TAM Airlines

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Not to be confused with TAN Airlines.
TAM Airlines
TAM Airlines Logo.svg
IATA
JJ
ICAO
TAM
Callsign
TAM
Founded 1976
Operating bases
Hubs
Focus cities
Frequent-flyer program TAM Fidelidade
Airport lounge VIP Lounge
Alliance Oneworld[1]
Subsidiaries TAM Airlines (Paraguay)
Fleet size 175
Destinations 62
Company slogan Portuguese: 'Paixão por voar e servir'
English: 'Passion to fly and serve'
Parent company Lan Airlines
Headquarters São Paulo, Brazil
Key people None
Revenue Increase US6.4 billion (2013)[2]
Net income Decrease - US$640.0 million (2013)[2]
Website www.tamairlines.com
The headquarters of TAM
Former TAM logo
A TAM 777 in Frankfurt.

TAM Airlines[3] (Portuguese: TAM Linhas Aéreas[4]) is the Brazilian brand of LATAM Airlines Group. The merger of TAM with LAN Airlines was completed on June 22, 2012.[5] The company is currently the largest Brazilian airline by market share and fleet size, though it is not a flag carrier.

Before the takeover, TAM was Brazil's and Latin America's largest airline.[6][7] Its headquarters are in São Paulo,[8] operating scheduled services to destinations within Brazil, as well as international flights to Europe and other parts of North and South America. Shares in the company were traded on the São Paulo Exchange (BM&F Bovespa) and New York Stock Exchange as "TAM".[9] Prior to the merger with LAN, the company closed its capital, transferring its shares to Latam Airlines Group.

According to the National Civil Aviation Agency of Brazil (ANAC), between January and December 2012 TAM had 40.79% of the domestic and 89.44% of the international market shares in terms of passengers per kilometre flown.[10] Starting September 2010 statistics refer to the totality of TAM Group, comprising TAM Airlines and TAM (Paraguay)

The airline withdrew from the Star Alliance and joined Oneworld effective March 31, 2014.[1]

History[edit]

TAM – Táxi Aéreo Marília[edit]

TAM – Táxi Aéreo Marília and TAM – Transportes Aéreos Regionais were two different entities, although both belonged to the TAM Group. TAM – Marília, an air taxi company founded in 1961, provided the start-up infrastructure for TAM – Regionais.

TAM – Transportes Aéreos Regionais (KK)[edit]

On November 11, 1975, the Government of Brazil created the Brazilian Integrated System of Regional Air Transportation and divided the country in five different regions, for which five newly created regional airlines received a concession to operate air services. Founded by Rolim Adolfo Amaro[11] TAM – Transportes Aéreos Regionais S/A was the third of those regional airlines to be made operational. Its services started on July 12, 1976, and its operational area comprised parts of the Southeast and Central West regions of Brazil, specifically the states of Mato Grosso do Sul, and parts of Mato Grosso, and São Paulo plus the possibility of serving the cities of Cuiabá, Rio de Janeiro, Londrina, Maringá and Brasília when linking them to its area of concession.[12]

TAM – Linhas Aéreas Regionais was formed as a joint-venture between TAM – Táxi Aéreo Marília and VASP, the latter of which was then a state-owned airline. The airline received the IATA code KK[13] on October 13, 1999. The new airline flew Embraer EMB 110 Bandeirantes at first, but these proved grossly inadequate for the task at hand, and even at full capacity needed to be subsidized by the government in order to be profitable.

TAM went on to purchase three used Fokker F27 turboprops, which were subsequently refurbished by Fokker in the Netherlands. In order to obtain the import authorization for the aircraft, a deal was struck with the government in which TAM was forced to maintain 3 Bandeirantes for every F27, as well as removing 5 seats from each one, bringing the F27's capacity down to 40 passengers. A fourth F27, previously owned by Air New Zealand, was added to the TAM fleet in 1981. By 1983, TAM had acquired 10 F27s. By 1981, TAM had flown one million passengers, and two million by 1984.

TAM (KK) joint operations with TAM (JJ)[edit]

In August 1986, the company, under financial stress, went public and began floating stock in the market. The same year, TAM – Transportes Aéreos Regionais (KK) acquired another regional airline, VOTEC, which operated in areas of northern and central Brazil. VOTEC was then renamed Brasil Central Linhas Aéreas. TAM and Brasil Central were both regional airlines and operated in different designated areas. They however operated as a consortium with integrated networks and fleet, with the most notable differences being the flight number IATA codes (whereas TAM had the IATA code KK, Brasil Central operated with the code JJ inherited from VOTEC), the different color schemes of the aircraft, and their designated areas of operation. In 1988, TAM flew its 3 millionth passenger.

On May 15, 1990, the Brazilian Government lifted restrictions on operational areas of regional airlines allowing them to fly anywhere in Brazil. As a consequence, Brasil Central was renamed TAMTransportes Aéreos Meridionais, acquired the same color scheme of TAM (KK) but maintained the IATA code JJ.

In 2000 TAM (KK) was merged into TAM (JJ) and TAM (JJ) was renamed TAM Transportes Aéreos. The code JJ was maintained and the code KK was released back to IATA. It is now used by Atlasjet.

Despite TAM's success in the market, it was evident the airline would not last long when competing against airlines such as Varig and VASP, both of which already possessed Boeing 737s in their fleet. Amaro then tried to buy VASP, which was about to be privatized, and called the project "Revolution". Having lost the bid, he opted for slower growth with a gradual addition of new aircraft, re-dubbed "Evolution".

On September 15, 1989, TAM arranged for the acquisition of two Fokker 100 jets, which had originally been ordered by the now-bankrupt Pan American World Airways. Like the F27s before them, TAM did not actually purchase these aircraft, but used Amaro's credibility to arrange for a third-party asset management company, Guinness Peat Aviation to purchase them and subsequently lease them back to TAM. Two more were added in 1991. In 1992, TAM carried its eight millionth passenger. By 1993, through the use of the Fokker 100 fleet, which now numbered at 14, TAM was serving 56 cities in Brazil.

In 1996 TAM bought another airline, Helisul Linhas Aéreas, which used the trade name of TAM. In 1997, TAM ordered its first large jets; the airline ordered 45 planes from Airbus, including 10 A330s, 4 A319s, and 34 A320s. In 1997, the Airbuses began to be delivered and the airline flew its first international service, from São Paulo to Miami International Airport.

Two years later, in 1999, services to Europe were inaugurated through a code share service with Air France, to Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport. In 2000, the airline was renamed TAM Linhas Aéreas in Portuguese. Long running discussions to merge with Varig ended in 2004. In 2008, TAM transported 30,144,000 passengers, with an average load factor of 71%.[14] As of 2010, the airline is owned by the Amaro family (46.25%), Amaro Aviation Part (3.52%), treasury stocks (0.27%) and minority shareholders (49.96%). It employs 24,000 staff.[14] On May 13, 2010, TAM became the 27th member of Star Alliance.[15]

In 2009 TAM decided to replace its Passenger Service System provided by Sabre, known as Sabresonic, with the Altéa platform from Amadeus.[16] The migration to Altéa was completed in the first quarter of 2010.[17]

On March 30, 2011, TAM signed a letter of intentions to purchase up to 31% of the shares of TRIP Linhas Aéreas, a regional airline which code-shares with TAM since 2004.[18] A final decision had however been postponed,[19] and finally in February 2012 the purchase agreement was not renewed. On May 28, 2012 it was announced that TRIP was sold to Azul Brazilian Airlines.[20] Code-sharing operations ended on March 28, 2013.[21]

On 23 January 2013, the Jet Airliner Crash Data Evaluation Centre (JACDEC) announced that TAM Airlines had the second worst safety record in the world. The ratings take into account the number and deadliness of the hull losses (destroyed airplanes) they have suffered in the past 30 years, how they have fared more recently, and how many flights they have flown without incident. The results do not take into account the cause of the hull losses, or whether the airline is at fault, so they are not a perfect measure of how safely an airline behaves.[22]

Agreement with LAN to create LATAM Airlines Group[edit]

On August 13, 2010, TAM signed a non-binding agreement with Chilean airline LAN Airlines to merge and create LATAM Airlines Group.[23] This was changed into a binding agreement on January 19, 2011.[24] Latam agreement was approved with 11 restrictions by Chilean authorities on September 21, 2011. These include transferring 4 slots at São Paulo-Guarulhos to competitors interested in operating flights to Santiago de Chile, renouncing membership to either Oneworld or Star Alliance, restricting increase capacity on flights between Brazil and Chile, and opening code-share possibilities and fidelity program membership to interested competitors.[25] On December 14, 2011, Brazilian authorities approved the agreement imposing similar restrictions as Chilean authorities: LATAM will have to choose an alliance by August 2012 and frequencies between São Paulo and Santiago de Chile will have to be reduced. Presently TAM has two pairs of slots while LAN has four. LAN will have to cede two pairs to competitors interested in using them.[26]

The merger was completed on June 22, 2012.[5]

Main article: LATAM Airlines Group
TAM Airbus A330-200 in the former livery

Subsidiaries[edit]

TAM plane at Londrina airport

In 1994 TAM Airlines established a small subsidiary airline in Paraguay called ARPA - Aerolíneas Paraguayas with a fleet consisting mostly of Cessna 208 Caravan aircraft, formerly operated by TAM. On September 1, 1996, TAM via ARPA, purchased 80% of the shares of the former state-owned LAP – Líneas Aéreas Paraguayas and merged it with ARPA. The new airline was named TAMTransportes Aéreos del Mercosur and maintained the IATA code of LAP, PZ. Today TAM owns 94.98% and the Paraguayan government 5.02% of the shares.

In 2008, following a branding strategy, the name TAM Mercosur was dropped and the airline adopted an identical corporate identity of TAM Airlines. However, its corporate structure remains the same.[27] This airline is today informally known as TAM Paraguay, and uses the IATA code PZ.

On December 21, 2009, TAM Airlines purchased Pantanal Linhas Aéreas. At that time TAM decided to maintain Pantanal as a separate airline within the TAM Group integrated into the network of TAM,[28] and the previous P8 IATA code of Pantanal was changed to GP.

Since August 1, 2011 Pantanal operated flights on behalf of TAM, all with origin and destination at São-Paulo-Congonhas Airport.

On March 26, 2013 Brazilian authorities approved the incorporation of all Pantanal assets by TAM and Pantanal ceased to exist.[29] The incorporation process was completed on August 23, 2013.[30]

Destinations[edit]

The network of TAM Group (composed of TAM Airlines, and TAM Paraguay) covers Brazil, Paraguay, Europe, North and South America.

Furthermore, TAM Airlines maintains code-share agreements for international destinations with Star Alliance partners, Aeroméxico,[31] Korean Air, and LAN Airlines, and in relation to German domestic destinations TAM has an agreement with Deutsche Bahn. TAM's international codeshare network include connections from Frankfurt to destinations across Germany, France, Austria and Denmark with Lufthansa, connections from Miami and New York to Chicago and then other destinations within USA with United Airlines, flights from São Paulo to Canada, Portugal and domestic connections with Air Canada and TAP Portugal and also connecting flights to Tokyo and Beijing (from London and Madrid respectively) with All Nippon Airways and Air China. TAM also signed a codeshare agreement with Oneworld partner American Airlines with connections between Brazil and select U.S. cities such as Boston, Chicago, Dallas/Fort Worth, Las Vegas, and Seattle.[32]

Fleet[edit]

A TAM Airlines Airbus A330-200 wearing the new livery at Frankfurt Airport. (2011)
TAM Airbus A320 in the former livery

On June 16, 2005, TAM announced the purchase of 20 additional Airbus A320 family aircraft (including the models A319, A320 and A321), plus an additional 20 options. These are expected to be delivered between late 2007 and 2010, adding to the already scheduled delivery of 6 A320s between 2006 and 2008. At the same time, the company signed a memorandum of understanding with Airbus stating its intent to buy 10 of the new Airbus A350-900 (plus 5 options), with deliveries due to commence at the end of 2014. These are expected to replace the A330 on the Paris and Miami routes as they become available.[citation needed]

TAM has signed a firm contract with Airbus to acquire 37 additional aircraft. The order comprises twelve A319s, 16 A320s, three A321s and three A330s and includes twelve unspecified extra options. This would bring the number of aircraft in TAM's fleet acquired directly from Airbus to 115 aircraft.[33] The commitments are separate from deals in earlier years for 29 firm-ordered A320s and 20 options. The deliveries are to be concluded by 2010.

In 2013, TAM announced the phase out of the 3 Boeing 767 it operates, but it later changed plans and decided to keep the aircraft and bring 6 more newer aircraft from LAN Airlines. They will replace older A330-200. TAM will also receive the first aircraft of the A320 family with Sharklets in April 2013.

Fleet maintenance is partially conducted at the technology center at São Carlos Airport.[34][35]

As of July 2014, the fleet of TAM Airlines includes the following aircraft:[36][37][38][39]

TAM Airlines Fleet
Aircraft In Service Orders Passengers Notes
F C Y Total
Airbus A319-100 28 2 138
144
138
144
Airbus A320-200 94 26 12
0
0
144
168
174
156
168
174
4 leased to TAM Airlines (Paraguay)
Airbus A320neo 20 TBA 150 To be delivered in 2015[40]
Airbus A321-200 16 29 220 220
Airbus A330-200 15 4 36 183 223
Airbus A350-900 30 TBA 366 To be delivered between 2016 and 2018[41]
Boeing 767-300ER 6 4 0 30 175 205 Ex-LAN More aircraft to be incorporated
Boeing 777-300ER 10 4 45 314 363
Total 175 111

Retired Fleet[edit]

TAM Airlines Retred Fleet[42]
Aircraft Total Years of operation
Embraer EMB 110 Bandeirante ? 1976–1996
Fokker F27 10 1980–2000
Fokker 50 9 1990–2001
Fokker 100 53 1991–2008
McDonnell Douglas MD-11 3 2007–2008
Airbus A340-500 2 2007–2011

Airline affinity program[edit]

TAM Fidelidade (TAM Loyalty) is the frequent flyer program of TAM Airlines. Program points can be redeemed for tickets on TAM, Star Alliance airlines (except Avianca and Copa Airlines) and other selected partners. It is divided into the following categories and percentages of mileage accrual:

Card Type Points needed / year Economy class Business class First class
WHITE
-
100% (100%)
125% (125%)
150% (150%)
BLUE
12,000
100% + 25% (125%)
125% + 25% (150%)
150% + 25% (175%)
RED
48,000
100% + 50% (150%)
125% + 50% (175%)
150% + 50% (200%)
BLACK
150,000*
100% + 50% (150%)
125% + 50% (175%)
150% + 50% (200%)

Points accrual may vary according to the fare basis of the ticket.

To achieve BLACK status, only points flown with TAM Airlines and its subsidiaries (JJ and PZ flights) are taken into account.

The BLUE status offer the benefits of Star Alliance Silver status. Both RED and BLACK status offer the benefits of Star Alliance Gold status.

Incidents and accidents[edit]

This building across from Congonhas-São Paulo Airport advertised TAM Airlines's TAM Express (now TAM Cargo) service, prior to the crash of TAM Airlines Flight 3054.
  • On February 8, 1979, an Embraer EMB 110 Bandeirante registration PT-SBB operating a flight from Bauru to São Paulo-Congonhas, while on initial climb from Bauru, struck trees and crashed into flames. All 2 crew and 16 passengers died.[43][44]
  • On October 7, 1983, an Embraer EMB 110C Bandeirante registration PP-SBH flying from Campo Grande and Urubupungá to Araçatuba struck the ground just short of the runway threshold after missing the approach at Araçatuba Airport twice. Seven crew and passengers died.[45][46]
  • On June 28, 1984, an Embraer EMB 110C Bandeirante registration PP-SBC operating a chartered flight by Petrobras from Rio de Janeiro-Galeão to Macaé flew into São João Hill hill while descending through rain and clouds over the Municipality of São Pedro da Aldeia. All 16 passengers and 2 crew died. The passengers were journalists of well-known Brazilian networks who were preparing a special report about the Campos Basin oil fields.[47][48]
  • On February 12, 1990: a Fokker F27 registration PT-LCG operating a flight from São Paulo-Congonhas to Bauru, due to faulty approach procedures touched down at Bauru 775 m past the runway threshold. The pilot was unable to initiate a go-around procedure and went past the end of the runway, hitting a car that was passing on a road nearby. One crew member and two occupants of the car died.[49]
  • On October 31, 1996, a Fokker 100 registration PT-MRK and operating as Flight 402 from São Paulo-Congonhas to Rio de Janeiro-Santos Dumont crashed on urban area during takeoff procedures and after engine no. 2 suffering at least three uncommanded reverse thrust deployments and thus losing power, stalled, rolled to the right and struck two buildings. All 95 passengers and crew on board and 4 people on the ground died.[50][51]
  • On July 9, 1997, a Fokker 100 registration PT-WHK operating flight 283 en route from São José dos Campos to São Paulo-Congonhas. The aircraft was climbing after take-off from São José dos Campos when a bomb exploded in the rear part of the passenger cabin. The uncontrolled decompression blew one passenger out of the aircraft. The aircraft made a successful emergency landing in São Paulo, despite the hole in the fuselage.[52]
  • On September 15, 2001, a Fokker 100 registration PT-MRN operating the charter flight 9755, flying from Recife to São Paulo-Congonhas via Campinas-Viracopos, following an uncontrolled engine failure en route to Campinas had 3 cabin windows shattered by fragments of the engine and made an emergency landing at Belo Horizonte-Confins. One passenger was sucked out partly and held by another passenger until the aircraft landed. The passenger did not survive though.[53][54]
  • On July 17, 2007, an Airbus A320 registration PR-MBK operating flight 3054 from Porto Alegre to São Paulo-Congonhas overran the runway while landing at Congonhas, crossed a major thoroughfare and impacted against a TAM Express warehouse. All 186 passengers and crew perished. 199 bodies were recovered from the crash site, including passengers, crew and people that were working at the warehouse.[55]

Sister companies[edit]

  • TAM Cargo provides cargo services.[56]
  • Multiplus Fidelidade is the customer loyalty network.[56] On November 8, 2011, Multiplus and the Canadian Aimia, administrator of Aeroplan, the loyalty program of Air Canada, established a joint-venture to create in Brazil a third company that would administrate loyalty schemes of other companies.[57]
  • TAM Aviação Executiva provides air services for business executives.[56]
  • TAM Viagens provides vacation package services for Brazilians,[56] while TAM Vacations provides vacation package services for Americans.[58][59]
  • Cine TAM: a cinema in São Paulo owned by the airline.
  • TAM Museum: a museum of vintage aircraft located in São Carlos and maintained by TAM Group.[56]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Young, Kathryn M. (2013-10-01). "LAN Colombia joins oneworld; TAM to join March 31, 2014 | Finance & Data content from". ATWOnline. Retrieved 2014-02-02. 
  2. ^ a b "Lucro da TAM cai 48,9% em 2010, a R$637,4 milhões" (in Portuguese). Veja: Economia. 28 February 2011. Retrieved 27 September 2011. 
  3. ^ TAM Airlines. Retrieved February 2, 2009.
  4. ^ "Resumo Historico do Grupo TAM". Retrieved 26 January 2012. (Portuguese)
  5. ^ a b "Chile's LAN Airlines completes takeover of rival TAM". Reuters. June 22, 2012. 
  6. ^ TAM bill of US$ 5.5 million, 2 million more than LAN.
  7. ^ "Press release" (Press release). TAM. February 21, 2008. 
  8. ^ Contact Us TAM Airlines. Retrieved September 21, 2009.
  9. ^ TAM S.A., Joins NYSE Group, Inc. as 3rd Latin American IPO for 2006
  10. ^ "Dados Comparativos Avançados" (in Portuguese). Agência Nacional de Aviação Civil (ANAC). Retrieved January 21, 2013. 
  11. ^ Guaracy, Thales (2003). O sonho brasileiro: como Rolim Adolfo Amarou criou a TAM e sua filosofia de negócios (in Portuguese). Girafa. p. 480. ISBN 85-89876-02-0. 
  12. ^ Garófalo, Gílson de Lima (1982). O Mercado Brasileiro de Transporte Aéreo Regional (in Portuguese). São Paulo: Instituto de Pesquisas Econômicas. pp. 103–107, 122–125. 
  13. ^ Home Page
  14. ^ a b Airways magazine, Fast Facts - TAM Linhas Aereas, February 2010, p. 25
  15. ^ "TAM Airlines joins Star Alliance". Star Alliance. 13 May 2010. Retrieved 28 August 2010. 
  16. ^ TAM reveals Amadeus deal as it readies to join Star in April
  17. ^ Amadeus processes record number of airline passengers through its Altea platform (press release) | ABTN
  18. ^ Westphalen, Ana Luísa (March 30, 2011). "TAM negocia com TRIP e pode ter participação de 31% na aérea regional" (in Portuguese). Valor Online. Retrieved April 18, 2011. 
  19. ^ Komatsu, Alberto (November 21, 2011). "TAM reforça gestão do mercado interno" (in Portuguese). Valor Econômico. Retrieved December 13, 2011. 
  20. ^ "Azul e Trip anunciam fusão" (in Portuguese). Folha.com. May 28, 2012. Retrieved May 28, 2012. 
  21. ^ "TAM cancela acordo de compartilhamento com a Trip" (in Portuguese). O Estado de São Paulo. April 2, 2013. Retrieved April 3, 2013. 
  22. ^ Davies, Alex (January 23, 2013). "The World's 10 Most Dangerous Airlines". Yahoo Finance. Retrieved January 23, 2013. 
  23. ^ "LAN says signs non-binding deal with TAM to merge". Reuters. August 13, 2010. Retrieved August 13, 2010. 
  24. ^ "TAM e LAN assinam acordos vinculativos sobre a LATAM" (in Portuguese). TAM Linhas Aéreas. January 19, 2011. Retrieved August 14, 2011. 
  25. ^ Seabra, Luciana (September 21, 2011). "Tribunal chileno aprova fusão de TAM e LAN com 11 condições" (in Portuguese). Valor Econômico. Retrieved September 26, 2011. 
  26. ^ Rodrigues, Eduardo; Froufe, Célia (December 14, 2011). "Com restrições, CADE aprova fusão TAM/Lan" (in Portuguese). O Estado de São Paulo. Retrieved December 15, 2011. 
  27. ^ "TAM Airlines Consolidates Fleet and Initiates New Air Network". Reuters. May 26, 2008. Retrieved February 2, 2009. 
  28. ^ "TAM compra Pantanal Linhas Aéreas por R$13 milhões" (in Portuguese). O Estado de São Paulo. 21 December 2009. Retrieved 28 August 2010. 
  29. ^ "Ata da reunião deliberativa realizada em 26 de março de 2013" (in Portuguese). ANAC. March 26, 2013. Retrieved June 30, 2014. 
  30. ^ "TAM Informa" (in Portuguese). TAM. August 14, 2013. Retrieved June 30, 2014. 
  31. ^ Equity, Zacks (2012-04-17). "TAM Aeromexico in Codeshare Deal - Yahoo Finance". Finance.yahoo.com. Retrieved 2014-02-02. 
  32. ^ [1][dead link]
  33. ^ Airliner World January 2007
  34. ^ "Centro Tecnológico de São Carlos," TAM Airlines
  35. ^ "Brazil MRO sector poised for major expansion". Flightglobal. 6 July 2010. Retrieved 6 July 2010. 
  36. ^ "Frota brasileira / Brazilian fleet". Aeromuseu.com.br. 2014-01-18. Retrieved 2014-02-02. 
  37. ^ ":: Tam Linhas Aéreas S/A - Paixão Por Voar E Servir ::". Tam.com.br. Retrieved 2014-02-02. 
  38. ^ "TAM Linhas Aéreas". ch-aviation.com. Retrieved 2014-02-02. 
  39. ^ 19 February 2014. Linhas Aéreas "TAM Linhas Aéreas Fleet in Planespotters.net". planespotters.net. Retrieved 2014-02-19. 
  40. ^ TAM orders 22 A320neo
  41. ^ https://pt-br.facebook.com/TAMAirlines/posts/10151608867533917
  42. ^ TAM Fleet | Airfleets aviation
  43. ^ "Accident description PT-SBB". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 20 May 2011. 
  44. ^ Germano da Silva, Carlos Ari César (2008). "Compensador automático". O rastro da bruxa: história da aviação comercial brasileira no século XX através dos seus acidentes 1928-1996 (in Portuguese) (2 ed.). Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS. pp. 308–312. ISBN 978-85-7430-760-2. 
  45. ^ "Accident description PP-SBH". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 8 May 2011. 
  46. ^ Germano da Silva, Carlos Ari César (2008). "Três é demais". O rastro da bruxa: história da aviação comercial brasileira no século XX através dos seus acidentes 1928-1996 (in Portuguese) (2 ed.). Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS. pp. 332–334. ISBN 978-85-7430-760-2. 
  47. ^ "Accident description PP-SBC". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 4 August 2011. 
  48. ^ Germano da Silva, Carlos Ari César (2008). "Visumento". O rastro da bruxa: história da aviação comercial brasileira no século XX através dos seus acidentes 1928-1996 (in Portuguese) (2 ed.). Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS. pp. 338–341. ISBN 978-85-7430-760-2. 
  49. ^ "Accident description PT-LCG". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 20 May 2011. 
  50. ^ "Accident description PT-MRK". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 17 August 2011. 
  51. ^ Germano da Silva, Carlos Ari César (2008). "Vinte e quatro segundos". O rastro da bruxa: história da aviação comercial brasileira no século XX através dos seus acidentes 1928-1996 (in Portuguese) (2 ed.). Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS. pp. 376–381. ISBN 978-85-7430-760-2. 
  52. ^ "Accident description PT-WHK". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 13 August 2011. 
  53. ^ "Accident description PT-MRN". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 23 May 2011. 
  54. ^ Marra, Lívia (16 September 2001). "Avião da TAM acidentado em Minas havia sido revisado no mês passado" (in Portuguese). Folha Online. Retrieved 23 May 2011. 
  55. ^ "Accident description PR-MBK". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 16 July 2011. 
  56. ^ a b c d e "TAM Group Companies." TAM Airlines. Retrieved on August 12, 2010.
  57. ^ Komatsu, Alberto (November 8, 2011). "Multipkus e a canadense Aimia criam nova companhia no Brasil" (in Portuguese). Valor Econômico. Retrieved November 11, 2011. 
  58. ^ TAM Viagens
  59. ^ TAM Vacations Travel South America - Vacation Packages-Special Offers

External links[edit]

External images
TAM Photo Archive at airliners.net