TLRs are highly conserved from Drosophila to humans and share structural and functional similarities. They recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that are expressed on infectious agents, and mediate the production of cytokines necessary for the development of effective immunity. The various TLRs exhibit different patterns of expression. This gene is ubiquitously expressed, and at higher levels than other TLR genes. Different length transcripts presumably resulting from use of alternative polyadenylation site, and/or from alternative splicing, have been noted for this gene.
^Rock FL, Hardiman G, Timans JC, Kastelein RA, Bazan JF (January 1998). "A family of human receptors structurally related to Drosophila Toll". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.95 (2): 588–93. doi:10.1073/pnas.95.2.588. PMC18464. PMID9435236.
^Farhat K, Riekenberg S, Heine H, Debarry J, Lang R, Mages J, Buwitt-Beckmann U, Röschmann K, Jung G, Wiesmüller KH, Ulmer AJ (March 2008). "Heterodimerization of TLR2 with TLR1 or TLR6 expands the ligand spectrum but does not lead to differential signaling". J. Leukoc. Biol.83 (3): 692–701. doi:10.1189/jlb.0807586. PMID18056480.
^Jin MS, Kim SE, Heo JY, Lee ME, Kim HM, Paik SG, Lee H, Lee JO (September 2007). "Crystal structure of the TLR1-TLR2 heterodimer induced by binding of a tri-acylated lipopeptide". Cell130 (6): 1071–82. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.09.008. PMID17889651.
^Takeuchi, Osamu; Sato Shintaro, Horiuchi Takao, Hoshino Katsuaki, Takeda Kiyoshi, Dong Zhongyun, Modlin Robert L, Akira Shizuo (Jul. 2002). "Cutting edge: role of Toll-like receptor 1 in mediating immune response to microbial lipoproteins". J. Immunol. (United States) 169 (1): 10–4. ISSN0022-1767. PMID12077222.