Taw

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For other uses, see Taw (disambiguation).
Taw
Phonemic representation t (also θ, s)
Position in alphabet 22
Numerical value 400
Alphabetic derivatives of the Phoenician

Taw, tav, or taf is the twenty-second and last letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew taw (Modern Hebrew: tav) ת and Arabic alphabet tāʼ ت (see below). Its original sound value is /t/.

The Phoenician letter gave rise to the Greek tau (Τ), Latin T, and Cyrillic Т.

Origins of taw[edit]

Taw is said to have come from a mark or asterisk-like marking, perhaps indicating a signature. Its literal usage in the Torah denotes a wound, or in modern semantics, carving into a surface.

Hebrew tav[edit]

Orthographic variants
Various Print Fonts Cursive
Hebrew
Rashi
Script
Serif Sans-serif Monospaced
ת ת ת Hebrew letter Taf handwriting.svg Hebrew letter Taf Rashi.png

Hebrew spelling: תָו

Hebrew pronunciation[edit]

The letter tav in modern Hebrew usually represents a voiceless alveolar plosive /t/).

Variations on written form and pronunciation[edit]

The letter tav is one of the six letters which can receive a dagesh kal. The six are bet, gimel, dalet, kaph, pe, and tav (see Hebrew Alphabet for more about these letters). Three of them, bet, kaph, and pe, have their sound values changed in modern Hebrew from the fricative to the plosive by adding a dagesh. The other three have the same pronunciation in modern Hebrew, but have had alternate pronunciations at other times and places. In traditional Ashkenazi pronunciation, tav represented an /s/ (a form which is still heard today, especially among Diaspora Jews) without the dagesh, and had the plosive form when it had the dagesh. In some Sephardi areas, some Chassidic groups, as well as Yemen, tav without a dagesh represented a voiceless dental fricative /θ/ without a dagesh and the plosive form with the dagesh. In traditional Italian pronunciation tav without a dagesh is sometimes spelled as /s/ (for example in the word Tallit that is pronounced talled). See bet, dalet, kaph, pe, and gimel.

Significance of tav[edit]

In gematria tav represents the number 400, the largest single number that can be represented without using the sophit forms (see kaph, mem, nun, pe, and tzade).

In representing names from foreign languages, a geresh or chupchik can also be placed after the tav (ת׳), making it represent /θ/.

In Judaism[edit]

Tav is the last letter of the Hebrew word emet, which means 'truth'. The midrash explains that emet is made up of the first, middle, and last letters of the Hebrew alphabet (aleph, mem, and tav: אמת). Sheqer (falsehood), on the other hand, is made up of the 19th, 20th, and 21st (and penultimate) letters.

Thus, truth is all-encompassing, while falsehood is narrow and deceiving. In Jewish mythology it was the word emet that was carved into the head of the golem which ultimately gave it life. But when the letter aleph was erased from the golem's forehead, what was left was "met"—dead. And so the golem died.

Ezekiel 9:4 depicts a vision in which the tav plays a Passover role similar to the blood on the lintel and doorposts of a Hebrew home in Egypt.[1] In Ezekiel’s vision, the Lord has his angels separate the demographic wheat from the chaff by going through Jerusalem, the capital city of ancient Israel, and inscribing a mark, a tav, “upon the foreheads of the men that sigh and that cry for all the abominations that be done in the midst thereof.”

In Ezekiel's vision, then, the Lord is counting tav-marked Israelites as worthwhile to spare, but counts the people worthy of annihilation who lack the tav and the critical attitude it signifies. In other words, looking askance at a culture marked by dire moral decline is a kind of shibboleth for loyalty and zeal for God.[2]

Sayings with taf[edit]

"From aleph to taf" describes something from beginning to end, the Hebrew equivalent of the English "From A to Z."

Syriac taw[edit]

In the Syriac alphabet, as in the Hebrew and Phoenician alphabets, taw (ܬ) is the last letter in the alphabet. It represents either /t/ (voiceless alveolar plosive) or between a t and d sound.

Esṭrangelā
(classical)
Madnḥāyā
(eastern)
Unicode
character
Aramaic taw.png SyriacTaw.png ܬ

Arabic tāʼ[edit]

The letter is named tāʼ . It is written in several ways depending on its position in the word:

Position in word: Isolated Final Medial Initial
Glyph form: ت ـت ـتـ تـ

Final ـَتْ (fathah, then tāʼ  with a sukun on it, pronounced /at/, though diacritics are normally omitted) is used to mark feminine gender for third-person perfective/past tense verbs, while final تَ (tāʼ-fatḥah, /ta/) is used to mark past-tense second-person singular masculine verbs, final تِ (tāʼ-kasrah, /ti/) to mark past-tense second-person singular feminine verbs, and final تُ (tāʼ-ḍammah, /tu/) to mark past-tense first-person singular verbs. The plural form of Arabic letter تِ is Altaaat (التاءات).

Recently the isolated ت has been used online because it resembles a smiling face.[citation needed]

Tāʼ marbūṭah[edit]

An alternative form called tāʼ marbūṭah (Arabic: تاء مربوطة‎, meaning 'bound tāʼ ) is used at the end of words to mark feminine gender for nouns and adjectives. It denotes the final sound /-a/ and, when in construct state, /-at/. Regular tāʼ, to distinguish it from tāʼ marbūṭah, is referred to as tāʼ maftūḥah (Arabic: تاء مفتوحة‎, meaning 'open tāʼ ').

Position in word: Isolated Final Medial Initial
Glyph form: ة ـة ـة ة

In words such as risālah رسالة ('letter, message'), tāʼ marbūṭah is denoted as h, and pronounced as /-a/. Historically, it was pronounced as the /t/ sound in all positions, but in coda positions it eventually developed into an weakly aspirated /h/ sound (which is why tāʼ marbūṭah looks like a hāʼ  (ه)); this /h/ itself was eventually left pronounced. When a word ending with a tāʼ marbūṭah is suffixed with a grammatical case ending or (in Modern Standard Arabic or the dialects) any other suffix, the /t/ is clearly pronounced. For example, the word رسالة ('letter, message') is pronounced as risāla(h) in pausa but is pronounced risālatu in the nominative case (/u/ being the nominative case ending). The pronunciation is /t/, just like a regular tāʼ  (ت), but the identity of the "character" remains a tāʼ marbūṭah. Note that the isolated and final forms of this letter combine the shape of hāʼ  and the two dots of tāʼ .

When words containing the symbol are borrowed into other languages written in the Arabic alphabet (such as Persian), tāʼ marbūṭah usually becomes either a regular ه or a regular ت.

Character encodings[edit]

Character ת ت ܬ
Unicode name HEBREW LETTER TAV ARABIC LETTER TAH SYRIAC LETTER TAW
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 1514 U+05EA 1578 U+062A 1836 U+072C
UTF-8 215 170 D7 AA 216 170 D8 AA 220 172 DC AC
Numeric character reference ת ת ت ت ܬ ܬ
Character 𐡕 𐤕
Unicode name SAMARITAN LETTER TAAF IMPERIAL ARAMAIC LETTER TAW PHOENICIAN LETTER TAU
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 2069 U+0815 67669 U+10855 67861 U+10915
UTF-8 224 160 149 E0 A0 95 240 144 161 149 F0 90 A1 95 240 144 164 149 F0 90 A4 95
UTF-16 2069 0815 55298 56405 D802 DC55 55298 56597 D802 DD15
Numeric character reference ࠕ ࠕ 𐡕 𐡕 𐤕 𐤕

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Exodus 12:7,12.
  2. ^ Cf. the New Testament's condemnation of lukewarmness in Revelation 3:15-16