Kokkino, both of which remained within the coalition. The frame of the crisis within Syriza was the reluctance of Synaspismós to adopt and maintain the political agreement for a clear denial of "centre-left politics".
Three months after the legislative elections, Synaspismós chose to run independently from the rest of the coalition for the 2004 elections for the European Parliament and some of the smaller parties of the coalition supported the feminist Women for Another Europe (Greek: Γυναίκες για μια Άλλη Ευρώπη) list.
The crisis ended in December 2004 with the 4th convention of Synaspismós, when a large majority within the party voted for the revitalization of the coalition. This change of attitude was further intensified with the election of Alekos Alavanos, a staunch supporter of the coalition, as president of Synaspismós, after its former leader, Nikos Konstantopoulos, stepped down.
The coalition was further strengthened by the successful organization in May 2006 of the 4th European Social Forum in Athens, as well as by a number of largely successful election campaigns, such as those in Athens and Piraeus, during the local elections of 2006. The coalition ticket in the municipality of Athens was headed by the 30-year-old Alexis Tsipras, proposed by Alavanos who declared Synaspismós's "opening to the new generation".
2007 general election
The Coalition of the Radical Left was the big surprise in the 2007 Greek legislative election (16 September 2007), increasing its votes by 120,000 and gaining an unexpected 5,04%. Opinion polls had already indicated that the Coalition was expected to make significant gains in the election, with predictions ranging from 4% to 5% of the electorate.
Prior to the election, in 22 June, the participating parties had agreed on a common declaration. The signed Declaration of the Coalition of the Radical Left outlined the common platform on which the Coalition would compete in the following election and outlined the basis for the political alliance.
The Coalition of 2007 has also expanded from its original composition in 2004. On 20 June 2007, the Communist Organization of Greece (KOE) announced its participation into the Coalition. On August 21 the environmentalist Ecological Intervention (Greek: Οικολογική Παρέμβαση) also joined, and on 22 August 2007, the Democratic Social Movement (DIKKI) also announced its own participation to the Coalition.
On 2 September the Areios Pagos refused to include the title of DIKKI in the Syriza electoral alliance, claiming that the internal procedures followed by DIKKI were flawed. This was criticised furiously by both Syriza and DIKKI as inappropriate interference by the courts in party political activity.
In 27 November 2007, Alavanos announced that, for private reasons, he would not be seeking to renew of his presidency of Synaspismós. The 5th party congress of Synaspismós elected 33-year-old Alexis Tsipras, a municipal councillor for the municipality of Athens, as party president on 10 February 2008. Alavanos retained the parliamentary leadership of Syriza, however, as Tsipras was not at that time a member of parliament. Tsipras achieved considerable popularity with the Greek electorate, which led to a significant increase in support for Syriza in opinion polls – up to 18 percent at its peak.
During the run-up to the 2009 European Parliamentary elections Syriza, amid turbulent internal developments, saw its poll share dive to 4.7%, with the result that only one Syriza candidate (Nikos Hountis) was elected to the European Parliament. This caused renewed internal strife, leading to the resignation of former Synaspismós president Alekos Alavanos from his seat in the Greek parliament, a resignation that was, however, withdrawn a few days later.
In the Greek legislative elections of October 2009, Syriza won 4.6% of the vote (slightly below its 2007 showing), returning 13 MPs. These included Tsipras, who took over as Syriza's parliamentary leader.
In June 2010, the Ananeotiki ("Renewing Wing") of radical social democrats in Synapsismós split away from the party, at the same time leaving Syriza. This reduced Syriza's parliamentary group to 9 MPs. The 4 MPs who left formed a new party, the Democratic Left.
2012 general elections
In a move of voters away from the parties which participated in the coalition government under the premiership of Lucas Papademos in November 2011, Syriza gained popular support in the opinion polls, as did the Communist Party of Greece and the Democratic Left. Opinion polls in the run-up to the May 2012 election showed Syriza with 10-12% support. The minor Unitary Movement (a PASOK splinter group) also joined the coalition in March 2012.
In legislative elections in May 2012, the party polled over 16% and quadrupled its number of seats, becoming the second largest party in parliament, behind New Democracy. After the election, Tsipras was invited by the president of Greece to try to form a government, but failed to form a government of the Left owing to a lack of parliamentary numbers. Subsequently, Tsipras rejected a proposal by the president to join a coalition government with the pro-austerity parties.
For the second general election in June 2012, Syriza re-registered as a single party (adding the "United Social Front" moniker) instead of as a coalition, in order to be eligible to receive the 50 "bonus" seats given to the largest polling party under the Greek electoral system. However, although Syriza increased its share of the vote to just under 27%, New Democracy polled 2.8% more than Syriza and claimed the bonus. With 71 seats, Syriza became the main opposition party, facing a governing coalition of ND, PASOK, and the Democratic Left.
2013 Party Congress
A Congress of SYRIZA was held in July 2013. Important outcomes included a decision in principle to dissolve the participating parties in SYRIZA in favour of a unitary party. However, implementation was deferred for three months to allow time for four of the parties which were reluctant to dissolve to consider their positions. Tsipras was confirmed as leader with 74% of the vote. However delegates supporting the Left Platform (Greek: "Αριστερή Πλάτφορμα") led by Panayiotis Lafazanis, which wants to leave the door open to quitting the euro, secured 30%(60) of the seats on SYRIZA's central committee. A modest success was also claimed by the "Communist Platform" (Greek section of the International Marxist Tendency), who managed to get two members elected to the party's central committee.
Local elections and elections to the European Parliament were held in May 2014. In the European elections Syriza placed first with just over 26.5% of votes cast, ahead of New Democracy on 22.7%. The position in the local elections was less clear-cut, due to the number of "non-party" local tickets and independents contending for office. Syriza's main success was the election of Rena Dourou to the Attica Regional governorship with 50.8% of the second-round vote over the incumbent Yiannis Sgouros. Its biggest disappointment was the failure of Gabriel Sakellarides to win the Athens Mayoralty election, being beaten in the second ballot by Giorgos Kaminis with 51.4% to his 48.6%.
In 2012, Syriza appointed a "shadow cabinet" (Greek: "σκιώδης κυβέρνηση") of spokespersons and advisors for articulating the party's position in opposition to the coalition government.
- Evklidis Tsakalotos (Finance)
- Yiannis Statakis (Economy)
- Dimitris Stratoulis (Employment)
- Sofia Sakorafa (Interior)
- Alexis Mitropoulos (Administrative Reform)
- Dimitris Tsoukalas (Citizen Protection)
- Rena Dourou (Foreign Affairs)
- Georgios Stathakis (Development and Infrastructure)
- Andreas Xanthos (Health)
- Zoe Konstantopoulou (Justice)
- Thodoris Dritsas (Marine Affairs)
- Tasos Courakis and Theano Fotiou (Education)
- Vangelis Apostolou (Rural Development)
- Iro Diotis (Environment)
- Thanasis Petrakos (Energy)
- Michael Kritsotakis (Tourism)
- Litsa Amanatidou-Paschalidou (Macedonia - Thrace Affairs)
Former constituent parties
SYRIZA as a unitary party was formed through the merger of the following parties (in alphabetical order in English):
- Active Citizens (Ενεργοί Πολίτες): democratic socialism, patriotism
- Anticapitalist Political Group (ΑΠΟ): communism, trotskyism
- Citizens' Association of Riga (Velestinli): patriotism, internationalism, democracy, ecology, social justice
- Communist Organization of Greece (KOE): maoism, communism
- Communist Platform of Syriza: Greek section of the International Marxist Tendency, communism, trotskyism
- Democratic Social Movement (DIKKI): left-wing nationalism, socialism, euroscepticism
- Ecosocialists of Greece: eco-socialism, left ecology
- Internationalist Workers' Left (DEA): revolutionary socialism, communism, trotskyism
- Movement for the United in Action Left (KEDA): communism
- New Fighter: democratic socialism, social democracy
- Radical Left Group Roza
- Radicals (Ριζοσπάστες): democratic socialism, patriotism
- Red (Κόκκινο): communism, trotskyism
- Renewing Communist Ecological Left (AKOA): democratic socialism, eurocommunism, green politics
- Synaspismós (SYN): democratic socialism, eco-socialism, eurocommunism, environmentalism, feminism
- Union of the Democratic Centre (EDIK): centre-left
- Unitary Movement: democratic socialism, social democracy
- And a number of independent leftist activists
|Election year||# of overall votes||% of overall vote||# of seats won||+/-|
|2012 (May)||1,061,265||16.8 (#2)||39|
|2012 (Jun)||1,655,053||26.9 (#2)||19|
|Election year||# of overall votes||% of overall vote||# of seats won||+/-|
Syriza holds 6 seats in the European parliament.
- Manolis Glezos
- Sofia Sakorafa
- Dimitris Papadimoulis
- Georgios Katrougalos
- Konstantina Kouneva
- Konstantinos Chrysogonos
- "Greece's left-wing SYRIZA submits application for party status"
- Nordsieck, Wolfram, Greece, Parties and Elections in Europe, retrieved 15 March 2012
- Wellbrook, Christopher (2013), Libertarian Socialism: Politics in Black and Red, Palgrave Publishers, p. 67
- Michael Ray. "Euroskepticism". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2014-06-24.
- "Left-wing_Populism_in_the_European_Periphery_The_Case_of_SYRIZA", .academia.edu.
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- "syriza-wants-state-break-with-church", greece.greekreporter.com, 2013/01/28.
- Callinicos, Alex (2012), The second coming of the radical left, International Socialist journal
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- The counselors of the Regions.
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- ekathimerini.com, 25/05/2014.
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- Synaspismós press release, 17 December 2003
- 15/01/2004 Article from the Greek language edition of the BBC
- KOE press release, February 2004
- 28/09/2004 article by the newspaper Epohi
- 23/05/2004 article by the newspaper Epohi
- Chapter 9 of the Political Decisions of the 4th convention of the Synaspismos
- Alavanos' main convention speech at the convention
- See the relevant Wikipedia entry
- Full text of the Declaration
- "Στον ΣΥΡΙΖΑ προσχώρησε η Κομμουνιστική Οργάνωση Ελλάδας". in.gr. Retrieved 2012-05-17.
- Ecological Intervention press release[dead link]
- DIKKI press release[dead link]
- 2/9/2007 DIKKI press release[dead link]
- "Synaspismos press release". Synaspismos. 2007-11-27. Retrieved 2012-05-17.
- Governing New Democrats Still Lead in Greece, Angus Reid article.
- Χριστίνα Ζιάκα (2008-06-10). Απόφαση του Ξεκινήματος για συμμετοχή στο Συριζα (in Greek). Ξεκίνημα. Retrieved 2008-06-15.
- "Alavanos reverses decision". HR-Net. 2009-06-23. Retrieved 2012-05-17.
- Next Greek legislative election
- Xypolia, Ilia (May 2012). "Sorry, folks..the wake is over". London Progressive Journal. Retrieved 15 October 2012.
- "Greek radical left leader rejects coalition talks: official". Reuters. 2012-05-13. Retrieved 2012-05-18.
- "Ενιαίο κόμμα ο ΣΥΡΙΖΑ (SYRIZA a single party)" (in Greek). Ta Nea. 22 May 2012.
- "Tsipras still leader but rifts remain". Kathimerini. 15 July 2013.
- "syriza-an-opportunity-for-change-of-programme-and-tactics", marxist.com.
- List of participants from the Coalition's website|date=August 2013
- Anagnostou, Dia (2006), Deepening Democracy or Defending the Nation? The Europeanisation of Minority Rights and Greek Citizenship, Politics and Policy in Greece (Routledge): 128
- Greece: Directory, Central and South-Eastern Europe 2004 (Europa Publications), 2003: 294
- Magone, José M. (2003), The Politics of Southern Europe: Integration into the European Union, Praeger Publishers, p. 152
- Magone, José M. (2003), The Politics of Southern Europe: Integration into the European Union, Praeger Publishers, p. 151
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Coalition of the Radical Left.|
- Coalition of the Radical Left
- Active Citizens
- Communist Organization of Greece
- Democratic Social Movement
- Ecological Intervention
- Internationalist Workers Left
- Movement for the United in Action Left
- Popular Unions of Bipartisan Social Groups
- Renewing Communist Ecological Left
- Only Syriza Can Save Greece. James K. Galbraith and Yanis Varoufakis. The New York Times, 23 June 2013.