Türkmenabat

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Türkmenabat
Charjew, Chardzhou
Turkmenabat Airport
Turkmenabat Airport
Türkmenabat is located in Turkmenistan
Türkmenabat
Türkmenabat
Location in Turkmenistan
Coordinates: 39°05′N 63°34′E / 39.083°N 63.567°E / 39.083; 63.567
Country Flag of Turkmenistan.svg Turkmenistan
Province Lebap Province
Elevation 187 m (614 ft)
Population (2009 census)[1][not in citation given]
 • Total 253,000

Türkmenabat (Cyrillic Turkmen: Түркменабат, Persian: ترکمن آباد), formerly and since medieval times, Chardzhou (Russian: Чарджоу, Turkmen: Чәрҗев), also spelled Çärjew, Chardjui, Charjou, Chardzhev, Charjev, Chärjew, or Charjew (Persian: چهارجوی for 'four canals'), ancient Amul, is a city in Turkmenistan, capital of Lebap Province. As of 2009, it had a population of approximately 254,000 people (up from 161,000 in the 1989 census)[citation needed].

Geography[edit]

Türkmenabat is located at an altitude of 187 meters on the banks of the Amu-Darya River, near the border with Uzbekistan. Türkmenabat is at the center of Lebap province, which has borders with three provinces in Turkmenistan: Mary, Ahal and Daşoguz. The province also borders with Uzbekistan and Afghanistan.

History[edit]

Although now a modern industrial city, Türkmenabat has a history of over 2,000 years. In ancient times, it was known as Āmul (to be distinguished from the Iranian city of Amol). The river Amu Darya is said to mean River of Āmul, named after this ancient city. Türkmenabat was the hub in an intersection between 3 paths of the Great Silk Way leading to Bukhara, Khiva and Merv.[citation needed]. Āmul was for centuries an important town of the relatively backward Uzbek feudal khanate (later emirate) of Bukhara.

When the Russian Empire invaded of all Central Asian Turkestan, Āmul became the city controlling the Bukhara emirate, a vassal of Russia which pledged allegiance to the Russian emperor. The modern city was founded in 1886, when Cossack Russians settled in what is now Türkmenabat, naming their settlement New-Chardjuy.[citation needed] The settlement here was necessary to complete the construction of the Trans-Caspian railway.

After the revolution of 1917, when the Bolsheviks came into power in Russia, communists merged former khanates into republics on the basis of nationality. Thus, Türkmenabat (known as Chardjuy at those times) was passed to the newly created Turkmen Soviet Socialistic Republic in order to reduce the territory and strength of a highly nationalistic Uzbekistan.

Its role as a railway junction, and the high fertility of the Amu-Darya region, made it the major trade center for agricultural products in the northeast region of the country. The city has food processing, textile (cotton processing and silk) factories. Chardzhou was Turkmenistan's industrial and transport hub during the Soviet period, but most of these related jobs and transport opportunities have been relocated to Ashgabat or closed since Turkmenistan's independence.

Geography[edit]

Some 70 kilometres (43 miles) south of Türkmenabat in the East Karakum Desert is the Repetek Nature Reserve, famed for its zemzen, or desert crocodiles.

Climate[edit]

Türkmenabat has a cool desert climate (Köppen climate classification BWk), with cool winters and very hot summers. Rainfall is generally light and erratic, and occurs mainly in the winter and autumn months.

Climate data for Türkmenabat
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 24.0
(75.2)
28.4
(83.1)
33.9
(93)
40.3
(104.5)
42.2
(108)
44.0
(111.2)
44.9
(112.8)
43.0
(109.4)
40.4
(104.7)
35.6
(96.1)
31.3
(88.3)
25.7
(78.3)
44.9
(112.8)
Average high °C (°F) 6.8
(44.2)
10.0
(50)
16.0
(60.8)
24.4
(75.9)
30.4
(86.7)
34.8
(94.6)
36.4
(97.5)
34.5
(94.1)
29.7
(85.5)
22.6
(72.7)
15.0
(59)
8.3
(46.9)
22.41
(72.33)
Daily mean °C (°F) 1.0
(33.8)
3.7
(38.7)
9.2
(48.6)
17.1
(62.8)
23.3
(73.9)
27.6
(81.7)
29.3
(84.7)
26.9
(80.4)
21.2
(70.2)
13.9
(57)
7.6
(45.7)
2.7
(36.9)
15.29
(59.53)
Average low °C (°F) −3.3
(26.1)
−1.1
(30)
3.6
(38.5)
10.4
(50.7)
15.7
(60.3)
19.5
(67.1)
21.4
(70.5)
19.0
(66.2)
13.1
(55.6)
6.6
(43.9)
1.7
(35.1)
−1.8
(28.8)
8.73
(47.73)
Record low °C (°F) −23.8
(−10.8)
−22.2
(−8)
−16.3
(2.7)
−4.6
(23.7)
0.8
(33.4)
9.4
(48.9)
11.2
(52.2)
9.1
(48.4)
2.8
(37)
−9.5
(14.9)
−19.8
(−3.6)
−23.4
(−10.1)
−23.8
(−10.8)
Precipitation mm (inches) 19
(0.75)
17.4
(0.685)
26.7
(1.051)
22.4
(0.882)
10.4
(0.409)
1.5
(0.059)
1.0
(0.039)
0.1
(0.004)
0.5
(0.02)
4.6
(0.181)
9.8
(0.386)
16.1
(0.634)
129.5
(5.1)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 6.3 5.8 5.6 4.7 2.0 0.5 0.2 0.3 0.2 1.5 5.2 6.3 38.6
 % humidity 76.9 69.6 59.4 51.4 43.1 36.0 37.4 38.1 43.3 54.4 69.3 77.2 54.68
Mean monthly sunshine hours 131.8 153.2 197.6 242.1 330.3 384.5 395.3 379.1 322.7 267.7 193.7 132.0 3,130
Source #1: climatebase.ru[2]
Source #2: NOAA (1961-1990)[3]

Demographics[edit]

Türkmenabat is unusual in Turkmenistan because it has population which speaks its own dialect. This regional dialect mostly consist of Turkmen language, Uzbek language and Persian language,which has heavily influenced the area's culture and customs.This dialect mostly spoken in Turkmenabat and Northern provinces of Lebap.

Transport[edit]

Türkmenabat is connected with the Turkmen capital Ashgabat and Turkmen port city Türkmenbaşy by Turkmenistan Airlines and the M37 highway. Türkmenabat is also connected by train to every province in Turkmenistan.

Culture[edit]

Tasinlikler meydanchasy is a park where people celebrate national holidays. Türkmenabat also well known for its bazaars. The largest bazaar is "World bazaar" which is known by the name Dunya bazar. Other well-known bazaars are Gok bazar and Merkezi bazar. People from all around the country come to Türkmenabat in order to purchase local, Chinese, Turkish, Uzbek and Russian goods. Dunya bazar has many sections, including those for jewelry, home appliances, clothes, diary, cars, and other items.

One of the most attractive places in Türkmenabat is Zaton, is an artificial beach, located about 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) from the center of the city. During the whole summer youth gather at 'Zaton' for relaxation and enjoyment.

The youth in Türkmenabat lack many normal opportunities of having fun and enjoying their spare time. They spend their spare time mainly in clubs and pubs, but they do not have any place to meet the world culture. Despite being a city with over 200,000 people, it lacks entertainment facilities such as cinema, a modern theatre, a zoo, or a theme park with newest attractions for children and youth. The only two ex-cinemas have been rented to enterpreneurs and became wed-centers, the place where the wedding ceremonies are being made. The cultural and historical knowledge of the modern youth that don't have the opportunity to study abroad is poor. The city doesn't have modern libraries. The only internet cafes are held by the state, which controls the internet traffic.

Education[edit]

Türkmenabat has one state-owned University specializing in teacher training (known in Turkmen as: Seýitnazar Seýdi adyndaky Türkmen Döwlet Mugallymçylyk Instituty'), a medical college, carrier schools, public schools, and specialised arts and sports schools. Until recently, there was a Tutkmenabat Turkmen-Turkish High School which was part of the countrywide network of Turkmen-Turkish schools, and one the leading schools in the city. It followed a national educational curriculum, where students have a good opportunity to learn English as well as Turkish and Russian languages. Students of this school have attended international Olympiads and gained many medals in different branches of Science and Technology.[citation needed] Students of Turkmen-Turkish Schools are honored as 'Pride of Nation'. As a result of recent changes in education policy, Turkmen-Turkish school in Türkmenabat was turned into a specialised boarding school.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Population census 1989, Demoscope Weekly, No. 359-360, 1–18 January 2009 (search for Туркменская ССР) (Russian)
  2. ^ "Chardzhou, Turkmenistan". Climatebase.ru. Retrieved 9 February 2013. 
  3. ^ "Climate Normals for Charjew". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 9 February 2013. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 39°05′N 63°34′E / 39.083°N 63.567°E / 39.083; 63.567