|Coalition of the Radical Left|
|Συνασπισμός Ριζοσπαστικής Αριστεράς|
|Slogan||Ανοίγουμε δρόμο στην ελπίδα Anígume drómo stin elpída (We open a way to hope)|
|Founded||2004 (as an alliance)
22 May 2012 (as a party)
|Headquarters||39 Valtetsiou, 106 81 Athens, Greece|
|Youth wing||SYRIZA Youth|
|European affiliation||Party of the European Left|
|European Parliament group||European United Left/Nordic Green Left|
|Politics of Greece
The Coalition of the Radical Left (Greek: Συνασπισμός Ριζοσπαστικής Αριστεράς, Synaspismós Rizospastikís Aristerás), mostly known by its acronym Syriza (sometimes styled SYRIZA; Greek: ΣΥΡΙΖΑ, pronounced [ˈsiɾiza]), is a left-wing political party in Greece, originally founded in 2004 as a coalition of left-wing and radical left parties. It is the largest party in the Hellenic Parliament, with party chairman Alexis Tsipras serving as Prime Minister of Greece.
The coalition originally comprised a broad array of groups (thirteen in total) and independent politicians, including social democrats, democratic socialists, left-wing patriots, feminists, anti-capitalists, centrist and environmentalist groups, as well as Marxist–Leninist, Maoist, Trotskyist, Eurocommunist, Luxemburgist and also Eurosceptic components. Additionally, despite its secular ideology, many members are Christians who, like their atheistic fellow members, are opposed to the privileges of the state-sponsored Orthodox Church of Greece. From 2013 the coalition became a unitary party, although it retained its name with the addition of "United Social Front".
Syriza has been characterized as an anti-establishment party, whose success has sent "shock-waves across the EU". Although it has abandoned its old identity, that of a hard-left protest voice, becoming more populist in character, and stating that it will not abandon the eurozone, its chairman Alexis Tsipras has declared that the "euro is not my fetish". Recently, the Vice President of the European Parliament and Syriza MEP Dimitrios Papadimoulis stated that Greece should "be a respectable member of the European Union and the euro zone" and that "there is absolutely no case for a Grexit". Although Alexis Tsipras clarified that Syriza "does not support any sort of Euroscepticism", at the same time, the party is seen as a mildly Eurosceptic force.
- 1 History
- 2 Cabinet members
- 3 Former constituent parties
- 4 Election results
- 5 European parliament
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Although Syriza was formally launched before the 2004 legislative election, the roots of the process that led to its formation can be traced back to the Space for Dialogue for the Unity and Common Action of the Left (Greek: Χώρος Διαλόγου για την Ενότητα και Κοινή Δράση της Αριστεράς) in 2001. The "Space" was composed of various organisations of the Greek Left that, despite different ideological and historical backgrounds, had shared common political action in several important issues that had arisen in Greece at the end of the 1990s, such as the Kosovo War, privatizations, social and civil rights, etc.
The "Space" provided the common ground from which the participating parties could work together on issues such as:
- Against the neoliberal reform of the pension and social security systems
- Opposition to new anti-terrorism legislation
- The preparation of the Greek participation at the 2001 international demonstration in Genoa.
- Review the role of the European Union and redetermine Greece's position on it.
Even though the "Space" was not a political organisation, but rather an effort to bring together the parties and organisations that attended, it gave birth to some electoral alliances for the local elections of 2002, the most successful being the one led by Manolis Glezos for the super-prefecture of Athens-Piraeus. The "Space" also provided the common ground from which several of the member parties and organizations launched the Greek Social Forum, part of the larger European Social Forum.
2004 general election
The defining moment for the birth of Syriza came with the legislative election of 2004. Most of the participants of the "Space" sought to develop a common platform that could lead to an electoral alliance. This led to the eventual formation of the Coalition of the Radical Left, in January 2004.
The parties that originally formed the Coalition of the Radical Left in January 2004 were the:
- Coalition of Left, of Movements and Ecology (Synaspismós or SYN)
- Renewing Communist Ecological Left (AKOA)
- Internationalist Workers Left (DEA)
- Movement for the United in Action Left (KEDA) (a splinter group of the Communist Party of Greece)
- Active Citizens (a political organisation associated with Manolis Glezos)
- Other independent left-wing groups or activists
In the election, the coalition gathered 241,539 votes (3.3% of the total) and elected six members to parliament. All six were members of Synaspismós, the largest of the coalition parties. This led to much tension within the coalition.
Crisis and revitalisation
After the 2004 election, the smaller parties accused Synaspismós of not honoring an agreement to have one of its members of parliament resign so that Yannis Banias of the AKOA could take his seat. Tension built up and resulted in the split of the Internationalist Workers Left and the formation of Kokkino, both of which remained within the coalition. The frame of the crisis within Syriza was the reluctance of Synaspismós to adopt and maintain the political agreement for a clear denial of "centre-left politics".
Three months after the 2004 legislative elections, Synaspismós chose to run independently from the rest of the coalition for the 2004 European elections and some of the smaller parties of the coalition supported the feminist Women for Another Europe (Greek: Γυναίκες για μια Άλλη Ευρώπη) list.
The crisis ended in December 2004 with the 4th convention of Synaspismós, when a large majority within the party voted for the continuation of the coalition. This change of attitude was further intensified with the election of Alekos Alavanos, a staunch supporter of the coalition, as president of Synaspismós, after its former leader, Nikos Konstantopoulos, stepped down.
The coalition was further strengthened by the successful organization in May 2006 of the 4th European Social Forum in Athens, as well as by a number of largely successful election campaigns, such as those in Athens and Piraeus, during the 2006 local elections. The coalition ticket in the municipality of Athens was headed by Alexis Tsipras, proposed by Alavanos who declared Synaspismós's "opening to the new generation".
2007 legislative election
On 16 September 2007, Syriza gained 5.0% of the vote in the 2007 Greek legislative election. Opinion polls had already indicated that the Coalition was expected to make significant gains in the election, with predictions ranging from 4% to 5% of the electorate.
Prior to the election, in 22 June, the participating parties had agreed on a common declaration. The signed Declaration of the Coalition of the Radical Left outlined the common platform on which the Coalition would compete in the following election and outlined the basis for the political alliance.
The Coalition of 2007 has also expanded from its original composition in 2004. On 20 June 2007, the Communist Organization of Greece (KOE) announced its participation into the Coalition. On August 21 the environmentalist Ecological Intervention (Greek: Οικολογική Παρέμβαση) also joined, and on 22 August 2007, the Democratic Social Movement (DIKKI) also announced its participation in the Coalition.
On 2 September, the Areios Pagos refused to include the title of DIKKI in the Syriza electoral alliance, claiming that the internal procedures followed by DIKKI were flawed. This was criticised furiously by both Syriza and DIKKI as inappropriate interference by the courts in party political activity.
In 27 November 2007, Alavanos announced that, for private reasons, he would not be seeking to renew his presidency of Synaspismós. The 5th party congress of Synaspismós elected Alexis Tsipras, a municipal councillor for the municipality of Athens, as party president on 10 February 2008. Alavanos retained the parliamentary leadership of Syriza, however, as Tsipras was not at that time a member of parliament. Tsipras achieved considerable popularity with the Greek electorate, which led to a significant increase in support for Syriza in opinion polls – up to 18 percent at its peak.
During the run-up to the 2009 European elections Syriza, amid turbulent internal developments, saw its poll share decrease to 4.7%, with the result that only one Syriza candidate (Nikos Hountis) was elected to the European Parliament. This caused renewed internal strife, leading to the resignation of former Synaspismós president Alekos Alavanos from his seat in the Greek parliament, a resignation that was, however, withdrawn a few days later.
In the 2009 legislative election held on 4 October 2009, Syriza won 4.6% of the vote (slightly below its 2007 showing), returning 13 MPs to the Hellenic Parliaments. The incoming MPs included Tsipras, who took over as Syriza's parliamentary leader.
In June 2010, the Ananeotiki ("Renewing Wing") of radical social democrats in Synapsismós split away from the party, at the same time leaving Syriza. This reduced Syriza's parliamentary group to 9 MPs. The 4 MPs who left formed a new party, the Democratic Left (DIMAR).
2012 general elections
In a move of voters away from the parties which participated in the coalition government under the premiership of Lucas Papademos in November 2011, Syriza gained popular support in the opinion polls, as did the Communist Party of Greece (KKE) and DIMAR. Opinion polls in the run-up to the May 2012 election showed Syriza with 10-12% support. The minor Unitary Movement (a PASOK splinter group) also joined the coalition in March 2012.
In first 2012 legislative election held on 6 May, the party polled over 16% and quadrupled its number of seats, becoming the second largest party in parliament, behind New Democracy (ND). After the election, Tsipras was invited by the president of Greece to try to form a government, but failed to form a government owing to a lack of parliamentary numbers. Subsequently, Tsipras rejected a proposal by the president to join a coalition government with the centre-right and centre-left parties.
For the second 2012 legislative election on 17 June 2012, Syriza re-registered as a single party (adding the "United Social Front" moniker) instead of as a coalition, in order to be eligible to receive the 50 "bonus" seats given to the largest polling party under the Greek electoral system. However, although Syriza increased its share of the vote to just under 27%, New Democracy polled 29.8% and claimed the bonus. With 71 seats, Syriza became the main opposition party to a coalition government composed of ND, PASOK, and DIMAR.
In July 2013, a Syriza congress was held to discuss the organization of the party. Important outcomes included a decision in principle to dissolve the participating parties in SYRIZA in favour of a unitary party. However, implementation was deferred for three months to allow time for four of the parties which were reluctant to dissolve to consider their positions. Tsipras was confirmed as chairman with 74% of the vote. However delegates supporting the Left Platform (Greek: "Αριστερή Πλάτφορμα") led by Panayiotis Lafazanis, which wants to leave the door open to quitting the euro, secured 30% (60) of the seats on SYRIZA's central committee. A modest success was also claimed by the "Communist Platform" (Greek section of the International Marxist Tendency), who managed to get two members elected to the party's central committee.
Local elections and elections to the European Parliament were held in May 2014. In the 2014 European election on 25 May 2014, Syriza reached first place with 26.5% of vote, ahead of New Democracy at 22.7%. The position in the local elections was less clear-cut, due to the number of "non-party" local tickets and independents contending for office. Syriza's main success was the election of Rena Dourou to the Attica Regional governorship with 50.8% of the second-round vote over the incumbent Yiannis Sgouros. Its biggest disappointment was the failure of Gabriel Sakellaridis to win the Athens Mayoralty election, being beaten in the second ballot by Giorgos Kaminis with 51.4% to his 48.6%.
2015 snap election
After the Hellenic Parliament failed to elect a new President of State by 29 December 2014, the parliament was dissolved and a snap 2015 legislative election was scheduled for 25 January 2015. Syriza had a lead in opinion polls, but its anti-austerity position worried investors and eurozone supporters. The party's chief economic advisor, John Milios, has downplayed fears that Greece under a Syriza government would exit the eurozone, while shadow development minister George Stathakis disclosed the party’s intention to crack down on Greek oligarchs if it wins the election. In the election, Syriza defeated the incumbent New Democracy and went on to become the largest party in the Hellenic Parliament, receiving 36.3% of the vote and 149 out of 300 seats.
Tsipras was congratulated by French president Francois Hollande who stressed Greco-French "friendship," as well as by leftist leaders all over Europe, including Pablo Iglesias Turrión of Spain's Podemos and Katja Kipping of Germany's Die Linke. German government official Hans-Peter Friedrich however said: "The Greeks have the right to vote for whom they want. We have the right to no longer finance Greek debt." The Financial Times and Radio Free Europe reported on Syriza's ties with Russia and extensive correspondence with Aleksandr Dugin, who called for a "genocide" of Ukrainians. The EUobserver reported that Tsipras had a "pro-Russia track record" and that Syriza's MEPs had voted against the Ukraine–European Union Association Agreement, criticism of the Russian annexation of Crimea, and criticism of the pressure on civil rights group Memorial. The Moscow Times stated, "The terms used in Russia's anti-Europe rhetoric also seem to have infiltrated Tsipras' vocabulary."
On 26 January 2015, Tsipras and Independent Greeks (ANEL) leader Panos Kammenos agreed to form a coalition government of Syriza and ANEL, with Tsipras becoming Prime Minister of Greece and Greek-Australian economist Yanis Varoufakis appointed Ministry of Finance.
On 27 January 2015, the members of the new Cabinet were announced by Syriza:
- Alexis Tsipras – Prime Minister
- Giannis Dragasakis – Deputy Prime Minister
- Yanis Varoufakis – Finance
- Giorgos Stathakis – Economy, Infrastructure, Shipping and Tourism
- Panos Skourletis – Labor
- Nikos Voutsis – Interior and Administrative Reconstruction
- Panagiotis Lafazanis – Production Reconstruction, Environment and Energy
- Nikos Kotzias – Foreign Affairs
- Panagiotis Kouroumplis – Health and Social Security
- Nikos Paraskevopoulos – Justice
- Aristides Baltas – Education, Culture and Religious Affairs
- Panagiotis Nikoloudis – Combating Corruption
- Alekos Flambouraris – Coordinating Government Operations
- Nikos Pappas – State
- Gabriel Sakellaridis – Government Spokesperson
Former constituent parties
Syriza as a unitary party was formed through the merger of the following parties (in alphabetical order in English):
- Active Citizens (Ενεργοί Πολίτες): democratic socialism, patriotism
- Anticapitalist Political Group (ΑΠΟ): communism, Trotskyism, anti-capitalism
- Citizens' Association of Riga (Velestinli): patriotism, internationalism, democracy, ecology, social justice
- Coalition of Left, of Movements and Ecology (Synaspismós or SYN): democratic socialism, eco-socialism, eurocommunism, environmentalism, feminism
- Communist Organization of Greece (KOE): maoism, communism
- Communist Platform of Syriza: Greek section of the International Marxist Tendency, communism, Trotskyism
- Democratic Social Movement (DIKKI): left-wing nationalism, socialism, Euroscepticism
- Ecosocialists of Greece: eco-socialism, green politics
- Internationalist Workers' Left (DEA): revolutionary socialism, communism, Trotskyism
- Movement for the United in Action Left (KEDA): communism, Marxism–Leninism
- New Fighter: democratic socialism, social democracy
- Radical Left Group Roza: Luxemburgism, feminism
- Radicals (Ριζοσπάστες): democratic socialism, patriotism
- Red (Κόκκινο): communism, Trotskyism
- Renewing Communist Ecological Left (AKOA): democratic socialism, Eurocommunism, green politics
- Union of the Democratic Centre (EDIK): radicalism, social liberalism, centrism
- Unitary Movement: democratic socialism, social democracy
- Also a number of independent leftist activists
|Election||Seats won||±||Size||# of votes||%||Government||Leader|
|2015||78||1st||2,246,064||36.3%||Coalition (SYRIZA-ANEL)||Alexis Tsipras|
|Election||Seats won||±||Size||# of votes||%||Leader|
Syriza holds 6 seats in the European parliament.
- Manolis Glezos
- Sofia Sakorafa
- Dimitris Papadimoulis
- Stelios Kouloglou
- Konstantina Kouneva
- Konstantinos Chrysogonos
- "EUROPE ONLINE".
- "Ενιαίο κόμμα ο ΣΥΡΙΖΑ". Ta Nea (in Greek). 22 May 2012.
- Nordsieck, Wolfram, "Greece", Parties and Elections in Europe, retrieved 15 March 2012
- Giorgos Katsambekis. "Left-wing Populism in the European Periphery: The Case of SYRIZA". academia.edu.
- Backes, Uwe; Moreau, Patrick (2008), Communist and Post-Communist Parties in Europe, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, pp. 571–575
- "Russell Brand calls for UK to join Greek revolution after anti-capitalist anti-austerity coalition Syriza wins in Athens". The Independent. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- Greece: Phase One. Jacobin. January 22, 2015.
- Michael Ray. "Euroskepticism". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2014-06-24.
- "Ukip isn't the only Eurosceptic party on the rise. But the Union is safe for now". The Independent. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- Davou, Bettina; Demertzis, Nicolas (2013), "Feeling the Greek Financial Crisis", in Nicolas Demertzis, Emotions in Politics: The Affect Dimension in Political Tension, Palgrave Macmillan, p. 112, ISBN 9781137025661,
SYRIZA is a self-proclaimed radical left party, actually a coalition of various political organizations and groups ranging from across the entire left-wing spectrum.
- Donadio, Rachel. "Leftist Party’s Rise Upends Greek Political Order". The New York Times. May 11, 2012. "On the spectrum, Syriza falls between the Greek Communist Party, which never broke with Moscow during the cold war and rejects the euro and the European Union, and the Socialist Party, known as Pasok, which is seen as more of a patronage network than an ideology. Syriza is an umbrella of leftist parties ranging from softer-line communists to Marxists to social democrats. The "radical" in its Greek name translates more accurately as "nontraditional.""
- "EL-Parties | European Left". Party of the European Left. Retrieved 31 December 2014.
- "SYRIZA - GUE/NGL". GUE/NGL. Retrieved 31 December 2014.
- The counselors of the Regions.
- "Greece's leftists now officially called Coalition of the Radical Left (in English)". Kathimerini. 1 January 2013. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
- "A pinker shade of black". The Economist. 2014-01-15. Retrieved 2015-01-18.
- "Tribunes and Patricians: Radical Fringe Parties in the 21st Century" (PDF). carleton.ca. 2012.
- "Global Daily - Europe's political risks". ABN AMRO Insights.
- "Anti-establishment parties defy EU". BBC News.
- "BBC News - Greek radical left Syriza prepares for power under Tsipras". BBC News.
- "Αλ. Τσίπρας: "Το ευρώ δεν είναι φετίχ, ούτε εγώ Χάρι Πότερ"". Proto Thema. 1 May 2014.
- Bianchi, Alfonso (29 December 2014). "Syriza: we are not a anti-European monster, we are explaining it to hawks and markets too (INTERVIEW)". EUnews - European News Service. Retrieved 1 January 2015.
- Michalopoulos, Sarantis (17 December 2014). "Syriza reiterates its commitment to the eurozone". EurActiv Greece. Retrieved 1 January 2015.
- TO BHMA International (7 May 2014). "Alexis Tsipras: "We do not support any sort of Euroscepticism"". TO BHMA International.
- Richard Mylles. "Ukip isn't the only Eurosceptic party on the rise. But the Union is safe for now".
- http://crisisobs.gr/en/2014/05/party-euroscepticism-in-greece-during-the-financial-crisis-the-cases-of-syriza-and-chrysi-avgi/. Missing or empty
- "Press conference of the "Space"". Synaspismos. 2001-05-15. Retrieved 2012-05-17.
- "Greece, Syriza promises rights for migrants and gays".
- "Overcoming division". 2001-06-03. Retrieved 2014-12-21.
- "A catalogue of such electoral alliances". Η Εποχή. Retrieved 2012-05-17.
- "Greek Social Forum". Hellenic Social Forum. Retrieved 2012-05-17.
- "Δηλώσεις του Υπεύθυνου Τύπου του ΣΥΝ σχετικά με την Πρωτοβουλία για τη Συσπείρωση της Αριστεράς" (in Greek). 2003-12-17. Retrieved 2014-12-21.
- "Tο μανιφέστο του Συνασπισμού". BBC Greek.
- test. "Τοποθέτηση ψήφου της ΚΟΕ για τις βουλευτικές εκλογές του 2004, Φλεβάρης 2004". koel.gr. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- "Chapter 9 of the Political Decisions of the 4th convention of the Synaspismos" (PDF).
- "Ομιλία του Αλέκου Αλαβάνου στο 4ο Συνέδριο του Συνασπισμού" (in Greek). 2004-12-10. Retrieved 2014-12-21.
- See the relevant Wikipedia entry
- "Στον ΣΥΡΙΖΑ προσχώρησε η Κομμουνιστική Οργάνωση Ελλάδας". in.gr. Retrieved 2012-05-17.
- [dead link]
- [dead link]
- [dead link]
- "Synaspismos press release". Synaspismos. 2007-11-27. Retrieved 2012-05-17.
- Χριστίνα Ζιάκα (2008-06-10). Απόφαση του Ξεκινήματος για συμμετοχή στο Συριζα (in Greek). Ξεκίνημα. Retrieved 2008-06-15.
- "Alavanos reverses decision". HR-Net. 2009-06-23. Retrieved 2012-05-17.
- Next Greek legislative election
- Xypolia, Ilia (May 2012). "Sorry, folks..the wake is over". London Progressive Journal. Retrieved 15 October 2012.
- "Greek radical left leader rejects coalition talks: official". Reuters. 2012-05-13. Retrieved 2012-05-18.
- "Ενιαίο κόμμα ο ΣΥΡΙΖΑ (SYRIZA a single party)" (in Greek). Ta Nea. 22 May 2012.
- "Tsipras still leader but rifts remain". Kathimerini. 15 July 2013.
- Sofia Papakonstantinou – SYRIZA Kalitheas. "Founding congress of SYRIZA: an opportunity for a much needed change of programme and tactics". In Defence of Marxism.
- "Greece crisis: Europe on edge over snap election". BBC. December 30, 2014.
- Helena Smith (December 23, 2014). "Syriza’s chief economist plots a radical Greek evolution within the eurozone". The Guardian.
- Hope, Kerin (2015-01-06). "Syriza to crack down on Greece’s oligarchs if it wins election". Financial Times. Retrieved 2015-01-07.
- Babington, Deepa; Maltezou, Renee. "Tsipras sworn in as Greece PM to fight bailout terms". http://uk.reuters.com. Reuters. Retrieved 26 January 2015.
- Donahue, Patrick (26 January 2015). "Tsipras win draws French congratulations, German threat". Kathimerini. Retrieved 26 January 2015.
- Jones, Sam; Hope, Kerin; Weaver, Courtney (28 January 2015). "Alarm bells ring over Syriza's Russian links". Financial Times.
- Coalson, Robert (28 January 2015). "New Greek Government Has Deep, Long-Standing Ties With Russian 'Fascist' Dugin". RFERL.
- Rettman, Andrew (27 January 2015). "Greece says No to EU statement on Russia". EU Observer.
- Tétrault-Farber, Gabrielle (26 January 2015). "Greek Election Wins Putin a Friend in Europe". The Moscow Times.
- "The new Cabinet".
- "Αντίρροπον Δέος". Αντίρροπον Δέος.
- Magone, José M. (2003), The Politics of Southern Europe: Integration into the European Union, Praeger Publishers, p. 152
- Magone, José M. (2003), The Politics of Southern Europe: Integration into the European Union, Praeger Publishers, p. 151
- "Αρχική - Επανάσταση - Η δεκαπενθήμερη εφημερίδα της Κομμουνιστικής Τάσης του ΣΥΡΙΖΑ".
- Anagnostou, Dia (2006), "Deepening Democracy or Defending the Nation? The Europeanisation of Minority Rights and Greek Citizenship", Politics and Policy in Greece (Routledge): 128
- "Greece: Directory", Central and South-Eastern Europe 2004 (Europa Publications), 2003: 294
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Coalition of the Radical Left.|
- Official website
- Active Citizens
- Communist Organization of Greece
- Democratic Social Movement
- Ecological Intervention
- Internationalist Workers Left
- The Greek crisis is not just about Greece. Greece, Financialization and the EU: The Political Economy of Debt and Destruction.
- Movement for the United in Action Left
- Popular Unions of Bipartisan Social Groups
- Renewing Communist Ecological Left
- Only Syriza Can Save Greece. James K. Galbraith and Yanis Varoufakis. The New York Times, 23 June 2013.
- Kitsikis/article Grèce. Le Synaspismos tiraillé entre social-démocratie et anarchisme, Grande Europe, no.16, janvier 2010, La Documentation Française. Read on Line
- Greece: Phase One. Jacobin. January 22, 2015.
- The pro-worker, pro-growth experiment in Greece is under threat. Senator Bernie Sanders for The Guardian. 17 February 2015.
- Indebted yes, but not Guilty by Slavoj Žižek, Potemkin Review, 22 February 2015.