Türkmenbaşy, Turkmenistan

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For other uses, see Türkmenbaşy.
Türkmenbaşy
Türkmenbaşy
Türkmenbaşy
Türkmenbaşy is located in Turkmenistan
Türkmenbaşy
Türkmenbaşy
Location in Turkmenistan
Coordinates: 40°01′00″N 52°58′00″E / 40.01667°N 52.96667°E / 40.01667; 52.96667
Country  Turkmenistan
Province Balkan
Population
 • Total 73 000 (2,010)
Time zone UTC+5
Area code(s) 993 243 XXXXX

Türkmenbaşy (also spelled Turkmenbashi), formerly known as Krasnovodsk (Russian: Красноводск) and Kyzyl-Su, is a city in Balkan Province in Turkmenistan, on the Krasnovodsk Gulf of the Caspian Sea. It is located at latitude 40.0231 North; longitude 52.9697 East, at an altitude of 27 metres (89 feet).[citation needed] The population (est 2004) was 86,800, mostly ethnic Russian, Armenians and Azeri. As the terminus of the Trans-Caspian Railway, it was an important transportation center.

History[edit]

In 1717, Russian Prince Alexander Bekovich-Cherkassky landed and established a secret fortified settlement on this location, where the dry bed of a former mouth of the Amu-Darya River once emptied into the Caspian Sea. His intent was to march an army up this dry riverbed and conquer the Khanate of Khiva. The expedition failed, and the Russians abandoned the settlement for over 150 years.

Hotel "Serdar" in the Avaza tourist zone

Krasnovodsk[edit]

In 1869, the Russians invaded a second time. They named their fort Krasnovodsk (Красноводск), which is the Russian version of the original name, Kyzyl-Su (Red Water). Krasnovodsk was Imperial Russia's base of operations against Khiva and Bukhara, and the nomadic Turkmen tribes.

The railway had originally begun from Uzun-Ada on the Caspian Sea, but the terminus was shifted north to the harbour at Krasnovodsk.

It fell to the Red Army in February, 1920.

Türkmenbaşy[edit]

In 1993, Krasnovodsk was renamed by President for Life Saparmurat Niyazov, after his self-proclaimed title Türkmenbaşy ("Leader of all Turkmen"). Niyazov's successor Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow pledged, in July 2007, to invest one billion dollars into a project slated to turn Türkmenbaşy into a major tourist resort – the center of the Avaza Tourist Zone with 60 modern hotels to be built along a 16 km (10 mi) stretch of the Caspian Sea shoreline.[1][2]

Geography[edit]

Climate[edit]

Türkmenbaşy has a desert climate (BWk, according to the Köppen climate classification), with hot summers and chilly winters. The average temperatures are 3 °C in January and 28 °C in July. The average annual precipitation is 125 mm (5 in).

Climate data for Türkmenbaşy
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 20.7
(69.3)
23.3
(73.9)
29.0
(84.2)
36.0
(96.8)
40.7
(105.3)
42.4
(108.3)
44.7
(112.5)
44.5
(112.1)
43.5
(110.3)
33.4
(92.1)
28.1
(82.6)
24.6
(76.3)
44.7
(112.5)
Average high °C (°F) 7.8
(46)
8.7
(47.7)
13.1
(55.6)
19.9
(67.8)
25.8
(78.4)
31.6
(88.9)
34.6
(94.3)
34.5
(94.1)
29.3
(84.7)
21.5
(70.7)
14.2
(57.6)
9.1
(48.4)
20.8
(69.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) 3.3
(37.9)
3.9
(39)
7.7
(45.9)
13.7
(56.7)
19.5
(67.1)
25.1
(77.2)
28.2
(82.8)
28.0
(82.4)
22.7
(72.9)
15.4
(59.7)
9.3
(48.7)
4.9
(40.8)
15.1
(59.2)
Average low °C (°F) −0.3
(31.5)
−0.2
(31.6)
3.2
(37.8)
8.5
(47.3)
13.6
(56.5)
18.9
(66)
22.2
(72)
22.0
(71.6)
16.7
(62.1)
10.0
(50)
5.0
(41)
1.2
(34.2)
10.1
(50.2)
Record low °C (°F) −21.5
(−6.7)
−21.9
(−7.4)
−12.6
(9.3)
−2.6
(27.3)
0.9
(33.6)
6.6
(43.9)
14.1
(57.4)
10.2
(50.4)
3.3
(37.9)
−2.9
(26.8)
−12.1
(10.2)
−16.3
(2.7)
−21.9
(−7.4)
Precipitation mm (inches) 12
(0.47)
13
(0.51)
17
(0.67)
16
(0.63)
9
(0.35)
3
(0.12)
2
(0.08)
5
(0.2)
5
(0.2)
11
(0.43)
19
(0.75)
13
(0.51)
125
(4.92)
Avg. rainy days 8 7 8 8 7 3 2 3 3 6 8 8 71
Avg. snowy days 3 4 1 0.1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.3 2 10
 % humidity 76 72 68 63 56 49 49 44 46 58 72 75 61
Source: Pogoda.ru.net [3]

Economy and transport[edit]

Caspian Sea at the Port of Türkmenbaşy

Türkmenbaşy is Turkmenistan's only port and sea link to the West. A ferry service connects Türkmenbaşy to Baku, Azerbaijan. It is the western terminus of the Trans-Caspian railway, which connects the city to Turkmenistan's capital Ashgabat and points further east, Turkmenbashi railway station was built in 1895. The city is also connected to Ashgabat by bus. Turkmenistan Airlines provides direct flights from Turkmenbashi Airport to Ashgabat, Daşoguz, Mary, Istanbul and Turkmenabat.

Western Turkmenistan has major petroleum and natural gas reserves, and Turkmenistan's largest oil refinery is in Türkmenbaşy.

Sights[edit]

  • Museum of Regional History
  • Gate to former Krasnovodsk fort
  • Beaches
  • Khazar Nature Reserve
  • Natural History Museum

Twin towns – Sister cities[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Turkmenistan starts tourist drive". BBC News. 2007-07-23. Retrieved 2007-07-23. 
  2. ^ Avaza Tourist Zone around Turkmenbashi
  3. ^ "Weather and Climate- The Climate of Turkmenbashi" (in Russian). Weather and Climate (Погода и климат). Retrieved November 16, 2012. 
  4. ^ "Sadraudzības pilsētas". jurmala.lv. Retrieved 26 April 2014.  (Latvian) (English)

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 40°01′N 52°58′E / 40.017°N 52.967°E / 40.017; 52.967