Szondi test

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The Szondi test is a 1935 nonverbal projective personality test developed by Léopold Szondi.[1][2]

Theoretical background[edit]

Drive theory and drive diagram[edit]

In contrast to Freud's work, Szondi's approach is based on a systematic drive theory[1][3] and a dimensional model of personality. That is, Szondi means to enumerate all human drives, classifying and framing them within a comprehensive theory.

Szondi drive system is built on the basis of eight drive needs,[4][5] each corresponding to a collective archetype of instinctive action.[6] They are: h-drive need, (named after hermaphroditism, which represents the needs for personal or collective love, tenderness, motherliness, passivity, femininity, bisexuality),[6][7] the sadist drive need, the e-drive need (named after epilepsy, which represents coarse emotions such as anger, hatred, rage, envy, jealousy and revenge, which simmer until they are suddenly and explosively discharged as if in a seizure, to the surprise and shock of other people),[6][7] the hysteric drive need, the katatonic drive need, the paranoid drive need, the depressive drive need, and the maniac drive need.[8] The eight drive needs represent archetypes and are present in all individuals in different proportions; a fundamental assumption of Fate analysis is that the difference between mental "illness" and mental "health" is not qualitative but quantitative.[6]

Sex (S) and Contact (C) vectors represent pulsions at the border with the outer world, while the Paroximal (P, representing affects) and Schizoform (Sch, representing the ego) vectors at the inner part of the psyche.

A whole drive (Triebe, in Szondi's own terms), like the sexual drive S, is composed of a pair of two opposite drive needs (Triebbedürfnisse),[5] in this case h (tender love) and s (sadism). Each drive need in turn has a positive and negative striving (Triebstrebung), for instance h+ (personal tender love) and h- (collective love), or s+ (sadism toward the other) and s- (masochism).

The four whole drives correspond to the four independent hereditary circles of mental illness established by the psychiatric genetics of the time:[9][10] the schizoform drive (containing the paranoid and the catatonic drive needs), the manic-depressive drive, the paroxysmal drive (including the epileptic and hysteric drive needs), and the sexual drive (including the hermaprodite and the sadomasochist drive needs).[11]

Szondi's drive diagram has been described as his major discovery and achievement.[12] Szondi's Drive Diagram has been described as a revolutionary addition to psychology, and as paving the way for a theoretical psychiatry and a psychoanalytical anthropology.[1][13]

Szondi theory organizes phenomenons like: Antisocial personality disorder, paraphilia subtypes, histrionic personality disorder (P++), paranoid proper as "projective paranoid", narcissistic personality disorder as "inflative paranoid", blunted affect (P00), panic disorder (P--), phobia (P+0), hypochondria (Cm-),[14] stupor (-hy),[15] somatization and pain disorder as organ neurosis,[16] conversion disorder (in Pe+, Phy and Schk- danger classes), dissociative fugue (Sch±- and C+0),[17] paroxysmal attack (Sch±-),[18] depersonalization disorder and alienation (Sch-±), obsessive–compulsive disorder and obsessive–compulsive personality disorder (Sch±+).[19]

The drive factors and vectors in detail[edit]

Fate analysis and anthropology[edit]

Szondi analysis of destiny approach is based an anthropological preoccupation.[1] Sdonzi's main philosophical references for the concept of fate are Schopenhauer's The World as Will and Representation (1818) and Heidegger's Being and Time (1927).[20]

Fate analysis of a patient is based on the test score, the patient medical history, and his family background through a genealogical tree. Fate analysis includes Genotropism, a form of depth psychology that had some prominence in Europe in the mid-20th century, but has been ignored for the most part.[citation needed]

The starting assumption of fate analysis is that a person's life (destiny) unfolds in a series of elections: one chooses an occupation, acquaintances, partners, family, and ultimately his decisions implicitly selects his illnesses and his death. Szondi experience in genealogy research have led him to believe that these elections can not be considered only as the individual sovereign decision, but that such choices often follow certain patterns that preexisted within his family ancestors. Szondi concluded that some life choices are genetically inherited.

Profession choice and fate[edit]

Szondi argued that his research showed that profession choices are determined by the dynamic and structure of the psyche, an phenomenon that he called operotropism.[21][22]

Of the many possibilities in which operotropism can manifest itself, he gave two examples. A man may choose a profession in which he can engage with individuals with related inclinations; this is the case of a psychiatrist with paranoid schizoform inclinations, or a lawyer with querulant inclinations and an addiction to litigation. The second example of operotropism is a man that chooses a profession in which he can satisfy in a socially acceptable manner needs that in their original primary form would constitute a danger for society. This is the case of pyromania-firefighter, sadism-butcher, coprophilia-intestine or -drain cleaner.[22][21] Most jobs can satisfy more than one drive need.[22]

Professions of the sexual circle[edit]

Hermaphrodite professions[edit]

The work object of the hermaphrodite professions is the body (own or other); the work circumstances are bathhouse, beach, barber shop, restaurant, café, theater, circus, millinery, brothel; the main sensory perceptions are taste and sight; work instruments are jewelry, clothing; professional activities are eyelining, make-up, handcraft, weaving, embroidery, darning.[22]

Jobs of the hermaphrodite type are hairdresser, esthetician, dermatologist, gynecologist, bath house, beauty parlor and spa worker, fashion illustrator, performing artist (vaudeville, acrobat, circus performer), singer, ballet dancers, dance artists, servant, waiter, hotel manager, confectioner, cook.[22] Criminal, or most socially negative, activities of hermaphrodite type are fraud, embezzlement, spy, prostitute, pimp, procuring. The most socially positive professions are gynecologist and sexual pathologist.[23]

Sadistic professions[edit]

The work objects of the sadistic professions are animals, stone, iron, metal, machinery, soil, wood; the work circumstances are stall, slaughterhouse, animal breeding facilities, zoo, arena, mine, forest, mountain, operating theater, dissecting room; the main sensory perceptions are depth perception and muscle sense; work instruments are the primordial tools: ax, hatchet, pickaxe, chisel, hammer, drill, knife, whip; the work activity is big muscle work.[22]

Sadistic jobs type are truck driver, farm servant, animal tamer, veterinary, manicure, pedicure, animal slaughter, surgical nurse, surgeon, dentist, anatomist, hangman, forestry worker, lumberjack, stonemason, miner, road worker, sculptor, chauffeur, soldier, wrestler, physical education teacher, gym instructor, masseur.[22]

Schizoform professions[edit]

Katatonoid professions[edit]

The work objects of the katatonoid professions are the reproductive and abstract sciences: logic, maths, physics, aesthetics, geography, grammar, and so on; the work circumstances are closed spaces, classrooms, archives, libraries, "ivory towers," monasteries; the sensory perceptions are turned off; work instruments are books; professional activities are writing, reading.[22]

Jobs of the schizoform, katatonoid, drive striving k+: pedagogue, soldier, engineer, professor (mainly linguist, or professor of logic, mathematics, physics, philosophy, social sciences). Personality traits found in this group are aristocratic exclusivity, eccletic friendship choices, systematizate, schematize, rigid formalism.[24]

Jobs of the schizoform, katatonic, drive striving k-: aesthetician, art critic; accountant, lower officer, cartographer, technical drafter, graphic designer; postal worker, telegraph operator; printer; farmer, forester; lighthouse keeper, security guard; model. Personality traits found in this group are pedantry, accuracy, exemplarity; lack of humor, taciturnity, brusqueness; phlegm, callousness, calm; hypersensitivity; obstinacy, stubbornness; Inability to debate, self-consciousness; narrow-mindedness, bigotry; compulsiveness, automation, mannerisms; Feeling of omnipotence, autism; inability to be absorbed in the other (auto psychological resonance); taciturnity, immobility, all-having.[24]

Criminal, or most socially negative, activities of katatonic type are work aversion, lone vagrancy, world wanderer, burglary. On the other extreme of the spectrum, the most socially positive professions are professor, logician, philosopher, aesthetician, theoretical mathematician, physicist.[24]

Paranoid professions[edit]

The work objects of the paranoid professions are the pragmatic and analytic sciences (psychology, psychiatry, medicine, chemistry), music, mysticism, mythology, occultism; the work circumstances are research institutes, labs, chemical factories, exotic places, the depths of the mind and of the Earth, mental hospital, prison; the main sensory perceptions are olfaction and hearing; work instruments are ideas, creativity, inspiration.[22]

The hebephrenic group belongs to the schizoform professions and partially overlaps with the paranoid professions. Hebephrenic jobs include graphologist and astrologer.[24]

Paroxymal professions[edit]

Epiletiform professions[edit]

The work objects of the epiletiform professions are the primordial elements earth, fire, water, air, spirit; the work circumstances are height/depth, rise/fall, waves/swirling motion (turning in circle); the main sensory perceptions are balance and olfaction; work instruments are means of transportation: bicycle, electric or conventional train, boat, automobile, aircraft; professional activities are locomotion and moving occupations for the striving e-, and praying (silence), devotion, care, help, charity for the striving e+.[23][22]

Jobs of the epiletiform, "Cain" striving e- include: porter (bellhop), carter (truck driver), sailor, able seaman, chauffeur, aviator; blacksmith, stoker, oven operator, chimney sweep, firefighter, pyrotechnician, baker; soldier (especially flamethrowers, explosive departments like grenadier, pioneer, stormtrooper).[23] While those of the "Moses" striving e+ group include: priest, missionary woman, nun, monk, "protectress", public health doctor.[23][25]

Criminal, or most socially negative, epiletiform activities are kleptomania, pyromania, crime of passion, while the most socially positive are religious professions, health care provider, forensic pathology.[23]

Hysteriform professions[edit]

The work object of the hysteriform professions is the own person; the work circumstances are audience, theater, meeting, mass, street; work instruments and activities are playing with oneself, facial expressions, the voice, color and movement effects.[22]

Jobs of the hysteriform group include: acting (in females, amazons and tragic heroines roles); politics professionals: member of parliament, chief of Bureau or in factory; car driver; animal tamer; market woman, town crier, barker; performing artist (vaudeville, acrobat, circus performer), orator; model; sports: swordsmanship, horseback riding, hunting, wrestling and mountain climbing.[23]

A criminal, or most socially negative, epiletiform activity is impostor, while the most socially positive are politician, actor.[23]

Test description[edit]

It is a projective personality test, the same category of the most-known Rorschach test, but with the crucial difference of being nonverbal. The test consists in showing the examinee a series facial photographs,[26] displayed in six groups of eight each. All 48 subjects featured in the photogtaphs are mental patients, each group containing a photo of a person whose personality had been classified as homosexual, a sadist, an epileptic, an hysteric, a katatonic, a paranoid, a depressive and a maniac. The subject is asked to choose the two most appealing and the two most repulsive photos of each group. The choices will supposedly reveal the subject satisfied and unsatisfied instinctive drive needs, and the subject's dimensions of personality.[27] Each photo is supposed to be a stimulus apt to detect the pulsional drive tendencies of the examinee, from which the main personality traits can surface.[28] Szondi said that for some disturbed examinees the stimulus of seeing the photo of a mental patient with the same pathology caused them to have crisis and convulsions during the test examination.

Szondi further broke down the results into four different vectors: a homosexual/sadistic, epileptic/hysterical, catatonic/paranoid and depressive/manic.

Szondi believed that people are inherently attracted to people similar to them[citation needed]. His theory of genotropism states that there are specific genes that regulate mate selection, and that similarly-gened individuals would seek each other out.

To interpret the test scores, a variety of methods have been developed by Szondi himselft and other researchers. They can be classifies as quantitative, qualitative and proportional methods.

Accomplishments and results[edit]

Szondi said that from a sociological perspective, the most important discovery made through fate psychology, has been operotropism, that is the discerning of the role played by latent inherited genes (genotropic factors) in the choice of a particular vocation or profession.[29][30]

Production[edit]

The Szondi test is a psychological exam named after its Jewish Hungarian creator, Léopold Szondi in the Eötvös Loránd University in Budapest Hungary. The test was first formulated by Szondi around 1935.[1][2]

In 1944, Szondi published Schicksalsanalyse ("Fate analysis"), the first of a five volume series.[31][32]

Forms of existence[edit]

In 1960 Szondi began to collaborate with psychotherapeut Armin Beeli on 17 "forms of existence", dived in two main groups "forms of danger" (Gefährexistenzformen) and "forms of protection" (Schutzexistenzformen).[33] On the basis of the syndromatics (diagnotisc method) published in book 3 (1952) and 4 (1956) of the Schicksalsanalyse,[34][35] one or two (rarely three) forms of existence are detected from each test profile. First results of this research were published in 1963.[33]

Szondi condensed the syndromatics into a table called Testsymptome zur Bestimmung der 17 Existenzformen (test symptoms for the identification of the 17 existence forms), which was published in Szondiana VI (1966) and in the final edition of book 2 (1972). However, the table alone is not sufficient, as analysis of the forms existence still demands "solid knowledge and practice of Syndromatik", in addition to thorough training in Fate Analysis thinking.[36]

Origin of the photographs[edit]

One of the 30 images taken from Weygandt's Atlas, used by Szondi as n.7 in serie 6.

30 of the 48 photographs were taken from Wilhelm Weygandt's 1901 Atlas und Grundriss der Psychiatrie, which is now in the public domain. [37][38][39][40] Of the remaining 18 pictures:

  • four were from Magnus Hirschfeld's Sexuelle Zwischenstufen: Das männliche Weib und der weibliche Mann (1918);
  • two were from Otto Binswanger's Die Hysterie (1904);[41]
  • one was from Theodor Kirchhoff's Der Gesichtsausdruck und seine Bahnen beim Gesunden und Kranken, besonders beim Geisteskranken (The facial expression and its paths among the healthy and the sick, especially the mentally ill) published in 1904, Lehrbuch der Irrenheilkunde;
  • one was from Friedrich Scholz's Lehrbuch der Irrenheilkunde : für Aerzte und Studirende (1892).[42]

Six photos were from a criminologic clinic in Stockholm (the Swedish Institute of Criminal Psychiatry) directed by St. Strobl.[43] and four were taken by Szondi himself in Hungary.

The shock element of the photos is crucial. Commenting an experiment with alternative pictures of mental patients, Szondi argued that since the photos used were nicer or less disturbing, they failed to trigger the responses that the test is supposed to.[44]

The dispute on statistics[edit]

Szondi test is not widely used in the modern clinical psychology, because its psychometric properties are weak.[citation needed] However, it remains in the history of psychology as one of the well-known psychological instruments, although its use today is marginal, being replaced by modern psychological instruments, with good psychometric properties.[citation needed]

Influences[edit]

Szondi Fate analysis has influenced philosophers Henri Niel, Alphonse De Waelhens and Henry Maldiney, and psychiatrist Jacques Schotte.[1] In 1949, Susan Deri published the first English language description to the Szondi test.[45][46] Some graphologists attempted to integrate the szondi test with graphological test; however, Sonzdi was not a graphologist and the goal of his test was in contrast with graphology.[47]

In 1959, the international Szondi Society was established, and holds a symposium every three years. In 1969, The Szondi Institute was formed, and published from Zurich the journal Szondiana.[46]

Artist Kurt Kren created a motion picture, 2/60 48 Köpfe aus dem Szondi-Test, from the still shots of the Szondi test in 1964.

Szondi books on fate analysis[edit]

Main books series[edit]

Szondi's main work is his five volume series on fate analysis (Schicksalsanalyse). They were first published from 1944 (volume one) to 1963 (volume five). The first two were later republished in multiple revised editions. They are:

  • Das zweite Buch: Lehrbuch der Experimentellen Triebdiagnostik (Textband). Huber, Bern und Stuttgart, 1947. (1st edition 308pp, 2nd edition 1960 443pp, 3rd edition 1972 484pp) This is the book in which Szondi explains in details how to perform and interpret the test. Only the first edition, which would be completely overhauled in 1960, was translated into English as Experimental Diagnostics of Drives (1952). The 1972 third edition added a 40-page long appendix, that included a table to help determine the dangerous and the protective forms of existence. The Textband (text volume) is complemented by two additional (smaller) volumes, sold separately: Band 2: Testband, which contains the photographs and additional material to take the test, and Band 3: Trieblinnäus-Band (classification of instincts).
  • Das dritte Buch: Triebpathologie, also called and classified as Triebpathologie, Band I (Drive pathology, volume I), and subtitled Elemente der exakten Triebpsychologie und Triebpsychiatrie. Huber, Bern und Stuttgart, 1952. Composed of two parts: part A Elemente der exakten Triebpsychologie (Teil 1 Dialektische Trieblehre pp. 37–156, Teil 2 Dialektische Methodik pp. 159–234), and part B Elemente der exakten Triebpsychiatrie (Teil 3 Klinische Psychologie, Experimentelle Syndromatik pp. 237–509). Part A and B have been republished, with no changes (unverändert Auflage), in two separate volumes: Part A as Triebpathologie: Dialektische Trieblehre und dialektische Methodik der Testanalyse(1977, 234pp); part B as Triebpathologie: Elemente der exakten Triebpsychiatrie: Klinische Psychologie, experimentelle Syndromatik, Volume 1 (with unchanged page numbers[50]). (1977, pp. 235–543)
  • Das vierte Buch: Ich-Analyse,[51] subtitled Die Grundlage zur Vereinigung der Tiefenpsychologie. Zweiter in sich abgeschlossener Band der Triebpathologie. Huber, Bern und Stuttgart, 1956.
  • Das fünfte Buch: Schicksalsanalytische Therapie, subtitled Ein Lehrbuch der passiven und aktiven analytischen Psychotherapie. Huber, Bern und Stuttgart, 1963. (see pp. 157–170).

Introductory conferences[edit]

In 1963, after finishing the fifth volume, he published Introduction to Fate Analysis; it is a short book that collects conferences he held at the University of Zurich the previous year, with the aim of introducing to a larger public the most important results of his research.[52] The conference collection was first published in French translation, as they were unpublished in German.[53][54] A second tome of introductory conferences has also been published:

  • Introduction à l'analyse du destin. Tome I : Psychologie générale du destin, Translated by Claude van Reeth, 1972.[55][56]
  • Introduction à l'analyse du destin.[57] Tome II : Psychologie spéciale du destin, 1983.

Other works[edit]

Other works by Szondi include:

  • Analysis of Marriages. An attempt at a theory of choice in love. Acta Psychologica, 1937.
  • Kain. Gestalten des Bösen. Huber, Bern, Stuttgart, Wien, 1969.
  • Moses. Antwort auf Kain. Huber, Bern, Stuttgart, Wien, 1973.
  • Die Triebentmischten (Drive separation) Bern: Huber, 1980
  • Integration der Triebe: die Triebvermischten (Integration of drives: the drive mixing). Huber, Bern, Stuttgart, Wien, 1984

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Mélon, Jean (1996) Notes on the History of the Szondi Movement, (French original [1]) Text for the Szondi Congress of Cracow, August 1996. quotation:

    It is undeniable that Szondi has a fundamentally anthropological preoccupation. It is why his work has, up to now, undoubtedly found a more favourable echo among philosophers (Henri Niel, Alphonse De Waelhens, and Henry Maldiney) than among psychoanalysts and psychiatrists, for whom his work is a great challenge.

  2. ^ a b Enikő Gyöngyösiné Kiss [www.szondi.pte.hu/document/fate-analysis.pdf Personality and the Familial Unconscious in Szondi’s Fate-Analysis]
  3. ^ Leopold Szondi [1947] (1952) Experimental Diagnostics of Drives, Introduction of the first edition, as quoted in Mélon (1996):

    A drive system must give us a synthetic sight of the whole of the drive activities, comparable to the total impression which white light gives us, but it must also make it possible to display 'the spectrum' of the drives just like light can be divided in colours. It is an extremely difficult task and it is not at all astonishing that we have not yet arrived at this point.

  4. ^ Szondi (1972) p.25
  5. ^ a b Szondi (1978) ch. 3.1 p.65
  6. ^ a b c d Szondi (1978) ch. 2.11 pp.62-3
  7. ^ a b Szondi (1978) ch. 3.3, pp.74-5
  8. ^ Szondi (1972) p.35
  9. ^ Szondi (1978) ch.3 p.72
  10. ^ Ellenberger, H. (1970) The Discovery of the Unconscious, p.866
  11. ^ Szondi (1972) pp.34-6 quotation:

    Ein Triebststem muß aus Triebgegensatzpaaren konstituiert werden, die einerseits in jedem Individuum vorhanden sind, andererseits mit den pathopsychologischen, d.h. Psychiatrischen Erbkreisen genau übereinstimmen. (...) Die psychiatrische Vererbungslehre hat bisher drei selbständige Erb Kreise der Geisteskrankheiten festgestellt.

  12. ^ [2] quotation:

    1.1 Introduction to Theory

    Being different from the other projective tests, the Szondi Test contains its own theory; that is intrinsic to it. The major discovery of Szondi resides in his drive diagram (Triebschema) since this diagram presides as well over the construction and working of the test as also to the theoretical elaboration of the empirical data resulting from the test experimentation.

  13. ^ Livres de France (1989), Issues 106-109 quotation:

    Cherche à jeter les bases d'une authentique anthropologie psychanalytique d'après le schéma pulsionnel de Szondi.

  14. ^ Szondi (1972) pp.156,160,191,198,320, and p.421 Abb.40
  15. ^ Szondi (1972) pp.109,113
  16. ^ Szondi (1972) pp.402; and Szondi (1963) Schicksalsanalytische Therapie, pp.113, 375-380
  17. ^ Szondi (1972) pp.163-4, 189
  18. ^ Szondi (1972) pp.163-4
  19. ^ Szondi (1972) pp.60,167
  20. ^ Szondi (1972) Intro.., p.9
  21. ^ a b Szondi (1978) Schicksalsanalyse, Ch.XV Erbkreise und Berufskreise, pp.260-2
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Szondi (1978) ch.20 Trieb und Beruf, pp.336-342
  23. ^ a b c d e f g Szondi (1978) pp.78 Tab.2, 316-7 Tab.16
  24. ^ a b c d Szondi (1978) pp.80 Tab.4, 285-6 Tab.14
  25. ^ Szondi Ich-Analyse, ch.20.2a The ego and sublimation - Sublimation in the Light of Fate Psychology
  26. ^ Thomas R. Alley Social and Applied Aspects of Perceiving Faces p.99
  27. ^ Eugenio Raùl Zaffaroni,Edmundo Oliveira (2013) Criminology and Criminal Policy Movements p.315 quotation:

    (...) the subject is asked to choose, in each series, the two most agreeable and disagreeable types. The choice reveals what situations are approved or reproved, or the ones that evinced indifference from the examinee. Szondi wished to show with his test, that the choices made by the individual denounce the satisfied or unsatisfied instinctive needs and the reactions linked to instinctive unsatisfied inclinations.

  28. ^ Szondi in Nuovi Dizionari Online Simone - Dizionario di Scienze Psicologiche [3]
  29. ^ Szondi (1972), fifth conference, p.97
  30. ^ Chapter 3 - Genotropism and Family Relationships, szondiforum
  31. ^ Hungarian digest, Issue 5, 1986 , p.90
  32. ^ Hans Girsberger (1989) Who's who in Switzerland p.525
  33. ^ a b Germain Bazin (1984) Destins de Staėl, Dostoļesky, Géricault, Nietzsche, Rimbaud p.26
  34. ^ (1972) Beiheft zur Schweizerischen Zeitschrift für Psychologie und ihre Anwendungen p.15
  35. ^ (1959) The Szondi Test: In Diagnosis, Prognosis, and Treatment p.76
  36. ^ (1968) Europäische Hochschulschriften: Psychologie p.99, quotation:

    Für die Anwendung der Existenzform-Analyse verlangt SZONDI (1965 b) vom Diagnostiker "gründliche Schulung in der Denkweise der Schicksalspsychologie" sowie "solide Kenntnis und Uebung der Syndromatik" . Diesen hohen Anforderungen suchten wir nach Möglichkeit nachzukommen.

  37. ^ Weygandt (1901) [4] at archive.org
  38. ^ Szondi, L. (1952) Das dritte Buch: Triebpathologie, ch.25, table 19
  39. ^ [5]
  40. ^ Eranos , Volume 45 p.253
  41. ^ Otto Binswanger (1904) Die Hysterie at archive.org/
  42. ^ Scholz (1892)Lehrbuch der Irrenheilkunde
  43. ^ Leopold Szondi (1959) The Szondi Test: In Diagnosis, Prognosis, and Treatment
  44. ^ Szondi (1972) Lehrbuch der Experimentellen Triebdiagnostik, 3rd edition, Anhang IV, p.451 quotation:

    Wir deuteten diese Diskordanz damit, daß der Aufforderungscharakter der Balintschen Bilder nicht groß genug ist, um die Vp zu schockieren. Balints Streben war aber, womöglich Photos von «schönen» Kranken in seine Serie aufzunehmen, da er meine originalen Bilder zu gräßlich und schockierend fand. So blieb aber die notwendige Schockwirkung weg. Ohne Schockwirkung sind aber Photos zur Prüfung des Trieb- und Ich-Lebens unbrauchbar.

  45. ^ Deri, Susan (1949) Introduction to the Szondi Test: Theory and Practice
  46. ^ a b Richardson, Diane (2009) The Szondi Test, pp.15-6
  47. ^ The Szondi Test: In Diagnosis, Prognosis, and Treatment (1959) p.47 quotation:

    In other words, by means of choice reactions the Szondi test aims directly at the unconscious sphere of psychic events. This goal is in contrast with graphology, which first analyzes phenomenologically the subject's behavior.

  48. ^ Das erste Buch: Schicksalsanalyse. Wahl in Liebe, Freundschaft, Beruf, Krankheit und Tod
  49. ^ [6]
  50. ^ The brain–the organ of the psychic (The lesions / the defense mechanisms) J Med Life. 2010 August 15; 3(3): 221–228.
  51. ^ Partial English translation: [www.szondiforum.org/I.%20Ego%20Analysis.pdf I. Ego Analysis], [www.szondiforum.org/II.%20Szondi%20Ego%20Defenses%20and%20Sublimination.pdf II. Ego Defenses and Sublimination], Szondi IV-The Ego and Delusion
  52. ^ Avant-propos (1963) in Szondi (1972), p.4
  53. ^ Szondi (1972), dust jacket flap, quotation:

    l'on y trouvera ici une introducion générale sous la forme encore inédite des conférences prononcées comme professeur invité a l'Université de Zurich en 1963.

  54. ^ Legrand Michel. Review of Léopold Szondi, Introduction à l'analyse du destin. Tome I : Psychologie générale du destin, Revue Philosophique de Louvain, 1974, vol. 72, n° 14, pp. 376-378. [7]
  55. ^ Psychologie générale du destin
  56. ^ Review of Psychologie générale du destin
  57. ^ Introduction à l'analyse du destin

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Szondi, L. (1972) Introduction à l'analyse du destin, Tome I

Further reading[edit]

  • Achtnich, Martin (1979) Der Berufsbilder-Test
  • Johnston, Arthur C. (2012) Szondi Test and Its Interpretation: 2012
  • Szondiana
  • Szondi, Lipod; Moser, Ulrich; Webb, Marvin W (1959) "The Szondi Test In Diagnosis, Prognosis and Treatment" J. B. Lippincott Company
  • Achtnich, Martin (1979) Der Berufsbilder-Test
  • Johnston, Arthur C. (2012) Szondi Test and Its Interpretation: 2012
  • Deri, Susan (1949) Introduction to the Szondi Test: Theory and Practice
  • Beeli, Armin Psychotherapie-Prognose mit Hilfe der experimentellen Triebdiagnostik. Abhandlungen z. experimentellen Triebforschung u. Schicksalspsychologie. N. IV. H. Huber, Bern u. Stuggart, 1965

External links[edit]