T-62

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T-62
A T-62 tank on display at the Museum of the Great Patriotic War in Kiev.
A T-62 tank on display at the Museum of the Great Patriotic War in Kiev.
Type Main battle tank
Place of origin  Soviet Union
Service history
In service 1961 – present
Production history
Designer OKB-520 design bureau
Manufacturer Uralvagonzavod
Produced 1961 – 1975 (USSR)
1975 – 1978 (Czechoslovakia)
–1980s (North Korea)
Number built More than 22,700
Specifications (T-62)
Weight 40 t (44 short tons; 39 long tons)
Length 9.34 m (30 ft 8 in) with barrel in forward position
6.63 m (21 ft 9 in) hull only
Width 3.30 m (10 ft 10 in)
Height 2.40 m (7 ft 10 in)
Crew 4 (commander, driver, gunner, loader)

Armor Cast turret[1][2]
214(242 after 1972) mm turret front[3][1][2]
153 mm turret sides[3][1][2]
97 mm turret rear[3][1][2]
40 mm turret roof[3][1][2]
102 mm at 60° hull front[3][1][2]
79 mm hull upper sides[3][1][2]
15 mm hull lower sides[3][1][2]
46 mm at 0° hull rear[3][1][2]
20 mm hull bottom[3][1][2]
31 mm hull roof[3][1][2]
Main
armament
115 mm U-5TS (2A20) smoothbore gun (40 rounds)[3]
Secondary
armament
7.62 mm PKT coaxial general-purpose machine gun (2500 rounds)
12.7 mm DShK 1938/46 antiaircraft heavy machine gun (optional until T-62 Obr.1972)[4]
Engine V-55 12-cylinder 4-stroke one-chamber 38.88 liter water-cooled diesel
581 hp (433 kW) at 2,000 rpm
Power/weight 14.5 hp/tonne (10.8 kW/tonne)
Suspension torsion bar
Ground clearance 425 mm (16.7 in)[4]
Fuel capacity 960 l[4]
1360 l with two 200-liter extra fuel tanks[4]
Operational
range
450 km (280 mi) on road (650 km (400 mi) with two 200 l (53 US gal; 44 imp gal) extra fuel tanks)
320 km (200 mi) cross-country (450 km (280 mi) with two 200-liter extra fuel tanks)[5]
Speed 50 km/h (31 mph) (road)
40 km/h (25 mph) (cross country)

The T-62 is a Soviet main battle tank, a further development of the T-55. Its 115 mm gun was the first smoothbore tank gun in use.

The T-62 was produced between 1961 and 1975. It became a standard tank in the Soviet arsenal, partly replacing the T-55, although that tank continued to be manufactured in the Soviet Union and elsewhere after T-62 production was halted. The T-62 was later replaced in front-line service by the T-72.

Development history[edit]

The initial requirements[edit]

By the late 1950s, Soviet commanders realized that the T-55's 100 mm gun was incapable of penetrating the frontal armor of newer Western tanks like the Centurion and M48 Patton with standard armor-piercing shells. While 100 mm HEAT ammo could have accomplished the task, they were considerably more expensive and required more training of tank crews for proper use. It was decided to up-gun the T-55 with a 115 mm smoothbore cannon, capable of firing APFSDS rounds. Experimental trials showed that the T-55 was inherently unsuited to mount the larger new cannon, and work therefore began on a new tank. The bigger gun required a bigger turret and turret ring to absorb the higher recoil. This in turn necessitated a larger hull, as the T-55 hull was simply too small to accept the new turret. The T-62 thus took shape, marking an evolutionary improvement upon the T-55. (Perrett 1987:38)

Ob'yekt 140[edit]

At the time when Morozov was working on his Ob'yekt 430 tank, a young engineer, Leonid N. Kartsev, was the head of the OKB-520 design bureau of Uralvagonzavod factory (UVZ) in Nizhny Tagil. He was responsible for the T-54A (Ob'yekt 137G) and T-54B (Ob'yekt 137G2) modernizations of T-54 main battle tank. After work on the T-54M (Ob'yekt 139) modernization was abandoned he and his design team started working on a new tank, called Ob'yekt 140. The new tank had a suspension with six light roadwheels made of aluminium. The turret was cast and armed with a 100 mm D-54TS tank gun with the Molniya two-plane stabilization system. The tank carried 50 rounds and was powered by a V-36 diesel engine developed by engineer Artiemejev. The engine was placed on the bottom of the hull, a solution which reduced the height of the engine compartment. The Ob'yekt 140 weighed 37.6 tonnes.

Morozov's Ob'yekt 430 tank had a hull of welded rolled steel plates and a turret of cast and forged steel. The turret had three-layer armour with an overall thickness of 185 mm to 240 mm. It was armed with the same D-54TS tank gun as Kartsev's Ob'yekt 140. In 1957 Uralvagonzavod built two Ob'yekt 140 prototypes which were put on trials soon after. The trials showed that because of the complicated construction of many of the tank's systems, Kartsev's tank would be expensive in serial production and hard to maintain.

Forced to abandon the Ob'yekt 140 project, he started working on yet another T-54 main battle tank modernization called the T-55 (Ob'yekt 155) in which he included one of the key features from his Ob'yekt 140 tank: the upper fuel tanks were fitted with mounts for tank gun ammunition. This increased the ammunition load carried by the tank to 45 rounds.

T-62A (Ob'yekt 165)[edit]

At the end of 1958 Kartsev decided to modernize the Ob'yekt 140 turret. He fitted it with a cartridge-case ejector and mounted it onto a stretched T-55 chassis with a new suspension. He also considered that designs based on already produced vehicles had higher of chance of acceptance. The Ob'yekt 140 turret diameter, bigger than the T-55 turret by 249 mm, made redesigning the central part of the hull necessary. Kartsev changed the arrangement of the torsion beams, which was necessary to keep the tank's weight balanced. The tank received the designation "Ob'yekt 165" and in November 1958 three prototypes were built. In January of 1962 the Ob'yekt 165 was accepted for serivce under the name T-62A. In the same year 5 tanks were produced by Factory #183 which were put into experimental service.[6]

Ob'yekt 166[edit]

While working on a new tank, Kartsev was looking for a more powerful tank gun. The 100 mm D-10T and D-54 tank guns had a fierce opponent in the form of the British L7A1 tank gun. The Soviets decided to "recaliber" the already existing 100 mm D-54TS tank gun. The modifications done to the gun included removing the rifling of the gun, reducing the profile of the bullet chamber, removing the muzzle brake, lengthening the gun tube, adding an automatic cartridge-case ejector and adding a bore evacuator in the middle of the gun tube (as opposed to the D-45TS tank gun, which had a bore evacuator in the base of the gun tube). The new 115 mm tank gun was designated U-5TS "Molot" Rapira, which was the first Soviet 115 mm smoothbore tank gun. When it went into serial production it received the designation 2A20. It was put in trials against the D-10TS tank gun, which armed the T-54B as well as some T-55 and T-55A main battle tanks. These trials showed that the undercaliber projectiles shot out of the U-5TS had a 700 km/h higher muzzle velocity. It became apparent that the maximum range of the new tank gun was almost double that of the D-10TS. The only serious drawback of the U-5TS tank gun was the fact that it was not as accurate as the D-10TS, because of the lack of rifling. However, the greater range of the gun and its extremely high muzzle velocity made the poor accuracy less of an issue.

The new 115 mm U-5TS "Molot" (2A20) Rapira smoothbore tank gun was fitted into the Ob'yekt 140 turret at the end of 1960. The new tank received the designation "Ob'yekt 166". In 1960 both Ob'yekt 165 and Ob'yekt 166 prototypes passed their trials. The Uralvagonzavod was preparing to start serial production of the new tank, though the General Armoured Directorate (GBTU) was paying much more attention to Morozov's Ob'yekt 430, which was in development since early 1952. Morozov was supported by general Ustinov, who was in charge of Soviet military industry at the time. He didn't see it as necessary to produce the new tank from Uralvagonzavod but soon the situation changed dramatically with the appearance of a new American main battle tank, the M60. Zaloga claimed in January 1961, an Iranian officer defected with his new US-made M60A1 main battle tank across the border into the Soviet Union but it seems very unlikely as the M60A1 didn't exist in 1961.[7] The new American tanks were armed with a British 105 mm Royal Ordnance L7A1 tank gun, the same as the earlier British Centurion main battle tanks and the later German Leopard 1 main battle tanks. The M60's armour layout and L7A1 tank gun granted superiority to the NATO main battle tanks over Soviet contemporary main battle tanks.[7] This situation caused great concern in the Soviet armoured forces. In 1961 the Soviet intelligence discovered that the British were working on new a main battle tank armed with a 120 mm tank gun. Because of this, General Czuikov demanded an explanation of the "Kartsev's tanks" case. At a conference of GBTU and the Soviet ground forces committee it became apparent that Morozov's Ob'yek 430 tank was only 10% better than the serial T-55. Because of this, Morozov's project was deemed a complete failure. The representatives of Kharkiv Morozov Machine Building Design Bureau said that works on a new tank, the Ob'yekt 432, had already started. Czuikov demanded that production of the Ob'yekt 166 main battle tank be started immediately.

The OKB-520 design bureau of Uralvagonzavod provided another design, the Ob'yekt 167, which was the Ob'yekt 166 with a new more powerful V-26 engine using a charger, developing 700 hp (522 kW). Two prototypes were built in the middle of 1961 and passed the trials. This time the GBTU decided not to wait for the new main battle tank to pass trials and send the Ob'yekt 166 into mass production on July 1961. The Ob'yekt 165 also entered service in very small numbers, under the designation T-62A.[8]

Design[edit]

US Army recognition poster

The T-62 has a typical tank layout: driver's compartment at the front, fighting compartment in the centre and engine compartment in the rear. The four-man crew consists of the commander, driver, gunner and loader. Although the T-62 is very similar to the T-55 and makes use of many of the same parts, there are some differences. Those include the hull, which is a few centimetres longer and wider, the different road wheels, and differences in characteristic uneven gaps between roadwheels. Unlike the T-54 and T-55 main battle tanks, the gaps between the last three pairs of roadwheels are larger than the rest. (Perrett 1987:37-38)

A T-62 armed with 12.7 mm DShK 1938/46 antiaircraft heavy machine gun

Armament[edit]

The armament consists of the 115 mm U-5TS "Molot" (2A20) Rapira smoothbore tank gun with a two-axis "Meteor" stabilizer and 7.62 mm PKT coaxial general-purpose machine gun mounted on the right of the main gun. The 12.7 mm DShK 1938/46 antiaircraft heavy machine gun is mounted on the loader's hatch. It was optional until 1972 when all newly built tanks were fitted with the AA HMG. The tank carries 40 rounds for the main gun (although only 4 are placed in the turret while the rest are stored in the back of the fighting compartment and in the front of the hull, on the right of the driver) and 2500 rounds for the coaxial machine gun. All of the vehicle's armament is mounted in or on the round cast egg-shaped turret from the Ob'yekt 140 prototype main battle tank, mounted over the third pair of roadwheels. It takes more than 21 seconds for the T-62's turret to rotate through a full 360°, which is longer than the time needed by US and NATO tanks of the time. The T-62 was armed with the world's first smoothbore tank gun, giving it considerably greater muzzle velocity than the Western 90 mm and 105 mm tank guns of its time.[citation needed] It can fire BM-6 APFSDS-T, BK-4, BK-4M HEAT and OF-18 Frag-HE rounds. The 115 mm gun introduced the first successful APFSDS ammunition, albeit with a steel penetrator. A smoothbore gun allowed a significantly better performance (from 10% to 20%) from HEAT ammunition, which was considered the main ammunition type for fighting enemy armour at medium and long ranges.[1][2] The gun can be elevated or depressed between −4° and +16°. The tank has no autoloader and has to be reloaded by hand. To reload the gun it must be elevated or depressed to +3.5°. Empty cartridges are automatically ejected outside the vehicle through a small hatch in the rear of the turret. The gun has range of fire of about 4 km during day conditions and 800 m (with the use of night vision equipment) at night. The T-62's practical rate of fire is 4 rounds per minute while the vehicle is stationary and is lower when the vehicle is moving. The low rate of fire falls behind the capabilities of Western 105 mm tank guns. When the tank and the target are stationary, the U-5TS has almost the same accuracy as the American M60 Patton and the German Leopard 1 main battle tanks. When the tank or the target are moving the accuracy becomes very poor due to the tank's poor stabilization system and the lack of a fire control system. Even the APFSDS-T rounds at a range of 700 metres are half as accurate when the target is moving with a constant speed.[1][2][9][10]

Side view of a T-62. The tank in the picture has either damaged or disassembled torsion bars and its hull lies on the ground.
Rear view of a T-62. Notice the two optional 200 litre drum-type fuel tanks.

Mobility[edit]

The T-62 uses torsion bar suspension. It has five pairs of rubber-tired roadwheels, a drive sprocket at the rear and idler at the front on each side, with no return rollers. The first and last roadwheels each have a hydraulic shock absorber. The tank is powered by the V-55 12-cylinder 4-stroke one-chamber 38.88 litre water-cooled diesel engine developing 581 hp (433 kW) at 2,000 rpm. This is the same engine as the one used in the T-55. Because the T-62 weighs more than the T-55, it is less maneuverable. Like the T-55, the T-62 has three external diesel fuel tanks on the right fender and a single auxiliary oil tank on the left fender. The tank carries 960 litres of fuel in its internal and external fuel tanks. Two optional 200-litre drum-type fuel tanks can be fitted on the rear of the vehicle for an increased operational range.[4][9]

Countermeasures[edit]

A T-62 laying a smokescreen.

The T-62 has 5% better armour on the front of the hull (102 mm at 60°) and 15% better armour on the front of the turret (242 mm) than the T-54/T-55. The turret armour is 153 mm thick on the sides, 97 mm thick on the rear and 40 mm thick on the roof. The hull armour is 79 mm thick on the upper sides, 46 mm at 0° thick on the rear and 20 mm thick on the bottom. Although the armour on the front of the hull is thicker than in the T-55, the lower side armour (15 mm) and the roof armour (31 mm) are actually thinner.[1][2]

Equipment[edit]

Front view of a T-62
Rear view of a T-62

One of the many similarities between the T-54/T-55 and T-62 tanks is their ability to create a smokescreen by injecting vaporized diesel fuel into the exhaust system. Like the T-54 and T-55, the T-62 has an unditching beam mounted at the rear of the hull. The tank can be fitted with a thin snorkel for operational usage and a large diameter snorkel for training. The thin snorkel can be disassembled and carried in the back of the turret when not used. The commander's cupola is located on the left of the top of the turret. The loader has a single piece hatch located on the right side of the turret and further back than the commander's cupola. The loader's hatch has a periscope vision block that can be used to view the areas in front of and behind the vehicle. The commander's copula has four periscopes, two are located in the hatch cover while the other two are located in the forward part of the cupola. The driver has a single piece hatch located on the left front of the vehicle, directly in front of the left side of the turret.[9] The tank uses the same sights and vision devices as the T-55 except for the gunner, who received a new TSh-2B-41 sight which has x4 or x7 magnification. It is mounted coaxially with an optic rangefinder.[1][2] The gunner has two periscope vision blocks, one of which is used in conjunction with the main searchlight mounted coaxially on the right side of the main armament. There are two other smaller searchlights. One of these is used by the commander and is mounted on his cupola. The tank has two headlights on the right front of the vehicle, one of which is infrared while the other one is white. Curved hand rails around the turret allow easier entry for the commander, the gunner, and the loader. They also help the infantry to mount and dismount the tank while performing a tank desant. The tank has a box-shaped radiation detector/actuator mounted on the right hand side of the turret, behind the compressed air tanks. While the T-62 did not feature an automatic loader (as would become characteristic of later Russian tanks), it had a unique "ejection port" built into the back of the turret, which would open as the main gun recoiled, ejecting spent shell casings outside. This was considered advantageous since the spent casings would otherwise clutter the floor of the tank and fill the interior with noxious burnt-propellant fumes. (Perrett 1987:38) There is a blower mounted in the rear of the turret, to the left of the spent cartridge ejection port.[9]

Limitations[edit]

The T-62 shares some of the T-55's limitations: a cramped crew compartment, crude gun control equipment (on most early models), limited depression of the main gun and vulnerable fuel and ammunition storage areas. The automatic spent-cartridge ejection system can cause dangerous accumulations of carbon monoxide and possibly actual physical injury to the crew from spent cartridge cases ricocheting against the edge of a poorly aligned ejection port and rebounding into the crew compartment[citation needed]. Crew members often suffer blunt force injuries and burns from ejected cases bouncing around the interior of the tank[citation needed]. Later designs fitted a deflector behind the commander to protect him from this, but other crew members remain vulnerable. (Perrett 1987:38) Opening the ejection port under NBC (nuclear, biological, or chemical) conditions would expose the crew to contamination.[5]

Each time the gun is fired, the tube must go into détente for cartridge ejection; the power traverse of the turret is inoperable during ejection and reloading operations. Since manual elevation and traverse are rather slow and not effective for tracking a moving target, rapid fire and second-hit capabilities are limited. The turret cannot be traversed with the driver's hatch open. Although the tank commander may override the gunner and traverse the turret, he cannot fire the main gun from his position. He is unable to override the gunner in elevation of the main gun, causing target acquisition problems.[5]

To fire the 12.7 mm antiaircraft heavy machine gun, the loader must be partially exposed, making him vulnerable to suppressive fire, and he must leave his main gun loading duties unattended.[5]

The T-62 never enjoyed the anticipated success for numerous reasons. First, the T-62 was more than twice as expensive as the T-55, and many Warsaw Pact nations passed on the new tank because they did not feel that the improvements inherent in it warranted the cost. Secondly, in 1968, a 100 mm HVAPDS tank shell capable of piercing Western armor was developed. Use of this shell made the T-55 gun almost as effective as the T-62s, undercutting the T-62's original selling point: a bigger, more powerful gun. Third, the T-62 was almost immediately rendered obsolete upon its introduction by new Western tanks like the Chieftain, Leopard 1 and M60, and it became clear to the Soviets that work had to begin on an even newer main battle tank to keep pace, even though the T-62 was brand new (this even newer Soviet tank would become the T-64). Finally, the T-62 was slow and could not keep up with the new Soviet BMP (Infantry Combat Vehicle) – the principal infantry fighting vehicle which the T-62 was supposed to accompany. All of these factors combined to ensure that the T-62 enjoyed relatively low commercial success, and only briefly served in first line Soviet units before being relegated to training, to reserve status, or being exported to Third World clients. (Perrett 1987:41)

Production history[edit]

In July 1961, Uralvagonzavod in Nizhny Tagil, Malyshev Factory in Kharkiv, Ukraine and Omsk Factory No. 183 replaced part of their T-55 production with the T-62.[5][11] The original plans were that the T-62 would be produced until Morozov's Ob'yekt 432 tank was developed. T-62 production was maintained at Uralvagonzavod until 1973 when it was replaced on the production lines by the T-72. Until the end of production 20,000 T-62 main battle tanks were produced by Uralvagonzavod.[8] Production in the Soviet Union was stopped in 1975.

Czechoslovakia built more than 1,500 T-62 main battle tanks for export after production ceased in the Soviet Union in 1975, and it continued there until 1978.

North Korea produced the T-62 under license until the 1980s. In the early 1990s the North Korean Second Machine Industry Bureau designed a lighter copy of the T-62 which is mass-produced and is known locally as the Ch'ŏnma-ho I (Ga).[12]

Models[edit]

Former Soviet Union[edit]

Front view of T-62M of the Afghan National Army in Kabul, 2004.
  • T-62A (Ob'yekt 165) – Predecessor of T-62. It was essentially a stretched T-55 chassis with a 2245 mm turret ring, a new suspension, and an Ob'yekt 140 turret modernized with the addition of a spent-cartridge ejector; armed with the 100 mm D-54TS (also sometimes called U-8TS) tank gun equipped with the "Kometa" two-plane stabilizer. Only 5 entered service.[8][6]
    • T-62 Obr.1960 (Ob'yekt 166) – Original production model equipped with the 115 mm U-5TS "Molot" (2A20) Rapira smoothbore tank gun with a "Meteor" two-plane stabilizer. It has a TKN-3 commander's day/night sight, TSh-2B-41 gunner day sight with 3.5/7x magnification and TPN1–41–11 night sight. It carries 40 rounds for the main gun and 2500 rounds for the PKT coaxial general-purpose machine gun. The V-55V engine produces 581 hp (433 kW). It has a commander's cupola welded to turret.[8][12]
      • T-62K (Ob'yekt 166K) (K stands for komandirskaya ["command"]) (1964) – T-62 command variant. It is fitted with an R-112 (or R-130) radio, an AB-1 APU and an antenna base on top of the turret. The ammunition load was decreased to 36 for the main gun and 1,750 rounds for the coaxial general-purpose machine gun. It was mainly used by company and battalion commanders.
        • T-62KN (Ob'yekt 166KN) – T-62K fitted with additional TNA-2 navigation aids.
        • T-62K fitted with the 9M14 Malyutka (NATO reporting name: AT-3 Sagger) ATGM launcher.[citation needed]
      • Ob'yekt 167 – T-62 fitted with a V-26 engine which with a use of charger develops 700 hp (522 kW). It has a 9M14 Malyutka (NATO: AT-3 Sagger) ATGM launcher on the rear of turret and a new chassis with return rollers and smaller roadwheels. Not produced. Only two prototypes were made.[8][12]
        • Ob'yekt 167T – Ob'yekt 167 fitted with a GTD-3T gas turbine engine.[12]
      • T-72 – A further development of T-62 with some features of the T-64A.[8][13]
      • T-62 Obr.1967 – T-62 Obr.1960 with a slightly modified engine deck.
        • T-62 Obr.1972 – T-62 Obr.1967 with a DShK 1938/46 machine gun installed on the loader's hatch.[12] The tank is fitted with a new drive sprocket, RMSh tracks and an improved fording attachment.[citation needed] It is sometimes incorrectly called T-62A and T-62M.[12]
          • T-62 Obr.1975 – T-62 Obr.1972 equipped with a KTD-1 or KTD-2 laser rangefinder in an armoured box over the main armament. It has concealed bolts around the commander's cupola.[12]
            • T-62D (Ob'yekt 166D) (D stands for Drozd [thrush]) (1983) – T-62 Obr.1975 equipped with KAZ 1030M "Drozd" active protection system (APS), BDD appliqué armour on the glacis plate only and new V-55U diesel engine.
              • T-62D-1 (Objekt 166D-1) – T-62D fitted with a new V-46–5M diesel engine.
            • T-62M (Ob'yekt 166M) (1983) - Extensive modernization of the T-62 with protection and mobility improvements and the "Volna" fire control system. It is fitted with a BDD appliqué armour package, an additional belly armour plate for anti-mine protection, 10 mm thick reinforced rubber side skirts and 10 mm thick anti-neutron liner. The BDD appliqué armour package was specially designed to defeat shaped charges (for example RPGs) and consists of an appliqué plate on the glacis and two horseshoe shaped blocks fitted to the front of the turret. The handrails around the turret have been removed to make space for the bra appliqué armour. Fastenings for four spare track chain links have been added on the side of the turret. The tank is fitted with RhKM tracks from the T-72 main battle tank and two additional shock absorbers on the first pair of roadwheels. The "Volna" fire control system was improved by fitting the KTD-2 (or KTD-1) laser rangefinder in an armoured box over the main armament. There is a new TShSM-41U gunner's sight, new commander's sight, "Meteor-M1" stabiliser, BV-62 ballistic computer and 9K116-2 "Sheksna" (NATO: AT-10 Stabber) guided missile unit with 1K13-BOM sight (it is both a night sight and ATGM launcher sight. However, it cannot be used for both functions simultaneously) which allows the tank to fire 9M117 Bastion ATGMs through its gun tube.[9] The tank was fitted with a gun thermal sleeve, new radios, the R-173 radio set instead of R-123M and a new V-55U diesel engine developing 620 hp (462 kW). The ammunition load was increased by two rounds. Some are fitted with two clusters of four smoke grenade launchers each on the right rear of the turret. The US intelligence saw T-62M main battle tanks for the first time during the Soviet war in Afghanistan and they gave it the designation T-62E.[1][2][9][12] There are a number of sub-variants of the T-62M, depending on how much of the modernization package the vehicle has installed.
              • T-62M-1 (Ob'yekt 166M-1) – T-62M fitted with a V-46–5M diesel engine.
              • T-62M1 (Ob'yekt 166M1) – T-62M fitted with a revised frontal armour layout on the hull and a normal night sight. It doesn't have ATGM capability.[12]
                • T-62M1–1 (Ob'yekt 166M1–1) – T-62M1 fitted with the V-46–5M diesel engine.
                • T-62M1–2 (Ob'yekt 166M1–2) – T-62M1 without belly armour or the BDD armour package.[12]
                  • T-62M1–2–1 (Ob'yekt 166M1–2–1) – T-62M1–2 fitted with the V-46–5M diesel engine.
              • T-62MD (Ob'yekt 166MD) (D stands for Drozd ["thrush"]) – T-62M fitted with KAZ 1030M "Drozd" active protection system (APS).[12]
                • T-62MD-1 (Ob'yekt 166MD-1) – T-62MD fitted with V-46–5M diesel engine.
              • T-62MK (Ob'yekt 166MK) (K stands for komandirskaya ["command"]) – T-62M command variant. It doesn't have ATGM capability but has TNA-2 navigation aids, additional R-112 and R-113 radio sets and an AB-1 auxiliary engine to power the additional radios. The tank has a lower ammunition load for both the main gun and the coaxial general-purpose machine gun.
                • T-62MK-1 (Ob'yekt 166MK-1) – T-62MK fitted with the V-46–5M diesel engine.
              • T-62MV (Ob'yekt 166MV) (1985) (V stands for vzryvnoi – ["explosive"]) – Fitted with "Kontakt-1" explosive reactive armour (ERA) on the sides of the hull, the glacis plate, and in the front of the turret (were it replaces the appliqué bra armour).[9][12]
                • T-62MV-1 (Ob'yekt 166MV-1) – T-62MV fitted with the V-46–5M diesel engine.[12]
                • T-62M1V (Ob'yekt 166M1V) – T-62MV without ATGM capability.
                  • T-62M1V-1 (Ob'yekt 166M1V-1) – T-62M1V fitted with a V-46–5M diesel engine.
      • T-62 fitted with a box on the rear of the turret containing anti-aircraft missiles.[12]
      • T-62 fitted with the ZET-1 (ZET stands for Zaschtschita Ekrannaja Tankowaja) vehicle protection system. The system was developed in 1964 and was specially designed to protect the tank's front and sides up to an angle of 25° against shaped-charge projectiles with of a maximum caliber of 115 mm. It consisted of a stretchable screen with net structure centered on the vehicle's main armament and lateral flipper-type sideskirts. It was intended for T-54, T-55 and T-62 main battle tanks. The diameter of the screens was different for each tank type. The individual screen sections could be replaced in two minutes. While it was successful in wide open spaces, it was an impractical in wooded areas. Because of that the development was not heavily used, although the flipper-type sideskirts were later used in the initial T-72 models.[12]
      • T-62 experimentally fitted with a "Zhelud" autoloader.[citation needed]
      • T-62/122 – T-62 based combat engineering vehicle rearmed with 122 mm howitzer.[12]
      • T-62/160 – T-62 based combat engineer vehicle fitted with BTU and armed with a shortened 160 mm mortar.[12]
      • T-67 – T-62 armed with a 125 mm tank gun and fitted with a drive train from the T-72 main battle tank.[12]
      • TO-62 – T-62 converted into a flamethrower tank. The flamethrower has an effective range of 100 meters and is mounted coaxially with the 115 mm gun.[9]
      • IT-1 (Ob'yekt 150) – T-62 converted into a tank destroyer (istrebitel' tankov). It was developed between 1957 and 1962. It utilized the chassis and the hull of the T-62 main battle tank and was fitted with a new low 'flattened dome' turret with a stabilized 2K8 ATGM system instead of the tank gun. The IT-1 was the only one of several "rocket tank" ('raketniy tank') designs that actually entered service. It could launch radio-guided semi-automatic PTUR 3M7 "Drakon" ATGMs with a range between 300 m and 3,300 m. It carried 15 PTUR 3M7 "Drakon" ATGMs on board (3 in reserve and 12 in the autoloader). The ATGM was launched from an arm rising through the roof of the turret. The secondary armament consisted of a 7.62 mm PKT general-purpose machine gun for which it carried 2,000 rounds. The turret was fitted with T2-PD and UPN-S day/night sights. About 60 IT-1 tank destroyers were built between 1968 and 1970 by various companies including 20 built by the Uralvagonzavod factory in 1970. Only two battalions operated them, one with artillery personnel and one with tank personnel, with one battalion in Belarus MD and the other one in the Carpathian MD. The units were disbanded after the withdrawal of IT-1 and all the vehicles were converted to armored recovery vehicles (ARVs).[12]
        • IT-1T (T after IT-1 stands for tyagach ["tractor"]) – After the withdrawal of IT-1 from front-line service many of the vehicles were partially converted to ARVs. The only differences from the standard IT-1 was that the turret was fixed in position after all the ATGM gear was removed. They weren't very successful and were soon converted into the BTS-4V armoured recovery vehicles.[12]
      • BTS-4V (BTS stands for bronirovannij tyagach, srednij ["medium armoured tractor"]) – Conversion of T-62 main battle tanks and IT-1 tank destroyers into a turretless ARV. They are similar to the much more common T-54 -based BTS-4. The vehicle was fitted with a stowage basket, a hoist and a small folding crane with a capacity of 3 tonnes, a winch, and a snorkel. It is also known as BTS-4U.[12]
        • BTS-4V1 – Conversion of approximatively 35 pre-production T-62 main battle tanks into ARVs.[12]
      • BTS-4V2 – Partial conversion of 20 T-62 main battle tanks damaged by fire into an armoured recovery vehicle. The turret was replaced by a dome-shaped fixed superstructure. There is a single hatch on top of the superstructure fitted with a 12.7 mm DShK 1938/46 antiaircraft heavy machine gun. It was limited to basic towing operations and most were disposed of by giving them away as foreign aid. They were also known as BTS-4VZ.[12]
      • Impuls-2M – Decommissioned T-62 main battle tank converted into a fire fighting vehicle fitted with a 50-round launch system for flame-retarding projectiles on a rotatable mount in the turret ring and a dozer blade on the front. It sometimes incorrectly called T-72PPM.[12]

Austria[edit]

  • T-62 modernization made by NORICUM. The modernization includes a replacement of the 115 mm tank gun with a 105 mm Royal Ordnance L7 tank gun. The Egyptian Army evaluated the vehicle and incorporated its upgrades in its RO-115 Mark I modernization (See Egypt section for details).

Bulgaria[edit]

  • TV-62 – T-62 main battle tank converted into an armoured recovery vehicle.[12]
  • T-62 modification.[12]
  • TV-62M – T-62M main battle tank converted into an armoured recovery vehicle. This vehicle is composed of a T-62M hull with a modified T-55 or T-55A turret which was cut in half; the upper part was bolted onto the hull in the 6 o'clock position. There is a large winch and a snorkel mounted on the rear of the hull.[12]
  • TP-62 – fire fighting vehicle, for the first time presented during the Hemus 2008 defense equipment trade show. Used in the putting out of the Vitosha 2012 fire.

Egypt[edit]

    • 1st Upgrade: RO-115 Mark I: developed in early 1980s. While retaining the Soviet 115 mm gun, more powerful ammunition allows engaging a target at greater range. Some main guns were replaced with the Royal Ordnance L7 105 mm gun as offered by the Austrian firm NORICUM See Austria section for details). Other modifications included a British diesel engine developing 750 hp (559 kW), a two-plane stabilizer, ballistic computer, laser rangefinder in an armoured box over the main armament, a cluster of six smoke grenade launchers on the right side of the turret, a fire control system from BMP-3 IFV and additional armor including reactive armor. The upgrades resulted in an increase of weight to 43 tons.[1][2]
    • 2nd Upgrade: T-62E Mark II: Mid 1990s Egyptian refurbishment and modernization program. The tanks were fitted with a license-built German MTU engine developing 880 hp (656 kW). The tanks are armed with a license-built 105 mm M68 tank gun, an Italian fire control system with ballistics computer, infrared vision device, laser rangefinder, gun stabilizer, additional armor including reactive armour, armored side skirts, modernized suspension and six smoke grenade launchers on each side of the turret. It has an upgraded NBC (nuclear, biological, and chemical) protection system. The T-62E Mark II carries two Egyptian-made two-round anti-tank missile launchers, or two 2-round launchers for 80 mm D-3000 smoke rockets on an encroachment extension, or a box-type launcher holding two Sakr smoke missiles on each side of the turret.[12] The upgrade did not change the weight of the tank, which remained at 45 tons.
    • 3rd Upgrade: RO-120 Mark III: T-62 main battle tank upgrade developed in 2004. This upgrade arms the tank with the 120 mm M-393 tank gun developed by FSUE. The gun is 5.30 m long and weighs 2.6 tonnes. It can be elevated or depressed between −7° and +15°. The tank has a new license-built German MTU engine developing 890 hp (664 kW) and additional armor, including reactive armor and armored side skirts. The upgrades resulted in a weight increase to 46.5 tons. This upgrade was completed by the end of 2008.

France[edit]

  • T-62 modernization made by GIAT. The modernization includes a replacement of the 115 mm tank gun with a 120 mm smoothbore tank gun, the same as the one used in the AMX 40 prototype main battle tank. No orders were placed for this unit.

Israel[edit]

Tiran-6
  • Tiran-3 – Israeli designation for an unmodified T-62.[12]
    • Tiran-6 – Modernization of ex-Syrian T-62. Fitted with a laser rangefinder and thermal imaging sight for the gunner. The tank was fitted with a US-made radio. Some Tiran-6s have "Blazer" reactive armour tiles fitted to the hull and turret. The original engine was replaced by a General Motors diesel engine. Tiran-6s have a flat plate bustle rack added to the turret rear, two stowage bins (one on the right of the turret and other one on the rear of the turret), a larger headlight bracket on the glacis plate and pintle mounts for machine guns on the turret roof in front of each hatch. The original 115 mm tank gun was replaced by a 105 mm tank gun. The 12.7 mm DShK 1938/46 antiaircraft heavy machine gun was replaced by an M1919 Browning light machine gun. The M2 Browning heavy machine gun was mounted on top of the mantlet of the main gun.

North Korea[edit]

  • Ch'ŏnma-ho I (Ga) – This is a lighter and thinner armoured copy of the T-62. Based on general trends and photography of armed forces parades, it is clear that North Korea has made considerable modifications to the basic Soviet and Chinese designs in its own production.[5][12]
  • Ch'ŏnma-ho II – designation for an imported T-62.[12]
  • Ch'ŏnma-ho III – A simple progressive upgrade of the Ch’onma-ho 2, with a thermal sleeve for the main gun and armored track skirts added. It is possible, but considered unlikely, that lugs for ERA have been added since its introduction; if they are present, they would be most likely found on the glacis and turret sides. A night vision upgrade.[citation needed]
  • Ch'ŏnma-ho IV – Greatly upgraded armor protection, including composite armor on the glacis and turret front, and appliqué or thickened armor elsewhere. Even the appliqué and/or thickened armor appears to be more advanced than earlier models, does not appear to have gained a huge amount of weight. A ballistic computer was added to the fire control suite, and the fire control suite has been integrated into a complete system rather than being a patchwork of upgrades. Gun stabilization has been improved. Radios are improved, and the suspension beefed up. The new engine is a 750-horsepower model which can lay a thick, oily smoke screen by injecting diesel fuel into its exhaust. Lugs for ERA (similar to the Russian Kontakt-3 ERA) added to turret sides, and lugs on the armored track skirts and on the glacis. Lugs for a relatively small amount of ERA bricks on the turret front; the ERA on the turret front would only protect 40% of hits to the turret front. On side of turret, clusters of four smoke grenade launchers; at the rear of the turret another cluster of four smoke grenade launchers, firing backwards instead of forwards.[citation needed]
  • Ch'ŏnma-ho V – Armor upgrades derived partially from the T-90S and T-72S, as well as a better ballistic computer and the addition of the aforementioned thermal imagers. Upgraded main gun – a copy of the 125mm 2A46 gun, complete with an autoloader. The fire control system replaced with one matching the new main gun, and the spent shell ejection system dispensed . Use wider tracks.[citation needed]

Ukraine[edit]

  • T-55AGM – Ukrainian T-54/T-55 modernization which can also be applied to T-62s.[14]
  • T-62AG - Upgraded by Kharkiv Morozov Machine Building Design Bureau. It is fitted with the 5TDF 700 hp diesel engine, a 125 mm KBA-101 tank gun, new fire control equipment and enhanced armour protection. Combat weight is 39.5 tonnes. The crew still consists of 4 men because there is no automatic loader. The upgrade package is aimed at the export market, since the Ukrainian army no longer uses the T-62.[12]

Kharkiv Morozov Machine Building Design Bureau is offering three T-62 conversions:[15]

  • T-62 based heavy infantry fighting vehicle.
  • T-62 based armoured recovery vehicle.
  • T-62 based armoured bridge layer.

United States[edit]

  • T-62 - This version is modified in a number of ways including the replacement of the original diesel engine with a Caterpillar diesel engine and fitting of US radios and antennae mounts. T-62 main battle tanks modified in such a way were used by the US Army for opposing forces training.[12]

Service history[edit]

MAZ-537 tractor-trailers transporting T-62 tanks, 23 May 1984

Soviet Union[edit]

The T-62 entered service with the Soviet Army in July 1961. Because of the firepower of the new 115 mm gun, it was considered to be a formidable tank for the time, despite its drawbacks.[1][2] Along with the T-55, the T-62 was one of the most common tanks in the Soviet inventory. The two tanks together once comprised approximately 85% of the Soviet army's tanks.

Sino-Soviet border conflict[edit]

T-62 tank captured by the PLA during the 1969 Sino-Soviet border conflict.

The T-62 saw combat for the first time during the 1969 Sino–Soviet border conflict during which one was disabled and captured by the People's Liberation Army. The T-62 (No. 545) was hit by a rocket-propelled grenade fired from the Type-56 (Chinese copy of RPG-2) RPG launcher on the morning of 15 March 1969 during a PLA counterattack. The RPG penetrated the left side of hull, killing the driver. This tank was later studied and the information gathered from those studies was used for the development of the Type 69 main battle tank.[citation needed]

Soviet war in Afghanistan[edit]

Soviet T-62M of the "Berlin" tank regiment which was a part of the 5th Guards Motor Rifle Division, leaving Afghanistan, 1 January 1987

During the Soviet war in Afghanistan, the T-62 was a primary tank used by the Soviet army.[16] The Soviets used tanks in a similar way to what the US Army did in Vietnam, with the use of many in fire support bases. Towards the end of the war T-62Ms, using the BDD appliqué armor, appeared in large numbers. Numerous T-62s fell victim to Mujahideen attacks, especially from antitank landmines. Others fell into the hands of the Afghan Mujahideen after they were left behind by withdrawing Soviet forces.

Russia[edit]

The T-62 and T-55 are now mostly used by Russian reserve units for a possible secondary mobilization while some are kept in storage. The active duty and primary mobilization units mainly use the T-80, T-72, and T-64, with a smaller number of T-90 tanks in service in active units.

War in Chechnya[edit]

The Russian army used both T-62s and T-62Ms in combat in Chechnya. The T-62M is still being used for counterterrorism operations in this region.[citation needed]

2008 South Ossetia war[edit]

Were used in the war against Georgia.[17]

Foreign service[edit]

T-62s of the Afghan National Army in Kabul, 27 April 2004

Bulgaria[edit]

The only other Warsaw Pact member to operate T-62s on a mass scale was Bulgaria which bought 250 T-62s, which were delivered between 1970 and 1974.[18] After the war in Afghanistan, Bulgaria received a number of T-62s from the Soviet Union in the 1980s. These were modified, but due to several problems, they were quickly withdrawn from service and some were sold to Angola and Yemen. Many were converted into TV-62 and TV-62M armoured recovery vehicles and their turrets were scrapped. The TV-62M is the standard armoured recovery vehicle of the Bulgarian Army.[12]

Other Warsaw Pact members[edit]

Both Poland and Czechoslovakia evaluated the vehicle but refused it because of the high price and low update value compared to the T-55.

Israel[edit]

Soldiers assigned to the 1st Afghanistan National Army Armored Battalion, stand in formation with 7 of their T-62s and two of their T-62Ms during their graduation ceremony held at Polycharky, Afghanistan, 15 May 2003

During the Yom Kippur war, the T-62 was an effective adversary for Israeli Patton and Centurion main battle tanks armed with 105 mm tank guns. The T-62 had an advantage in its better night-fighting capability, but Syrian losses were heavy. The Israelis captured several hundred[citation needed] of these tanks from the Syrians in 1973, and put some of them into service as the Tiran-3. About 120 Tiran-3 were modernized and received the designation Tiran-6. Only a small number was converted because the new US made M60 main battle tanks started arriving in Israel.[19] A small tank brigade consisting of two enlarged tank regiments, each equipped with 46 Tiran-6 tanks, was formed.[19] The Tiran-6 is used by reserve units. The Israelis have sold the rest to assorted countries, many in Latin America.[citation needed]

Iraq[edit]

The Iraqi T-62s performed well against opposing Iranian tanks such as M48s, M60A1s and Chieftains in the Iran-Iraq war. Iraqi T-62 participated in the biggest tank battle of the war in early 1981. Iran has lost 200 Chieftain and M60A1 tanks during battle. In return, Iraq has lost 50 T-62 tanks. The remaining Iranian armor, turned about and withdrew.[20]

Libyan-Chadian War[edit]

In 1982, when Libya invaded Chad the T-62 tanks were faced with militiamen who had made technical fighting vehicles from Toyota pickup trucks, most of them still in their civilian paint. The technicals were essentially makeshift tank destroyers, as the militiamen had mounted MILAN ATGM firing posts and welded tripod mounts for assorted recoilless rifles onto the beds of the trucks.[21]

Cuba[edit]

The first T-62s arrived in Cuba in 1976.[18][22] Currently approximately 400 are in service with the Cuban armed forces and about 100 are in storage.[1][2] They are modernized to the T-62M standard with additional armor, laser equipment and fire control systems.[22]

In 1988, Cuba deployed several T-62s to Angola to support its MPLA allies during the Angolan Civil War. Throughout the Battle of Cuito Cuanavale, they engaged attacking South African Olifant tanks and Ratel-90 armoured cars. The Cuban crews only enjoyed limited success due to the unsuitability of the demanding African terrain to tank warfare, and were frequently outperformed by enemy ATGMs and wheeled fighting vehicles.[23]

Ethiopian Civil War[edit]

Cuban T-62s

The Ethiopian Army purchased T-62s and used them against guerrillas.

Operators[edit]

T-62 operators (former operators in red)
  •  Afghanistan – 100 were ordered in 1973 from the Soviet Union and delivered between 1975 and 1976. 155 were ordered in 1979 from the Soviet Union and delivered between 1979 and 1991 (the vehicles were probably previously in Soviet service).[18] in service with the Afghan army were T-62, T-62M and T-62M1.[12]
  •  Angola – 175 were ordered in 1980 from the Soviet Union and delivered between 1981 and 1985 (the vehicles were previously in Soviet service). 35 were ordered in 1987 from the Soviet Union and delivered in 1987. 100 were ordered in 1987 from the Soviet Union and delivered between 1987 and 1988 (the vehicles were previously in Soviet service). 24 were ordered in 1993 from Bulgaria and delivered in 1993 (the vehicles were previously in Bulgarian service). 30 were ordered in 1993 from Russia and delivered between 1993 and 1994 (the vehicles were previously in Soviet and then Russian service; some could be T-55s).[18] 18 are currently in service.[24]
  •  Cuba – 200 were ordered in 1976 from the Soviet Union and delivered between 1976 and 1983 (the vehicles were previously in Soviet service). 200 were ordered in 1984 from the Soviet Union and delivered between 1984 and 1988.[18] 380 are currently in service.[1][2] They are modernized to the T-62M standard.[22]
  •  Egypt – 750 were ordered in 1971 from the Soviet Union and delivered between 1972 and 1975.[18] Approximately 600 (500 of which are modernized and 100 stored) are currently in service.[1][2] 1,300 T-62s were in service in the 1980s. Currently 500 are in service.[25]
  •  Eritrea – Received a number from Ethiopia.[26]
  •  Ethiopia – 20 were ordered in 1977 from the Soviet Union and delivered in 1977 (the vehicles were possibly either produced in Czechoslovakia or previously in Soviet service). 50 were ordered in 1980 from the Soviet Union and delivered in 1980 (the vehicles were previously in Soviet service).[18] Approximately 100 are currently in service.[1][2]
  •  Iran – 65 were ordered in 1981 from Libya and received in 1981 as aid (the vehicles were previously in Libyan service). 100 were ordered in 1982 from Syria and delivered in 1982 (the vehicles were previously in Syrian service). Iran ordered 150 Ch'ŏnma-hos in 1981 from North Korea and they were delivered between 1982 and 1985.[18] They had 100 T-62s and Ch'ŏnma-hos in service as of 1990, 150 as of 1995, 75 as of 2000, 2002, 2005, and 2008.[27] Currently 50 are in service.[28]
  •  Iraqi Kurdistan - 100-120 with PUK peshmerga forces,and 50 with KDP peshmerga forces.[29]
  •  Kazakhstan – 280 in service as of 1995, 75 as of 2000, 2002, and 2005.[30]
  •  Libya – 150 were ordered in 1973 from the Soviet Union and delivered in 1974. 400 were ordered in 1976 from the Soviet Union and delivered between 1976 and 1978. 250 were ordered in 1978 from the Soviet Union and delivered in 1978.[18] At the peak there were approximately 900 T-62s in service.[1][2] Currently 100 are in service and 70 are stored.[31]
  •  Mongolia – 100 were ordered in 1973 from the Soviet Union and delivered between 1973 and 1975. 250 are in service as of 2011.[18]
  •  North Korea – 350 were ordered in 1970 from the Soviet Union and delivered between 1971 and 1975. 150 ordered in 1974 from the Soviet Union were delivered between 1976 and 1978 (the vehicles were probably produced in Czechoslovakia).[18] North Korea also produced more than 1,200 Ch'ŏnma-hos.[1][2] There were 1,200 T-62s and Ch'ŏnma-hos in service as of 1985, 1,500 as of 1990, 1,800 as of 1995, 800 as of 2000 and 2000 as of 2011.[32]
  •  South Ossetia
  •  Syria – 500 were ordered in 1973 from the Soviet Union and delivered between 1973 and 1974. 200 ordered in 1978 from Libya were delivered in 1979 as aid. 300 were ordered in 1982 from the Soviet Union and delivered between 1982 and 1984 (the vehicles were previously in Soviet service).[18] This country had 1,000 T-62Ms and T-62Ks in service as of 1990, 1995, 2000, 2001 and 2003 and around 1,000 as of 2005.[33]
  • Syria Free Syrian Army Limited use of captured government tanks [34]
  •  Uzbekistan – 179 were in service as of 1995, 190 as of 2000 and 170 as of 2005.[35]
  •  Vietnam – 200 were ordered in 1978 from the Soviet Union and delivered between 1978 and 1979. The vehicles were either produced in Czechoslovakia or previously were in Soviet service. 220 were in service in 2009.
  •  Yemen – 150[26]

Former operators[edit]

  •  Belarus – 170 were in service as of 1995, none as of 2000.[36]
  •  Bulgaria – 250 were ordered in 1969 from the Soviet Union and delivered between 1970 and 1974.[18] A number were received from the Soviet Union after the Soviet War in Afghanistan, modernized, withdrawn from service, and then converted into TV-62Ms.[12] Withdrawn from service around 2000, only recovery vehicles remain in use.
  •  Iraq – 100 were ordered in 1973 from the Soviet Union and delivered between 1974 and 1975. 600 ordered in 1976 from the Soviet Union were delivered between 1977 and 1979 (the vehicles were probably produced in Czechoslovakia). 2,150 were ordered in 1982 from the Soviet Union and delivered between 1982 and 1989 (the vehicles were probably previously in Soviet service). 1,500 were in service as of 1990, 500 as of 1995, 2000 and 2002.[37] More than 1,000 were in service before the First Persian Gulf War.
  •  Israel – 120 Tiran-6 (non-combat service).[1][2][38]
Iraqi T-62 destroyed near Ali Al Salem Air Base during Operation Desert Storm, 18 April 1991
Iraqi T-62 wreckage at Khorramshahr, Khuzestan, from the Iran-Iraq War
  •  Russia – All destroyed
  •  Soviet Union – More than 20,000 were produced between July 1961 and 1975. There were 12,900 in 1985 and 11,300 in 1990. The tanks were passed on to successor states.[39]
  •  Tajikistan – Three were in service as of 2000, none as of 2005.[40]
  •  Turkmenistan – seven
  •  Ukraine – At least 300[41] were inherited from the former Soviet Union. 85 in service as of 1995, none as of 2000.[42]
  •  United States – The US Army used a number of T-62 main battle tanks for OpFor training.[12]
  • Lebanese Forces – the Christian Lebanese Forces militia received 64 T-55 and T-62 tanks from Iraq via Jordan in 1988-89.
  •  North Yemen – 16 ordered in 1979 from the Soviet Union were delivered in 1980 (the vehicles were probably either produced in Czechoslovakia or previously in Soviet service).[18]
  •  South Yemen – 50 were ordered from the Soviet Union in 1979 and received in 1979 as aid. Another 100 were ordered in 1980 from the Soviet Union and delivered between 1981 and 1982. 120 more ordered in 1986 from the Soviet Union were delivered in 1986. All the vehicles of the last batch were previously in Soviet service.[18]
  • Yemen Yemeni Southern Rebels - 56 were ordered in 1994 from Bulgaria and delivered in 1994 (the vehicles were previously in Bulgarian service; they were bought for $20 million).[18]

Evaluation-only operators[edit]

Combat history[edit]


See also[edit]

Tanks of comparable role, performance and era[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y "T62". softland (in Polish). Archived from the original on 15 June 2008. Retrieved 13 December 2009. [self-published source?]
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y Igor Witkowski. Czołgi Świata (in Polish). W-wa. [unreliable source?]
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "T62". Pancerni.pl (in Polish). [self-published source?]
  4. ^ a b c d e "T62". pancerni.abajt.pl (in Polish). [self-published source?]
  5. ^ a b c d e f "T62 Series Tanks". globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 13 December 2009. 
  6. ^ a b Domestic Armored Vehicles 1945-1965
  7. ^ a b Zaloga 2004, p 13.
  8. ^ a b c d e f "Czołgi Świata" (World's Tanks or Tanks Of The World) magazine issue 20
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h "T-62 Main Battle Tank". Gary's Combat Vehicle Reference Guide. Retrieved 13 December 2009. 
  10. ^ "T-62 MBT". Warfare.ru. Retrieved 13 December 2009. 
  11. ^ Zaloga 2004, pp 13–14.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak "JED The Military Equipment Directory"[unreliable source?](registration required)
  13. ^ "Czołgi Świata" (World's Tanks or Tanks Of The World) magazine issue 19
  14. ^ "Morozov T-55AGM"
  15. ^ "Morozov T-62 conversions"
  16. ^ "The Soviet armored machines in the Afghanistan"
  17. ^ http://sites.google.com/site/afivedaywar/Home/rutanklosses#TOC--62-232-70--42-
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p SIPRI Arms Transfers Database
  19. ^ a b "Tiran"
  20. ^ «The Iran-Iraq War» Efraim Karsh pp.29-30.
  21. ^ A. Clayton, Frontiersmen, p. 161
  22. ^ a b c "Cuban tanks"
  23. ^ T-62 Main Battle Tank
  24. ^ Angolan army armyrecognition.com
  25. ^ Egyptian army armyrecognition.com
  26. ^ a b defenceindia.com
  27. ^ Iranian Ground Forces Equipment
  28. ^ Iranian army armyrecognition.com
  29. ^ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TgbEhvrfwQc&feature=player_embedded
  30. ^ Kazak Ground Forces Equipment
  31. ^ Middle East Military Balance, (2005), "Libyan Military", Libya, Accessed 24 April 2007
  32. ^ Equipment Holdings - Korean People's Army
  33. ^ Syria - Army Equipment
  34. ^ Video Evidence of Free Syrian Army using T-62 tank
  35. ^ Uzbek-Army Equipment
  36. ^ Belorussian Army equipment
  37. ^ Iraqi Army equipment
  38. ^ "Israeli Army Equipment"
  39. ^ "Russian Army equipment"
  40. ^ Tajikistan Army equipment
  41. ^ Ukrainian army armyrecognition.com
  42. ^ Ukrainian Army equipment
  43. ^ "Type 69/79 Main Battle Tank". Sinodefence.com. Retrieved 13 December 2009. 

References[edit]

  • Foss, Christopher F. (1987). Jane's AFV Recognition Handbook, pp 70–71. London: Jane's. ISBN 0-7106-0432-7.
  • Perrett, Bryan (1987). Soviet Armour Since 1945. London: Blandford Press. ISBN 0-7137-1735-1.
  • Zaloga, Steven J. and Hugh Johnson (2004). T-54 and T-55 Main Battle Tanks 1944–2004. Oxford: Osprey. ISBN 1-84176-792-1.

External links[edit]