Syrmia County

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Syrmia County
Srijemska ili Sremska županija
Szerém vármegye
Komitat Syrmien
County of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia, Kingdom of Hungary, Austria-Hungary (later Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes)
12th–16th century
18th century–1924[1]

Coat of arms of Syrmia County

Coat of arms

Location of Syrmia County
Location of Syrmia County (yellow) within the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia (green)
Capital Vukovar
45°21′N 19°0′E / 45.350°N 19.000°E / 45.350; 19.000Coordinates: 45°21′N 19°0′E / 45.350°N 19.000°E / 45.350; 19.000
History
 -  Established 12th century
 -  territorial reorganization of the SCS Kingdom 1924
Area
 -  1910 6,866 km2 (2,651 sq mi)
Population
 -  1910 414,200 
Density 60.3 /km2  (156.2 /sq mi)
Today part of Croatia, Serbia
Part of a series on the
History of Slavonia
Coat of Arms of Slavonia
Antiquity
Medieval
Ottoman Empire
Habsburg Monarchy
20th century
Croatian War of Independence
Syrmia county and vicinity

Syrmia County (Croatian: Srijemska županija; Serbian: Sremska županija / Сремска жупанија; Hungarian: Szerém vármegye; German: Komitat Syrmien) was a historic administrative subdivision (županija) of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia, Kingdom of Hungary, Austria-Hungary. Croatia-Slavonia was an autonomous kingdom within the Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen (Transleithania), the Hungarian part of the dual Austro-Hungarian Empire. The territory of the County is currently in eastern Croatia (smaller western part) and north-western Serbia (larger eastern part). The name Syrmia (Serbian: Srem, Croatian: Srijem) is still used for the corresponding regions in Croatia and Serbia. The capital of the county was Vukovar.

Geography[edit]

Syrmia County shared borders with other Croatian-Slavonian counties of Požega and Virovitica, the Austro-Hungarian land of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Kingdom of Serbia, and the Hungarian counties of Bács-Bodrog and Torontál. The County stretched along the right (southern) bank of the river Danube and the left (northern) bank of the river Sava, down to their confluence. Its area was 6,866 km² around 1910.

History[edit]

For the history of the general region of Syrmia, see Syrmia.

The territory of Syrmia County was part of the medieval Kingdom of Croatia when it entered a personal union with the Kingdom of Hungary in 1102.[citation needed] According to other sources, it belonged to main part of the Kingdom of Hungary, outside of the Kingdom of Croatia.[2] By the 13th century, two counties were formed in this region: Syrmia (in the east) and Vukovar (in the west). This area was taken by the Ottoman Empire in 1521 and the two counties were abolished. The territory was then (in 1544) included into Ottoman Sanjak of Syrmia. The Habsburg Empire took one part of Syrmia from the Ottomans in 1688, while the other part was taken by Habsburgs in 1718. The entire region was incorporated into the Military Frontier, which was then extended from Western Slavonia, where it stood in 1683, all the way to Transylvania.

Syrmia County was re-established in 1745. The county was included into the Kingdom of Slavonia, a Habsburg province, which was part of both, the Habsburg Kingdom of Croatia, and the Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary. The Kingdom of Slavonia was mainly inhabited by Serbs and Croats.

In 1848 and 1849, the area of the county was part of the Serbian Voivodship, a Serbian autonomous region proclaimed at the May Assembly in Karlovci. Between 1849 and 1860 the area was part of the Voivodeship of Serbia and Banat of Temeschwar, a separate crown land of the Austrian Empire. During this time the county did not existed since voivodeship was divided into districts.

After 1860, Syrmia County was established again, and was incorporated into the Kingdom of Slavonia, which was a completelly separate Habsburg province at the time. In 1867, as a consequence of the Ausgleich between the Austrians and the Hungarians, Kingdom of Slavonia was incorporated into Transleithania, the half of Austria-Hungary run from Budapest, and in the Hungarian-Croatian Settlement of 1868, it was incorporated into Croatia-Slavonia, a formally separate kingdom within the Kingdom of Hungary, which had a certain level of autonomy and was ruled by its own ban.

After World War I, the area of Syrmia County became part of the newly formed Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes in 1918 and this was confirmed by the Treaty of Saint-Germain in September 1919.[3] The County of Syrmia was an official administrative division of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes between 1918 and 1922 (de facto until 1924), and then was transformed into the Province (Oblast) of Syrmia. After 1924, the county as such no longer existed.

Demographics[edit]

  • According to the census of 1870, the county had 120,352 inhabitants.
  • According to the census of 1890, the county had 347,022 inhabitants.

In 1900, the county had a population of 381,739 people and was composed of the following linguistic communities:[4]

Total:

According to the census of 1900, the county was composed of the following religious communities:[5]

Total:

  • According to the census of 1910, the county had 414,234 inhabitants.

Population by language (1910 census):

Subdivisions[edit]

Old detailed map of Syrmia County

In the early 20th century, the subdivisions of Syrmia county were:

Districts
District Capital
Irig Irig
Mitrovica Mitrovica, today Sremska Mitrovica
Ruma Ruma
Stara Pazova Stara Pazova
Šid Šid
Ilok Ilok
Vinkovci Vinkovci
Vukovar Vukovar
Zemun Zemun
Županja Županja
Urban counties
Zemun
Urban districts
Sremski Karlovci
Petrovaradin
Mitrovica

The towns of Vukovar, Ilok, Vinkovci, and Županja are currently in Croatia, in Vukovar-Srijem county. The towns of Šid, Ruma, Irig, Mitrovica (Sremska Mitrovica), Stara Pazova, Sremski Karlovci and Petrovaradin are currently in Serbia (Vojvodina province). Zemun is currently in Serbian region of Belgrade.

References[edit]