T. B. Simatupang
|Tahi Bonar Simatupang|
Simatupang (left) with President Sukarno
|Born||28 January 1920
Sidikalang, Dairi, North Sumatra, Dutch East Indies
|Died||1 January 1990
|Years of service||1942–1959|
|Commands held||Chief of Staff of Indonesian National Armed Forces|
|Battles/wars||Indonesian National Revolution|
|Other work||Ministry of Defense of Indonesia, Army Staff College|
Simatupang was born in Dairi, North Sumatra, then part of Dutch East Indies to a Batak Protestant family. Simatupang attended a Dutch colonial school, and then moved to Jakarta in 1937 for further study. In 1942, he gained entry to the Dutch Military Academy, but his studies were interrupted by the Japanese conquest.
During the Indonesian National Revolution, Simatupang, now a colonel, joined the Siliwangi Division in Central Java, and by January 1950, following the death of General Sudirman, he was acting chief of staff of the Indonesian Armed Forces (Angkatan Perang). Like army chief of staff General Nasution, he was an "administrator", committed to the reduction in size of the armed forces after independence had been won in order to bring about a professional military. He opposed efforts by a disgruntled rival, Colonel Bambang Supemo, to replace Nasution, but was himself criticized for apparent political bias after articles he wrote in 1952 were perceived as favoring the Socialist Party of Indonesia (PSI). After the incident on 17 October 1952, in which the army brought demonstrators and troops to the Merdeka Palace in an effort to persuade President Sukarno to dissolve parliament, Simatupang's days were numbered, and on 4 November 1953, his post as chief of staff was abolished, effectively dismissing him. He then took a position as an adviser to the Ministry of Defense, and then became a lecturer at the Army Staff College and the Military Legal Academy before resigning from the military altogether in 1959.
After his resignantion, Simatupang devoted his life to religious duties and writing. He died in Jakarta on the first day of 1990. In November 2013 Simatupang, together with Rajiman Wediodiningrat and Lambertus Nicodemus Palar, was declared a National Hero of Indonesia.
- Jakarta Encyclopedia
- Kahin (1952) pp 185, 455
- Feith (2007) pp 171–396
- Parlina, Ina (9 November 2013). "Govt names three new national heroes". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 11 November 2013. Retrieved 11 November 2013.
- Feith, Herbert (2007). The Decline of Constitutional Democracy in Indonesia. Asia: Equinox Publishing. ISBN 979-3780-45-2.
- "Tahi Bonar Simatupang". Jakarta Encyclopedia. Jakarta Capital City (official site). Retrieved 20 August 2012.
- Kahin, George McTurnan (1952). Nationalism and Revolution in Indonesia. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-9108-5.