|Five-story pagoda of Tō-ji, a National Treasure|
|Venerated||Yakushi Nyorai (Bhaiṣajyaguru)|
|Address||1 Kujōchō, Minami-ku, Kyoto, Kyoto Prefecture|
Tō-ji (東寺 Tō-ji ) (East Temple) is a Buddhist temple of the Shingon sect in Kyoto, Japan. It once had a partner, Sai-ji (West Temple) and, together, they stood alongside the Rashomon, gate to the Heian capital. It was formally known as Kyō-ō-gokoku-ji (教王護国寺 The Temple for the Defense of the Nation by Means of the King of Doctrines ) which indicates that it previously functioned as a temple providing protection for the nation. Tō-ji is located in Minami-ku near the intersection of Ōmiya Street and Kujō Street, southwest of Kyoto Station.
Tō-ji was founded in the early Heian period. The temple dates from 796, two years after the capital moved to Heian-kyō. Together with its partner Sai-in, and the temple Shingon-in (located in the Heian Palace), it was one of only three Buddhist temples allowed in the capital at the time, and is the only of the three to survive to the present.
Tō-ji is often associated with Kōbō Daishi (Kūkai). The well-known Buddhist priest was put in charge of Tō-ji in 823 by order of Emperor Saga. The temple's principal image is of Yakushi Nyorai, the Medicine Buddha.
The pagoda of Tō-ji stands 54.8 m high, and is the tallest wooden tower in Japan. It dates from the Edo period, when it was rebuilt by order of the third Tokugawa Shogun, Iemitsu. The pagoda has been, and continues to be, a symbol of Kyoto. Entrance into the pagoda itself is permitted only a few days a year.
The buildings at Tō-ji house a variety of ancient Buddhist sculptures. The grounds feature a garden and pond, in which turtles and koi swim. The grounds also house an academically rigorous private school, Rakunan, from which many students are sent to elite universities.
Recognizing the historical and spiritual significance of Tō-ji, UNESCO designated it, along with several other treasures in Kyoto Prefecture, as part of the "Historic Monuments of Ancient Kyoto" World Heritage Site.
On the 21st of each month, a famous flea market is held on the grounds of Tō-ji . This market is popularly called Kōbō-san, in honor of Kōbō Daishi, who died on March 21. The flea market features a variety of antiques, art, clothes, pottery, some food, and typical second-hand flea market goods. By far the largest market is held on December 21, as it is the last of the year.
A similar market is held on the 25th of every month at Kitano Tenmangu, also called Tenjin. A Kyoto proverb proclaims, "Fair weather at Tō-ji market means rainy weather at Tenjin market," calling to mind Kyoto's fickle weather.
A smaller, less-crowded, antique-oriented market is held at the Tō-ji grounds on the first Sunday of each month.
The Rashōmon was formerly situated to the west of Tō-ji, though now only a marker remains, reachable a short walk west along Kujō street. A little further west was Sai-ji, though now only a small park remains.
Tō-ji and Sai-ji were built at the southern edge of the capital, and were the only buddist temples officially allowed in Heian-kyō at the time. Sai-ji disappeared in the 16th century. The reason was bad irrigation of Ukyō-ku And the lack of funds to maintain it.
A legend says that at the time of a great drought, Kuukai, the priest at Tō-ji, and Shubin, his colleague at Sai-ji, were both praying for the rainfall. Kuukai succeeded where Shubin had failed, and Shubin, envious, shot an arrow at Kuukai. At that time a Jizō appeared and took the arrow instead of Kuukai, saving his life. You can find the Jizō in question near the ruins of Rashōmon . It has been chipped where the arrow hit it.
On July 7, 2007 one of the Live Earth concerts (held to raise awareness of the earth’s climate) was staged at Tō-ji; artists who played included Bonnie Pink, Michael Nyman, Rip Slyme, UA and the Yellow Magic Orchestra.
See also 
- List of Buddhist temples in Kyoto
- List of National Treasures of Japan (residences)
- List of National Treasures of Japan (temples)
- List of National Treasures of Japan (ancient documents)
- List of National Treasures of Japan (paintings)
- List of National Treasures of Japan (sculptures)
- List of National Treasures of Japan (writings)
- List of National Treasures of Japan (crafts-others)
- For an explanation of terms concerning Japanese Buddhism, Japanese Buddhist art, and Japanese Buddhist temple architecture, see the Glossary of Japanese Buddhism.
- Ponsonby-Fane, Richard Arthur Brabazon. (1956). Kyoto: The Old Capital of Japan, 794-1869. Kyoto: The Ponsonby Memorial Society.