TAAG Angola Airlines

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TAAG Angola Airlines
TAAG Linhas Aéreas de Angola
TAAG logo.png
IATA
DT
ICAO
DTA
Callsign
ANGOLA
Founded September 1938 (1938-09) (as Divisão dos Transportes Aéreos)
Commenced operations 17 July 1940 (1940-07-17)
Hubs
Subsidiaries (100%)
Fleet size 14
Destinations 24
Company slogan TAAG a Sua Companhia de Sempre (English: TAAG Always Your Company)
Parent company Government of Angola (100%)
Headquarters Luanda, Angola
Key people
Website www.taag.com

TAAG Angola Airlines (Portuguese: Linhas Aéreas de Angola) is the state-owned flag carrier of Angola.[1] Based in Luanda, the airline operates an all-Boeing fleet to domestic services within Angola, as well as medium-haul services in Africa and long-haul services to Brazil, Cuba, China and Portugal. The airline was originally set up by the government as DTA – Divisão dos Transportes Aéreos in 1938; rechristened TAAG Angola Airlines in 1973,[nb 1] the airline gained flag carrier status in 1975.

TAAG Angola Airlines is a member of both the International Air Transport Association[2] and the African Airlines Association.[3]

History[edit]

DTA: 1938 – 1973[edit]

A DTA Fokker F-27-200 at Benguela Airport in 1965.

The origins of the carrier trace back to 1937, when the president of Portugal Óscar Carmona commended Joaquim de Almedia Baltazar to create an airline in Angola.[4] In September 1938, DTA – Divisão dos Transportes Aéreos was formed as a division of the Administration of Railways, Harbours, and Air Transport of Portuguese West Africa.[5][6][7] It was owned and run by the government, which authorised the acquisition of three Dragons and two Junkers Ju 52s, yet the latter two aircraft were not delivered due to the outbreak of the Second World War.[4] Operations began on 17 July 1940,[6] using De Havilland Dragon Rapide biplanes.[4] First routes to be operated were founded by the Aero Club of Angola and included two main lines: one running between Luanda and Pointe Noire, having connections with Aeromaritime services to Europe, and the other being Luanda–BenguelaLobito that was later extended to Moçâmedes. Flights were intermittently discontinued during World War II due to the scarcity of spare parts, but by the end of the war the airline resumed operations. Two Stinson Reliants bought from the Belgian Congo in 1944 permitted the carrier to resume coastal services.[4]

The DC-3 and the Beech 18 joined the fleet in 1946. In March that year, a new route to Leopoldville was launched.[4] The airline joined the International Air Transport Association in 1951.[8] Also this year, the company extended the Leopoldville route far east, serving Lourenço Marques, but this destination was later abandoned due to poor financial performance.[9] DTA also operated a route linking Luanda with Lourenço Marques via Livingstone between 1951 and 1952; poor occupation prompted the airline to terminate the service. A 700-mile (1,100 km) long route to São Tomé was launched in 1956.[4]

By April 1960 (1960-04), the fleet was composed of four Beech 18s, seven DC-3s and three DH.89s.[10] A year later, DTA became the third African airline in ordering the Fokker F-27, with two aircraft acquired. At this time, the company had a route network that was 3,300 miles (5,300 km) long.[11] The F-27s were incorporated into the fleet in 1962.[5] Served with these brand new aircraft, Windhoek was added to the route network that year.[12]

TAAG Angola Airlines[edit]

A TAAG Angola Airlines Boeing 707-320C at Lisbon Portela Airport in 1991.

Following renaming to TAAG – Transportes Aéreos de Angola on 1 October 1973,[13] the airline was reorganised and reconstituted.[14] The shareholders of the company at time were the Angolan government (51%), TAP Air Portugal (29%) and ex-DTA employees (20%). Four Boeing 737-200s were ordered in 1974. The same year, a new livery including the Palança Negra was unveiled.[14] Three F-27s and six DC-3s comprised the fleet by March 1975 (1975-03).[13] Following the rise to power of the communists, that year the country gained independence from Portugal; the airline became Angola's flag carrier in October. In November, the company took delivery of the first Boeing 737-200.[14] In January 1976 (1976-01), the delivery of two Boeing 737-200Cs was blocked by the US State Department;[15] with the embargo being lifted two months later, following the end of the civil war in the country.[16] Valued at around US$18 million,[16] these two aircraft were finally delivered by late April that year.[17] In February the same year, an ex-Allegheny Airlines Fairchild FH-227 on delivery flight to Suidwes Lugdiens was forced to land at Luanda while flying over Angolan territory.[18] The country seized control of the aircraft, which was later reported to be in service with TAAG, along with an ex-Argentine Air Force Caravelle and two ex-THY Turkish Airlines F-27s.[19] Three Yak-40s entered the fleet in 1977, along with other Soviet-built aircraft;[14] late this year, an ex-British Caledonian Airways Boeing 707-320C was sold to TAAG.[20] In 1978, TAAG acquired two used F27s from Fokker,[21] and another Boeing 737 was ordered a year later.[22] A Lockheed L-100-20, registration D2-FAF, was involved in an accident while landing at São Tomé.[14]

By March 1980 (1980-03), the carrier had a fleet of three Boeng 707-320Cs, three Boeing 737-200Cs, six Fokker F27s —four -600s and two -200s—, three L-100s —two -20s and one -30— and four Yakovlev Yak-40s to serve a number of domestic destinations, plus Brazzaville, São Tome, Lagos, Maputo, Lisbon, Moscow, Paris and Rome.[23] The company was reorganised again during the year. On 8 June, a Yak-40 registration D2-TYC crashed near Matala killing all 19 occupants on board. On 16 May 1981, the crew of four on board a Lockheed L-100-20 Hercules, registration D2-EAS, lost their lives in an accident at Mongua. During the early 1980s the fleet also included a small number of Antonov An-26s that started being phase out. One of these examples (D2-TAB) was involved in an accident at Monte Bibala on 29 November 1982; 15 people lost their lives. Another fatal accident took place almost a year later, on 8 November 1983, when the crash of a Boeing 737-200 (D2-TBN) at Lubango resulted in 130 fatalities. Serious financial difficulties were uncovered during 1984. In the mid-1980s, an L-100 Hercules was withdrawn from service and two Ilyushin Il-62Ms were acquired for operations to Cuba.[14] The carrier phased in the first of these two aircraft in 1988.[24] On 21 July 1988, a Boeing 707 freighter owned by the airline crashed 20 kilometres (12 mi) away from Murtala Muhammed International Airport; six crewmembers lost their lives in the accident.[25]

A Portugal-registered Lockheed L-1011-500 wearing the TAAG Angola Airlines livery at Faro Airport in 1995.

At March 1990 (1990-03), TAAG Angola Airlines had TAAG-Air Charter and TAAG Aviacao Ligeira as associated companies; the number of employees was 5,770. At this time, the fleet consisted of six Boeing 707-320s (one -320B and five -320Cs), four Boeing 737-200s, one Being 737-200C, one Lockheed L100-200, six Fokker F.27s (one -100, one -400M, one -500 and three -600s) and two Yakovlev Yak-40s. The carrier's network comprised 18 domestic points in Angola served from Luanda plus international flights to Berlin-Schonefeld, Brazaville, Havana, Kinshasa, Lisbon, Lusaka, Maputo, Moscow, Paris, Rio de Janeiro, Rome, Sal and Sao Tome.[26] TAAG bought a Boeing 747-300 Combi from Singapore Airlines in 1997.[27]

In July 2005 (2005-07), TAAG Angola Airlines informed that it firmed up an order for three Boeing 777-200ERs and four Boeing 737-700s, it also took options on one and two more of these aircraft, respectively. The firm-ordered aircraft were initially scheduled for delivery in July 2006 (2006-07).[28] The new aircraft were aimed at replacing the ageing Boeing 747-300s and Boeing 737-200s.[29] The order was partially fulfilled in November 2006, when two Boeing 777-200ERs and three 737-700s were delivered.[30][31] One of these Boeing 777-200ERs established a record-breaking distance for the delivery of the type, when it flew 12,860 kilometres (6,940 nmi; 7,990 mi) between Seattle and Luanda in 16 hours and 47 minutes.[32] The new equipment was incorporated without phasing out the older ones. The 777-200ERs were immediately put on services to Lisbon, Johannesburg, and Paris. Because the 777s were originally unable to fly transatlantic flights due to ETOPS restrictions, TAAG was limited to Boeing 747-300 operations to Brazil.[citation needed]

European Union ban 2007 and subsequent restructuring[edit]

In June 2007 (2007-06), the European Union (EU) banned TAAG aircraft from entering into European airspace because of safety concerns, effective early July 2007 (2007-07).[33][34][35] At the same time, the United Kingdom barred TAAG from flying into its territory, just before the airline was about to start services to London-Gatwick; in retaliation, Angola banned British Airways from landing in Angola.[33] This left TAAG with two 777s sitting in Luanda, unable to fly to any of TAAG's long-haul destinations.[citation needed] The carrier announced it was losing US$5 million a month owing to the ban.[36] To continue operating flights to Europe, TAAG wet-leased a Boeing 747-400 from South African Airways (SAA).[37][38] This aircraft was flown with a SAA flight crew and a mixture of TAAG's and SAA's cabin crew.[citation needed] Following the EU ban, in November 2008 the entire TAAG board was replaced and a new board was appointed with the objective of turning the carrier round, and in particular getting it removed from the EU blacklist. At the time, according to the Transport Minister, Augusto da Silva Tomás, in 14 months the company lost about US$70 million (€55.6 million). The turn-round plan included staff reductions - before the action was taken, there were about 5,000 staff.[39] During 2008, TAAG launched a new route to Beijing.[40]

On 29 May 2009, it was announced that TAAG had passed IATA inspections,.[41] and in October 2009 (2009-10), TAAG began Boeing 777 flights to Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo from Luanda after acquiring the necessary ETOPS certification.[citation needed] In November the same year, TAAG restarted services to Havana; many Cuban doctors and teachers reside in Angola and the flight exists to help transport them.[42]

On 29 April 2010, it was announced that TAAG had ordered two Boeing 777-300ERs, with an option for two more.

In January 2011, there were concerns over inadequate maintenance on its aircraft once again, after a series of incidents involving the Boeing 777-200ER fleet.[43][44] However, it was determined that the company was still complying with international safety requirements after an IATA inspection in Luanda.

In July 2009 (2009-07), TAAG received permission to operate flights to Europe under restricted conditions; it was allowed to fly only into Portugal, and could only use its three Boeing 777-200ERs to operate these flights.[45][46] The permission was extended to its four Boeing 737-700s in late 2009.[47] The maximum number of flights was set at ten per week. On 1 August 2009, TAAG's first flight departed from Luanda to Lisbon, after nearly two years of being banned from EU airspace. TAAG then returned the Boeing 747–400 to South African Airways.

In late March 2010, restrictions over TAAG operations were relented again following the announcement the airline could fly their Boeing 777-200ERs and 737-700s to all European airports.[48][49] In April 2012 (2012-04), the ban was partially lifted, but some aircraft were still prevented to fly the European Air Space.[50] An updated version of the list of airlines banned in the EU released in early December 2012 (2012-12) still included part of TAAG's fleet; however, five Boeing 777s and four Boeing 737-700s were allowed to operate into the EU;[51] there were no changes in the list regarding the aircraft the airline is allowed to fly into the EU, following the release the last versions of the list in July[52] and December 2013 (2013-12),[53] and April 2014 (2014-04).[54]

Corporate affairs[edit]

Ownership and structure[edit]

Originally set up within a government department, TAAG Angola Airlines remains 100% owned by the government of Angola,[citation needed] although it now has a formal corporate structure, with a board of directors, etc., with Joaquim T. da Cunha at both the chairman and CEO positions, as of September 2013.[55]

TAAG in turn is the sole owner of Angola Air Charter, also based in Luanda, that operates cargo charters in Africa.

Business trends[edit]

The TAAG office in Beijing

Annual reports for the airline do not appear to be published. In the absence of these, the main sources for trends are press reports, and industry reports of the fleet size; even these are only indicative, because it is not always clear whether the aircraft recorded are actually in service:

2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Turnover (US$ m) 585 530 650
Profits (US$ m) −70 −72
Number of passengers (m) 1.1 0.8 1.1
Number of aircraft (at year end) 14 11 11 12 12
Notes/sources [56] [57] [57] [58][59] [57]

Head office[edit]

TAAG has its corporate headquarters in Luanda, Angola.[60][61] The airline also has offices in Africa, Asia, Europe, and North and South America,[62] and opened an office in Chaoyang District, Beijing, in 2010.[63]

Destinations[edit]

As of July 2013, TAAG Angola Airlines serves 29 destinations, including 12 domestic, ten in Africa, three in Latin America, two in Europe, and two in the Middle East and Asia.[64]

Codeshare agreements[edit]

As of December 2011, TAAG Angola Airlines has codeshare agreements with the following airlines:[65][66]

Fleet[edit]

TAAG Angola Airlines current fleet

A Boeing 777-300ER takes off from Lisbon Portela Airport in 2012.
A Boeing 737-700 at OR Tambo International Airport in 2011.

Recent developments[edit]

In March 2011 (2011-03), the Boeing 747-300 fleet was retired from service.[68] In June the same year, the airline received its first newly acquired Boeing 777-300ER, out of two ordered in October 2009; TAAG became the first African carrier in purchasing and operating this type of aircraft.[69][70][71] Three additional 293-seater Boeing 777-300ERs were ordered in April 2012 (2012-04), in a deal worth US$895 million.[72][73][74]

Current[edit]

As of July 2014, the TAAG active fleet comprises the following aircraft:[75]

TAAG Angola Airlines Fleet
Aircraft Total Orders Options Passengers Notes
F C Y Total
Boeing 737-200 Advanced 2 16 86 102[76]
Boeing 737-200C 1 Unknown
Boeing 737-700 5 12 108 120[76]
Boeing 777-200ER 3 14 51 170 235[76]
Boeing 777-300ER 3 2[77] 3[78][79] 12 56 225 293[76]
Total 14 2 3

Retired fleet[edit]

A TAAG Angola Airlines Boeing 747-300M at Charles de Gaulle Airport in 2005.

The company previously operated the following equipment:[80]

In-flight service[edit]

TAAG Angola Airlines became OnAir's first Sub-Saharan customer. The carrier plans to offer inflight connectivity on board the Boeing 777-300ER fleet starting May 2014 (2014-05).[81]

First Class

First Class, branded as Diamond First Class, is only available on TAAG's Boeing 777 aircraft. First class features fully flat-bed seats with AVOD in-flight entertainment. Additionally, amenity kits, pillows, and blankets are given to first class passengers. Passengers also have designated check-in desks and have access to TAAG's Welwitchia Lounge in Luanda Airport.[82]

Business Class

Business Class, known as Executiva Class, is found on all TAAG aircraft. On the Boeing 777 fleet, the seats are angled lie-flat with AVOD in-flight entertainment in each seat. Amenity kits, pillows, and blankets are given to all Business Class passengers. Additionally, they are entitled to priority check-in and also have access to TAAG's Welwitchia Lounge in Luanda Airport.[82]

Economy Class

Branded as HighFly Economic Class, TAAG's long-haul economy class cabin is equipped with AVOD in-flight entertainment. The seats feature footrests and winged headrests for extra comfort. Pillows and blankets are given to all economy class passengers, and hot meals are served on all international flights.[82]

In-Flight Entertainment

All TAAG long-haul aircraft are equipped with AVOD entertainment throughout all cabins. Known as Palanca, there are two variations throughout the Boeing 777 fleet. Rockwell Collins' dTES system is installed on the B777-200ERs, while the newer B777-300ERs possess the Thales TopSeries™ Audio Video On-demand System. The B737-700 fleet features drop-down LCD screens, used to show cabin-wide movies and a moving map display. Additionally, TAAG has an in-flight magazine and an in-flight entertainment guide, both known as austral.[83]

Accidents and incidents[edit]

Accidents involving fatalities[edit]

  • 29 November 1982: An Antonov 26, registration D2-TAB, that operated a non-scheduled passenger service, flew into mountainous terrain and crashed. All 15 occupants of the aircraft perished in the accident.[84][85]
  • 14 April 1997: A Fokker F-27-600, tail number D2-TFP, operating a Brazzaville–Luanda cargo service, rolled right following rotation from Maya-Maya Airport, fell onto the runway it took off from and skidded until it came to rest past the end of it, breaking in two and bursting into flames. There were three reported fatalities.[86][87]:40
  • 28 June 2007: a Boeing 737–200 crashed in northern Angola. Portuguese news agency Lusa said the aircraft had taken off from the Angolan capital, Luanda, and was trying to land at M'banza-Kongo in the province of Zaire, which is in northern Angola near the border with the Democratic Republic of Congo. At least five people were killed and 66 injured. Among those killed in the accident was the municipal administrator of M'banza-Kongo and a senior Roman Catholic priest from Italy.[88] The airplane was carrying 78 passengers when it crashed at 1330 local time (12.30 GMT). The agency said control of the aircraft was lost upon landing and it crashed into a building, destroying it. The director of Aeroportos de Angola (the Angolan airport authority) told national radio the pilot had missed the runway for an unknown reason while attempting an emergency landing. According to aviation sources in Luanda, the aircraft apparently punctured two tires upon landing, causing one wing to dip and touch the runway. The aircraft then veered out of control and crashed into the building.[89] Initial press reports indicated that the aircraft touched down about halfway along the runway while attempting to land at M'banza-Kongo.[90][91][92]

Incidents involving fatalities[edit]

Incidents involving no fatalities[edit]

D2-TBD, a TAAG Angola Airlines Boeing 737-200 Advanced, was involved in a mid-air collision with another airplane over Namibia on 26 December 2002. The aircraft is seen here at Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport in 1986.
  • 26 December 2002: A Boeing 737-2M2, registration D2-TDB, that had departed from Windhoek Hosea Kutako International Airport bound for Luanda operating Flight 572, was involved in a mid-air collision over Namibian airspace with a Cessna 404, registration V5-WAA, that took off from Windhoek Eros Airport. The collision occurred some 28 kilometres (17 mi) north of Hosea Kutako Airport. The Boeing sustained minor damages in one of its wings, but continued its flight to Luanda; the pilot of the Cessna —the only occupant of the light aircraft— managed to land it safely despite the damages it underwent in the incident. All occupants from both aircraft survived unharmed.[98][99]

Non-fatal hull-losses[edit]

  • 15 May 1979: A Lockheed L-100-20 Hercules, registration D2-FAF, crashed on landing at São Tomé International Airport.[100]
  • 4 November 1980: A Boeing 737-2M2C, tail number D2-TAA, that landed short of the runway at Benguela Airport, slid some 900 m following the collapse of the gear; a fire broke out on the right wing but there were no reported fatalities. The aircraft caught fire during recovery operations on November 10, and was written off.[101][102]
  • 9 February 1984: A Boeing 737-2M2, registration D2-TBV, that departed from Albano Machado Airport operating a scheduled passenger service, suffered hydraulic problems following an explosion in the rear of the aircraft and returned to the airport of departure for an emergency landing. The plane touched down fast and overran the runway.[103]
  • 8 January 1988: A Yakovlev Yak-40K, tail number D2-TYD, ran off the runway upon landing at Quatro de Fevereiro Airport.[104]
  • 8 February 1988: A Boeing 707-349C, registration D2-TOI, had its hydraulic and control lines broken after it hit an antenna on approach to Quatro de Fevereiro Airport; the nosegear collapsed when it overran the runway.[105]
  • 20 February 1992: A Boeing 707-349C, tail number D2-TOJ, experienced a nosegear failure during taxiing at Quatro de Fevereiro Airport.[106][107]

See also[edit]


Notes[edit]

  1. ^ TAAG is an acronym for Transportes Aéreos Angolanos.[citation needed]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Buyck, Cathy (14 June 2011). "Ex-Im Bank arranges financing for TAAG 777-300". Air Transport World. Archived from the original on 2 January 2013. Retrieved 2 January 2013. "The aircraft will be used to expand the Angolan national flag carrier’s intercontinental service provided by its all-Boeing fleet." 
  2. ^ "Current Airline Members". International Air Transport Association. 
  3. ^ "Current Member". African Airlines Association. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f Guttery (1998), p. 20.
  5. ^ a b "TAAG History". TAAG Angola Airlines. Archived from the original on 29 August 2012. Retrieved 29 August 2012. 
  6. ^ a b "World Airline Directory – TAAG Angola Airlines". Flight International 159 (4774): 84. 3 April 2001 – 9 April 2001. ISSN 0015-3710. Archived from the original on 21 August 2013. 
  7. ^ "World Airline Survey – Direccao do Exploracao dos Transportes Aereos (DTA – Angola Airlines)". Flight International 95 (3135): 570. 10 April 1969. Archived from the original on 28 August 2013. 
  8. ^ "Civil aviation...". Flight LX (2226): 406. 21 September 1951. Archived from the original on 28 August 2013. "The latest airline to become an active member of I.A.T.A. is Divisao de Exploraçao dos Transportes Aereos, which operates out of Luanda, Angola, in Portuguese West Africa." 
  9. ^ "World Airline Directory...—Divisao dos Transportes Aéreos – DTA". Flight 73 (2569): 536. 18 April 1958. Archived from the original on 28 August 2013. 
  10. ^ "Airlines of the World commerce – Direcçao de Transportes Aéreos (DTA)". Flight 77 (2665): 498. 8 April 1960. Archived from the original on 28 August 2013. 
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  12. ^ Guttery (1998), p. 21.
  13. ^ a b "World Airline Directory – Transportes Aereos de Angola SARL (TAAG)". Flight International 108 (3445): 507. 20 March 1975. Archived from the original on 30 August 2013. 
  14. ^ a b c d e f Guttery (1998), p. 22.
  15. ^ "Air transport". Flight International 109 (3487): 54. 10 January 1976. Archived from the original on 2 September 2013. "Delivery of two Boeing 737-200Cs to TAAG of Angola, due this month and next, has been blocked by the US State Department "until such time as it is clear that there is a national government in Angola"" 
  16. ^ a b "Airliner market". Flight International 109 (3496): 629. 13 March 1976. Archived from the original on 8 January 2013. "The State Department has lifted the embargo on two 737-200CS for TAAG, following the end of the civil war in Angola. Price of the two aircraft, with spares, is reported as $18 million" 
  17. ^ "Air transport". Flight International 109 (3502): 1056. 24 April 1976. Archived from the original on 2 September 2013. "Angola Airlines is the new trading name of TAAG. Two Advanced 737-200Cs have now been delivered, having been embargoed by the State Department during the recent hostilities." 
  18. ^ "World news – Public-transport accidents". Flight International 109 (3493): 396. 21 February 1976. Archived from the original on 2 September 2013. "A Fairchild FH.227 on delivery from Allegheny Airlines to South-West African airline Suidwes was intercepted over Angola on February 11 and forced to land at Luanda." 
  19. ^ a b "Airliner market". Flight International 110 (3517): 309. 7 August 1976. Archived from the original on 2 September 2013. "The Fairchild-Hiller FH-227B registered in the UK as G-BEAI was impounded by Angola while being delivered to South Africa during the recent conflict and is now in service with Angola Airlines. The Airclaims insurance group is understood to have paid a claim on the loss; the filing of a UK registration may represent an attempt to recover the aircraft. Two ex-THY Turkish Airlines F.27s and an ex-Argentine Air Force Caravelle are also being used by Angola Airlines." 
  20. ^ "Airliner market". Flight International 112 (3582): 1341. 5 November 1977. Archived from the original on 2 September 2013. "The new order releases for sale another pair of Boeing 707-320CS, one of which has already been sold to Angola Airlines" 
  21. ^ "Airliner market". Flight International 113 (3596): 415. 18 February 1978. Archived from the original on 2 September 2013. "Angola Airlines has bought two used F.27 Friendships from Fokker-VFW. The first completely overhauled aircraft was delivered recently" 
  22. ^ "Airliner market". Flight International 115 (3659): 1448. 5 May 1979. Archived from the original on 2 September 2013. "Angola Airlines has ordered one 737 for immediate delivery" 
  23. ^ "World airline directory – TAAG-Angola Airlines". Flight International 118 (3716): 359. 26 July 1980. ISSN 0015-3710. Archived from the original on 2 September 2013. 
  24. ^ "News scan". Flight International 133 (4112): 5. 7 May 1988. ISSN 0015-3710. Archived from the original on 11 July 2014. "TAAG-Angola Airlines has taken delivery of its first of two Ilyushin Il-62Ms from Aviaexport." 
  25. ^ "Casualties". Flight International 134 (4129): 38. 3 September 1988. ISSN 0015-3710. Archived from the original on 11 July 2014. "A Boeing 707 cargo aircraft owned by Angolan airline TAAG crashed 20 km from the Murtala Muhammed International Airport, Lagos, Nigeria, on July 21, killing all six members of the crew. The aircraft, which was on route from Ostend, Belgium, to Luanda, crashed on approach to the Nigerian capital for a refuelling stop." 
  26. ^ "World airline directory – Linhas Aereas de Angola (TAAG-Angloa Airlines)". Flight International 137 (4207): 105. 14 – 20 March 1990. ISSN 0015-3710. Archived from the original on 11 July 2014. 
  27. ^ "TAAG's first 747". Flightglobal.com. Flight International. 29 January 1997. Archived from the original on 29 August 2012. Retrieved 29 August 2012. 
  28. ^ "Orders flying in for commercial airlines". Boeing Frontiers 4 (4) (Boeing). August 2005 (2005-08). Archived from the original on 7 July 2014. 
  29. ^ "Boeing prepares TAAG 777". Flightglobal. Flight International. 5 September 2006. Archived from the original on 29 August 2012. "TAAG will use the aircraft to replace its five 737-200s and two 747-300s." 
  30. ^ "Boeing delivers five aircraft in one day to TAAG Angola Airlines". London: Flightglobal. 14 November 2006. Archived from the original on 29 August 2012. 
  31. ^ "Boeing Delivers Five New Jetliners to TAAG Angola Airlines" (Press release). Boeing. 13 November 2006. Archived from the original on 14 April 2013. 
  32. ^ "Boeing Delivers Five Commercial Jets to TAAG Angola Airlines" (Press release). Boeing. 13 November 2006. Archived from the original on 14 April 2013. 
  33. ^ a b Buyck, Cathy (6 July 2007). "EC unveils blacklist as Indonesia, Angola consider reprisals". Air Transport World. Archived from the original on 3 June 2012. 
  34. ^ Kamisnki-Morrow, David (28 June 2007). "All Indonesian carriers and TAAG Angola blacklisted by EU". Flightglobal.com. Archived from the original on 24 July 2012. Retrieved 24 July 2012. 
  35. ^ "EU bans all Indonesian airlines". BBC News. 28 June 2007. Archived from the original on 24 July 2012. Retrieved 24 July 2012. "The new list includes all 51 carriers from Indonesia, eight from Moldova, six from Bulgaria, Angolan carrier TAAG Angola Airlines and Volare Aviation from Ukraine. It will be formally approved on 4 July and published the next day." 
  36. ^ Latham, Brian (31 December 2008). "Angolan Airline Losing $5 Million a Month on EU Ban, Angop Says". Bloomberg L.P. Archived from the original on 23 July 2013. 
  37. ^ Sobie, Brendan (30 October 2008). "SAA reintroduces 747-400s". Washington, D.C.: Flightglobal.com. Air Transport Intelligence news. Archived from the original on 11 September 2012. "SAA earlier this year decided to wet-lease one of these aircraft to TAAG Angola Airlines, which needed an aircraft for its daily Luanda-Lisbon service because an EU ban precludes it from using its own aircraft." 
  38. ^ Karp, Aaron (26 May 2008). "SAA: Restructuring plan on track but fuel prices a concern". Air Transport World. Archived from the original on 17 September 2012. "Three 747s have been returned to lessors, one has been wet-leased to TAAG Angola Airlines and the remaining two "are in the process of being subleased through their owners."" 
  39. ^ "Refundação da TAAG em fase conclusiva (Re-establishment of TAAG in final phase)". O País (in Portuguese). 2013-318. Retrieved 6 October 2013. 
  40. ^ "Angolan Airlines starts Luanda/Beijing second direct flight". ANGOP. 30 September 2013. Archived from the original on 11 July 2014. 
  41. ^ "TAAG passes IATA's test". Luanda: ANGOP. 29 May 2009. Archived from the original on 29 August 2012. Retrieved 29 August 2012. 
  42. ^ "Angola's TAAG opens flights to Havana, Cape Town". The Independent. 10 November 2009. Archived from the original on 10 November 2012. Retrieved 10 November 2012. 
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Bibliography[edit]

  • Guttery, Ben R. (1998). Encyclopedia of African Airlines. Jefferson, North Carolina 28640: Mc Farland & Company, Inc. ISBN 0-7864-0495-7. 

External links[edit]