Systema Naturae

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Systema Naturæ
Linnaeus1758-title-page.jpg
Title page of the 1758 edition of Linnaeus's Systema Naturæ.[1]
Author Carolus Linnaeus
(Carl von Linné)
Country Sweden
Subject Taxonomy
Genre Biological classification
Publication date
1890 (1890)

Systema Naturae (sometimes written Systema Naturæ with the ligature æ) was one of the major works of the Swedish botanist, zoologist and physician Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) and introduced the Linnaean taxonomy. Although the system, now known as binomial nomenclature, was partially developed by the Bauhin brothers, Gaspard and Johann, 200 years earlier,[2] Linnaeus was first to use it consistently throughout his book. The first edition was published in 1735. The full title of the 10th edition, which was the most important one, was Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis or translated: "System of nature through the three kingdoms of nature, according to classes, orders, genera and species, with characters, differences, synonyms, places".

The tenth edition of this book is considered the starting point of zoological nomenclature.[3] In 1766–1768 Linnaeus published the much enhanced 12th edition, the last under his authorship. Another again enhanced work in the same style and entitled "Systema Naturae" was published by Johann Friedrich Gmelin between 1788 and 1793. Since at least the early 1900s zoologists commonly recognized this as the last edition belonging to this series.[4][5] It was also officially regarded by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature in Opinion 296 (26 Oct 1954) as the 13th edition of Systema Naturae.[6]

Overview[edit]

Linnaeus (later known as "Carl von Linné", after his ennoblement in 1761)[7] published the first edition of Systema Naturae in the year 1735, during his stay in the Netherlands. As customary for the scientific literature of its day, the book was published in Latin. In it, he outlines his ideas for the hierarchical classification of the natural world, dividing it into the animal kingdom (Regnum animale), the plant kingdom (Regnum vegetabile) and the "mineral kingdom" (Regnum lapideum).

Linnaeus's Systema Naturae lists only about 10,000 species of organisms, of which about 6,000 are plants and 4,236 are animals.[8] According to the historian of botany William T. Stearn, "Even in 1753 he believed that the number of species of plants in the whole world would hardly reach 10,000; in his whole career he named about 7,700 species of flowering plants."[9]

Linnaeus did not suppose that his classification of the plant kingdom in the book was natural, reflecting the unexpressed logic of God's creation.[10] His sexual system, where species with the same number of stamens were treated in the same group, was convenient but in his view artificial.[10] Linnaeus believed in God's creation, and that there were no deeper relationships to be expressed. He is frequently quoted to have said God created, Linnaeus organized. The classification of animals was more natural. For instance, humans were for the first time placed together with other primates, as Anthropomorpha.

In view of the popularity of the work, Linnaeus kept publishing new and ever-expanding editions, growing from eleven very large pages in the first edition (1735) to 2,400 pages in the twelfth edition (1766–1768).[11] Also, as the work progressed he made changes: in the first edition whales were classified as fishes, following the work of Linnaeus' friend and "father of ichthyology" Peter Artedi; in the 10th edition, published in 1758, whales were moved into the mammal class. In this same edition he introduced two part names (see binomen) for animal species, something he had done for plant species (see binary name) in the 1753 publication of Species Plantarum. The system eventually developed into modern Linnaean taxonomy, a hierarchically organized biological classification.

Taxonomy[edit]

In his Imperium Naturæ, Linnaeus established three kingdoms, namely Regnum Animale, Regnum Vegetabile and Regnum Lapideum. This approach, the Animal, Vegetable and Mineral Kingdoms, survives until today in the popular mind, notably in the form of parlour games: "Is it animal, vegetable or mineral?". The classification was based on 5 levels: Kingdom, class, order, genus and species. While species and genus was seen as God-given (or "natural"), the three higher levels were seen by Linnaeus as constructs. The concept behind the set ranks being applied to all groups was to make a system that was easy to remember and navigate in, a task in which he must be said to have succeeded.

The 1735 classification of animals

Linnaeus's work had a huge impact on science; it was indispensable as a foundation for biological nomenclature, now regulated by the Nomenclature Codes. Two of his works, the first edition of the Species Plantarum (1753) for plants and the tenth edition of the Systema Naturæ (1758) are accepted among the starting points of nomenclature. Most of his names for species and genera were published at very early dates and thus take priority over those of other, later works. In zoology there is one exception, which is a monograph on Swedish spiders, Svenska Spindlar,[12] published by Carl Clerck in 1757, so the names established there take priority over the Linnean names.[13] However, his impact on science was not because of the value of his taxonomy. His talent for attracting skilful young students and sending them abroad to collect made his work far more influential than that of his contemporaries.[14] At the close of the 18th century, his system had effectively become the standard system for biological classification.

The Animal Kingdom[edit]

Only in the Animal Kingdom is the higher taxonomy of Linnaeus still more or less recognizable and some of these names are still in use, but usually not quite for the same groups as used by Linnaeus. He divided the Animal Kingdom into six classes; in the tenth edition (1758), these were:

  1. Mammalia comprised the mammals. In the first edition, whales and the West Indian Manatee were classified among the fishes.
  2. Aves comprised the birds. Linnaeus was the first to remove bats from the birds and classify them under mammals.
  3. Amphibia comprised amphibians, reptiles, and assorted fishes that are not of Osteichthyes.
  4. Pisces comprised the bony fishes. These included the spiny-finned fishes (Perciformes) as a separate order.
  5. Insecta comprised all arthropods. Crustaceans, arachnids & myriapods were included as the order "Aptera".
  6. Vermes comprised the remaining invertebrates, roughly divided into "worms", molluscs and hard-shelled organisms like echinoderms.

The Plant Kingdom[edit]

His orders and classes of plants, according to his Systema Sexuale, were never intended to represent natural groups (as opposed to his ordines naturales in his Philosophia Botanica) but only for use in identification. They were used in that sense well into the nineteenth century.

Key to the Sexual System from the 10th (1758) edition of Systema Naturæ

The Linnaean classes for plants, in the Sexual System, were:

The Mineral Kingdoms[edit]

Linnaeus's taxonomy of minerals has long since fallen out of use. In the tenth edition, 1758, of the Systema Naturæ, the Linnaean classes were:

Editions[edit]

Edition, volumes/parts Location Year Complete bibliographical citation links to online versions
1 Leiden 1735 Linnæus, C. 1735. Systema naturæ, sive regna tria naturæ systematice proposita per classes, ordines, genera, & species. – pp. [1–12]. Lugduni Batavorum. (Haak) Missouri Botanical Garden
2 Stockholm 1740 Linnæus, C. 1740. Systema naturæ in quo naturæ regna tria, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, systematice proponuntur. Editio secunda, auctior. – pp. [1–2], 1–80. Stockholmiæ. (Kiesewetter) Google Books
3 Halle 1740 Lange, J. J. 1740. Caroli Linnaei systema natvrae, sive Regna tria natvrae systematice proposita per classes, ordines, genera et species. Caroli Linnaei Natur-Systema, oder die in ordentlichem Zusammenhange vorgetragene drey Reiche der Natur nach ihren Classen, Ordnungen, Geschlechtern und Arten, in die deutsche Sprache übersetzet und mit einer Vorrede herausgegeben von Johann Joachim Langen. – pp. [1–8], 1–70, [1]. Halle. (Gebauer) Bayerische Staatsbibliothek München
4 Paris 1744 Linnæus, C. 1744. Systema naturæ in quo proponuntur naturæ regna tria secundum classes, ordines, genera & species. Editio quarta ab auctore emendata & aucta. Accesserunt nomina Gallica. – pp. i–xxvi, [1], 1–108. Parisiis. (David.) Google BooksCSIC Madrid (not accessible in Aug/Sep 2010)
5 Halle 1747 Agnethler, M. G. 1747. Caroli Linnæi systema natvræ in qvo natvræ regna tria, secvndvm classes, ordines, genera, species, systematice proponvntvr. Recvsvm et societatis, qvæ impensas contvlit, vsvi accomodatvm. Editio altera avctior et emendatior. – pp. 1–88. Halæ Magdebvrgicæ. Bayerische Staatsbibliothek München
6 Stockholm 1748 Linnæus, C. 1748. Systema naturæ sistens regna tria naturæ, in classes et ordines, genera et species redacta tabulisque æneis illustrata. Editio sexta, emendata et aucta. – pp. [1–3], 1–224, [1–18], Tab. I–VIII. Stockholmiæ. (Kiesewetter) SUB Göttingen
7 Leipzig 1748 Linnæus, C. 1748. Systema naturæ sistens regna tria naturæ, in classes et ordines, genera et species redacta tabulisque æneis illustrata. Secundum sextam Stockholmiensem emendatam & auctam editionem. – pp. [A], [1–5], 1–224, [1–22], Tab. I–VIII. Lipsiae. (Kiesewetter) Bayerische Staatsbibliothek München
8 Stockholm 1753 Haartman, J. J. 1753. Caroli Linnæi Indelning i Ö̈rt-Riket, efter Systema Naturae, på Swenska öfwersatt af Johan J. Haartman. – pp. [1–12], 1–136, [1–8]. Stockholm. (Salvius) Umeå UB
9 Leiden 1756 Linnæus, C. 1756. Systema naturæ sistens regna tria naturæ in classes et ordines, genera et species redacta, tabulisque æneis illustrata. Accedunt vocabula gallica. Editio multo auctior & emendatior. – pp. [1–7], 1–227, [1–19], Tab. I–VIII. Lugduni Batavorum. (Haak) New York Botanical Garden, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek München
10, Vol. 1 Stockholm 1758 Linnæus, C. 1758. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. – pp. [1–4], 1–824. Holmiæ. (Salvius) Bayerische Staatsbibliothek München, SUB Göttingen, Missouri Botanical Garden
10, Vol. 2 Stockholm 1759 Linnæus, C. 1759. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus II. Editio decima, reformata. – pp. [1–4], 825–1384. Holmiæ. (Salvius) Missouri Botanical Garden
11, Vol. 1 Halle 1760 Linnaeus, C. 1760. Systema natvrae per regna tria natvrae, secvndvm classes, ordines, genera, species, cvm characteribvs, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomvs I. Praefactvs est Ioannes Ioachimvs Langivs. Ad editionem decimam reformatam Holmiensem. – pp. [1–8], 1–824. Halae Magdebvrgicae. (Curt). (Linnæus 1758: p. 5 recorded probably this edition as from Leipzig 1762, "nil additum" = nothing added) New York Botanical Garden (pp. [1–8], 1–338), New York Botanical Garden (pp. 339–824)
12, Vol. 1, part 1 Stockholm 1766 Linné, C. a 1766. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio duodecima, reformata. – pp. 1–532. Holmiæ. (Salvius) SUB Göttingen, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek München
12, Vol. 1, part 2 Stockholm 1767 Linné, C. a 1767. Systema naturæ, Tom. I. Pars II. Editio duodecima reformata. – pp. 533–1327, [1–37]. Holmiæ. (Salvius) SUB Göttingen, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek München
12, Vol. 2 Stockholm 1767 Linné, C. a 1767. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus & differentiis. Tomus II. – pp. 1–735, [1–16], 1–142, [1–2]. Holmiæ. (Salvius)
12, Vol. 3 Stockholm 1768 Linné, C. a 1768. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus & differentiis. Tomus III. – pp. 1–236, [1–20], Tab. I–III. Holmiæ. (Salvius) SUB Göttingen
12a ("13"), Vol. 1, part. 1 Vienna 1767 Linné, C. a 1767. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima tertia, ad editionem duodecimam reformatam Holmiensem. – pp. 1–532. Vindobonae. (Trattnern) NCSU LibrariesMissouri Botanical Garden, Google Books
12a ("13"), Vol. 1, part 2 Vienna 1767 Linné, C. a [1767]. Systema naturæ. Tom. I. Pars II. – pp. [1–2], 1–1327, [1–37]. Vindobonae. (Trattnern) NCSU Libraries, Missouri Botanical Garden, Google Books
12a ("13"), Vol. 2 Vienna 1770 Linné, C. a 1770. Systema natvrae per regna tria natvrae, secvndvm classes, ordines, genera, species cvm characteribvs, et differentiis. Tomvs II. Editio decima tertia, ad editionem duodecimam reformatam Holmiensem. – 1–736, [1–6]. Vindobonae. (Trattnern) NCSU Libraries, Missouri Botanical Garden, New York Botanical Garden, Google Books
12a ("13"), Vol. 3 Vienna 1770 Linnaeus, C. 1770. Systema natvrae per regna tria natvrae, secvndvm classes, ordines, genera, species cvm characteribvs, et differentiis. Tomvs III. – 1–236, [1–19]. Vindobonae. (Trattnern) NCSU Libraries, Missouri Botanical Garden, Google Books
12b, Vol. 1 Göttingen 1772 Beckmann, J. 1772. Caroli a Linné systema naturae ex editione duodecima in epitomen redactum et praelectionibus academicis accommodatum a Iohanne Beckmanno. Tomus I. Regnum Animale. – pp. [1–5], 1–240, [1–10]. Gottingae. (Vandenhoeck) NCSU Libraries
12b, Vol. 2 Göttingen 1772 Beckmann, J. 1772. Caroli a Linné systema naturae ex editione duodecima in epitomen redactum et praelectionibus academicis accommodatum a Iohanne Beckmanno. Tomus II. Regnum Vegetabile. – pp. 1–356, [1–32]. Gottingae. (Vandenhoeck) NCSU Libraries
13, Vol. 1 ,part 1 Leipzig 1788 Gmelin, J. F. 1788. Caroli a Linné systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima tertia, aucta, reformata. – pp. [1–12], 1–500. Lipsiae. (Beer) Missouri Botanical Garden, NCSU Libraries
13, Vol. 1, part 2 Leipzig [1789] Gmelin, J. F. [1789]. Caroli a Linné, systema naturae. Tom. I. Pars II. – pp. 501–1032. Lipsiae. (Beer) Missouri Botanical Garden, NCSU Libraries
13, Vol. 1, part 3 Leipzig [1789] Gmelin, J. F. [1789]. Caroli a Linné, systema naturae. Tom. I. Pars III. – pp. 1033–1516. Lipsiae. (Beer) Missouri Botanical Garden, NCSU Libraries
13, Vol. 1, part 4 Leipzig [1790] Gmelin, J. F. [1790]. Caroli a Linné, systema naturae. Tom. I. Pars IV. – pp. 1517–2224. Lipsiae. (Beer) Missouri Botanical Garden, NCSU Libraries
13, Vol. 1, part 5 Leipzig [1790] Gmelin, J. F. [1790]. Caroli a Linné, systema naturae. Tom. I. Pars V. – pp. 2225–3020. Lipsiae. (Beer) Missouri Botanical Garden, NCSU Libraries
13, Vol. 1, part 6 Leipzig [1791] Gmelin, J. F. [1791]. Caroli a Linné, systema naturae. Tom. I. Pars VI. – pp. 3021–3910. Lipsiae. (Beer) Missouri Botanical Garden, NCSU Libraries
13, Vol. 1, part 7 Leipzig [1792] Gmelin, J. F. [1792]. Caroli a Linné, systema naturae. Tom. I. Pars VII. – pp. [1], 3911–4120. Lipsiae. (Beer) Missouri Botanical Garden
13, Vol. 2, part 1 Leipzig 1791 Gmelin, J. F. 1791. Caroli a Linné systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus et differentiis. Tomus II. Editio decima tertia, aucta, reformata. – pp. [1], I–XL, 1–884. Lipsiae. (Beer) Missouri Botanical Garden, NCSU Libraries, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek München
13, Vol. 2, part 2 Leipzig [1791]? Caroli a Linné, systema naturae. Tom. II. Pars II. – pp. [1], 885–1661, [1]. Lipsiae. (Beer) Missouri Botanical Garden, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek München
13, Vol. 3 Leipzig 1793 Gmelin, J. F. 1793. Caroli a Linné (...) systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus et differentiis. Tomus III. Editio decima tertia, aucta, reformata. – pp. 1–476. Lipsiae. (Beer) Missouri Botanical Garden, NCSU Libraries, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek München

The dates of publication for Gmelin's edition were the following:[16]

  • Part 1: pp. [1–12], 1–500 (25 July 1788)
  • Part 2: pp. 501–1032 (20 April 1789)
  • Part 3: pp. 1033–1516 (20 November 1789)
  • Part 4: pp. 1517–2224 (21 May 1790)
  • Part 5: pp. 2225–3020 (6 December 1790)
  • Part 6: pp. 3021–3910 (14 May 1791)
  • Part 7: pp. 3911–4120 (2 July 1792)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Linnaeus, Carolus (1758). Systema naturae per regna tria naturae :secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis (in Latin) (10th ed.). Stockholm: Laurentius Salvius. 
  2. ^ Windelspecht (2002), p. 28.
  3. ^ Gordh, Gordon; Beardsley, John W. (1999). "Taxonomy and biological control". In Bellows, T. S.; Fisher, T. W. Handbook of Biological Control: Principles and Applications of Biological Control. Academic Press. pp. 45–55. ISBN 978-0-12-257305-7. 
  4. ^ "Sherborn, C. D. 1902.". Index Animalium. 
  5. ^ "Neave, S. A. 1939–1940, updated". Nomenclator Zoologicus. 
  6. ^ Opinions and Declarations rendered by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 8: 167–178, also p. 318 in ICZN 1987. Official lists and indexes of names and works in zoology. – pp. 1–366. London. (The International Commission of Zoological Nomenclature).
  7. ^ Stearn, W. T. (1957). "An introduction to the Species Plantarum and cognate botanical works of Linnaeus". Species Plantarum (1957 Ray Society facsimile ed.). p. 14. 
  8. ^ Stearn, William T. (1959). "The background of Linnaeus's contributions to the nomenclature and methods of systematic biology" (PDF). Systematic Zoology 8 (1): 4–22. JSTOR 2411603. 
  9. ^ Stearn, William T. (1959). "The background of Linnaeus's contributions to the nomenclature and methods of systematic biology" (PDF). Systematic Zoology 8 (1): 8. JSTOR 2411603. 
  10. ^ a b Quammen, David (June 2007). "A Passion for Order". National Geographic Magazine. Retrieved 27 April 2013. 
  11. ^ Schiebinger, Londa (1993). "Why mammals are called mammals: gender politics in eighteenth-century natural history" (PDF). The American Historical Review 98 (2): 382–411. JSTOR 2166840. PMID 11623150. 
  12. ^ Clerck, C. (1757). Svenska Spindlar / Aranei Svecici. Stockholm: Laurentius Salvius. pp. [1–8], 1–154, pl. 1–6. 
  13. ^ ICZN Code Art. 3.1
  14. ^ Sörlin, Sverker; Fagerstedt, Otto (2004). Linné och hans apostlar [Linnaeus and his apostles] (in Swedish). Örebro, Sweden: Natur och Kultur/Fakta. ISBN 978-91-27-35590-3. 
  15. ^ "Linnaeus as a mineralogist". Linné on line. Uppsala University. 2008. 
  16. ^ Hopkinson, John (1907). "Dates of Publication of the Separate Parts of Gmelin's Edition (13th) of the 'Systema Naturae' of Linnæus". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 77 (4): 1035–1037. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1907.tb06965.x. 

External links[edit]