T-2 mycotoxin

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T-2[1]
T-2 mycotoxin.png
T-2 mycotoxin flat.png
Identifiers
CAS number 21259-20-1 YesY
PubChem 5284461
ChemSpider 4447526 YesY
ChEMBL CHEMBL152423 N
RTECS number YD0100000
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Properties
Molecular formula C24H34O9
Molar mass 466.52 g mol−1
Solubility in water Insoluble
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
 N (verify) (what is: YesY/N?)
Infobox references

T-2 is a trichothecene mycotoxin. It is a naturally occurring mold byproduct of Fusarium spp fungus which is toxic to humans and animals. The clinical condition it causes is alimentary toxic aleukia and a host of symptoms related to organs as diverse as the skin, airway, and stomach ingestion may come from consumption of moldy whole grains. T-2 can penetrate into and permeate through the human skin.[2] Although no significant systemic effects are expected after dermal contact in normal agricultural or residential environments, local skin effects can not be excluded. Hence, the skin contact with T-2 should be limited.

History[edit]

Consideration by Russian scientists of the possible usefulness of T-2 mycotoxin as a biological weapon followed an observation that, after a spring harvest delayed by World War II, flour contaminated with Fusarium was produced and distributed in bread, causing significant morbidity and mortality.[3][4] T-2 has also been suggested as a cause of the Plague of Athens (430 BC).[citation needed] T-2 is an infrequent contaminant in animal feed.

T-2 was proposed as a cause of Gulf War syndrome for some United States troops exposed to mortar shells containing T-2 shot by Iraqi forces during the Persian Gulf War. Also, the substance was considered in the investigation of the poisoning of Viktor Yushchenko during his campaign in the Ukrainian presidential election, 2004, though doctors now believe it was the dioxin TCDD.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ T-2 Toxin: essential data[dead link]
  2. ^ Boonen, Jente; Malysheva, Svetlana V.; Taevernier, Lien; Diana Di Mavungu, José; De Saeger, Sarah; De Spiegeleer, Bart (2012). "Human skin penetration of selected model mycotoxins". Toxicology 301 (1–3): 21–32. doi:10.1016/j.tox.2012.06.012. PMID 22749975. 
  3. ^ Joffe AZ. "Alimentary toxic aleukia". In: Kadis S, Ciegler A, Ajl SJ, eds. Microbiol Toxins. Vol VII. Algal and Fungal Toxins. New York, NY: Academic Press; 1971: 139–189.
  4. ^ Ueno Y., "Trichothecenes: Overview Address". In: Rodericks JV, Hesseltine CW, Mehlman MA, eds. Mycotoxins in Human and Animal Health. Park Forest South, Ill: Pathotox Publishers, Inc; 1977: 189–207.

USAMRIID's Medical Management Of Biological Casualties Handbook

External links[edit]