T34 Calliope in France
|Type||Tank-mounted rocket launcher (Rocket-Artillery Tank)|
|Place of origin||United States|
|Wars||World War II|
60 × 4.5 in (114 mm) rockets (T34), 64 × 4.5 in (114 mm) rockets (T34E1),
The Rocket Launcher T34 (Calliope) was a tank-mounted multiple rocket launcher used by the United States Army during World War II. The launcher was placed atop the Medium Tank M4, and fired a barrage of 4.5 in (114 mm) M8 rockets from 60 launch tubes. It was developed in 1943; small numbers were produced and were used by various US armor units in 1944-45. It adopts its name from the musical instrument "Calliope", also known as the steam organ, which had similarly lined pipes.
- Rocket Launcher T34 (Calliope) - Version carrying 60 4.5 in (114 mm) rockets in arrangement of a group of 36 tubes on the top, and a pair jettisonable groups of 12 tubes (24 tubes of jettisonable groups) on the bottom (Not jettisonable from M4A1 Sherman variant).
- Rocket Launcher T34E1 (Calliope) - Same as T34 but groups of 12 jettisonable tubes replaced by groups of 14 tubes.
- Rocket Launcher T34E2 (Calliope) - Caliber of rockets increased from 4.5 in (114 mm) to 7.2 in (183 mm), number of tubes remains at 60. Saw combat in 1944-1945.
- Matilda "Hedgehog" - Australian armoured fighting vehicle using spigot mortars.
- Sherman Tulip - British Sherman with two "60 lb" 3-inch rockets mounted on turret.
- Mattress - British multiple 3-inch rocket launcher used by Canadian troops
- Katyusha, Soviet truck-mounted rocket launcher
- Panzerwerfer German 15 cm Nebelwerfer barrage rocket system, on an armored half-track or its likely replacement
- List of U.S. Army Rocket Launchers By Model Number
- Hunting, David. The New Weapons of the World Encyclopedia. New York, New York: Diagram Visual Information Ltd., 2007. ISBN 0-312-36832-1
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