TLR3

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Toll-like receptor 3
TLR3 structure.png
The structure of TLR3 covered with sugars
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Identifiers
Symbols TLR3 ; CD283; IIAE2
External IDs OMIM603029 MGI2156367 HomoloGene20696 ChEMBL: 1075113 GeneCards: TLR3 Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE TLR3 206271 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 7098 142980
Ensembl ENSG00000164342 ENSMUSG00000031639
UniProt O15455 Q99MB1
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_003265 NM_126166
RefSeq (protein) NP_003256 NP_569054
Location (UCSC) Chr 4:
186.99 – 187.01 Mb
Chr 8:
45.4 – 45.41 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) also known as CD283 (cluster of differentiation 283) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TLR3 gene.[1] TLR3 is a member of the Toll-like receptor family of pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system.

Function[edit]

TLR3 is a member of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family which plays a fundamental role in pathogen recognition and activation of innate immunity. TLRs are highly conserved from Drosophila to humans and share structural and functional similarities. They recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that are expressed on infectious agents, and mediate the production of cytokines necessary for the development of effective immunity. The various TLRs exhibit different patterns of expression. This receptor is most abundantly expressed in placenta and pancreas, and is restricted to the dendritic subpopulation of the leukocytes. It recognizes dsRNA associated with viral infection, and induces the activation of IRF3, unlike all other Toll-like receptors which activate NF-κB. IRF3 ultimately induces the production of type I interferons. It may thus play a role in host defense against viruses.[2]

TLR3 recognizes double-stranded RNA, a form of genetic information carried by some viruses such as retroviruses. Upon recognition, TLR 3 induces the activation of IRF3 to increase production of type I interferons which signal other cells to increase their antiviral defenses. Double-stranded RNA is also recognised by the cytoplasmic receptors RIG-I and MDA-5.[3]

TLR3 displays a protective role in mouse models of atherosclerosis.[4] In addition, TLR3 activators show effects on human vascular cells.[4]

Structure[edit]

The structure of TLR3 was reported in June 2005 by researchers at The Scripps Research Institute.[5] TLR3 forms a large horseshoe shape that contacts with a neighboring horseshoe, forming a "dimer" of two horseshoes. Much of the TLR3 protein surface is covered with sugar molecules, making it a glycoprotein, but on one face (including the proposed interface between the two horseshoes), there is a large sugar-free surface. This surface also contains two distinct patches rich in positively charged amino acids, which may be a binding site for negatively charged double-stranded RNA.

Despite being a glycoprotein, TLR3 crystallises readily - a prerequisite for structural analysis by x-ray crystallography.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rock FL, Hardiman G, Timans JC, Kastelein RA, Bazan JF (January 1998). "A family of human receptors structurally related to Drosophila Toll". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95 (2): 588–93. doi:10.1073/pnas.95.2.588. PMC 18464. PMID 9435236. 
  2. ^ "Entrez Gene: toll-like receptor 3". 
  3. ^ Alexopoulou L, Holt AC, Medzhitov R, Flavell RA (2001). "Recognition of double-stranded RNA and activation of NF-kappaB by Toll-like receptor 3". Nature 413 (6857): 732–8. doi:10.1038/35099560. PMID 11607032. 
  4. ^ a b Cole JE, Navin TJ, Cross AJ, Goddard ME, Alexopoulou L, Mitra AT, Davies AH, Flavell RA, Feldmann M, Monaco C (January 2011). "Unexpected protective role for Toll-like receptor 3 in the arterial wall". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108 (6): 2372–7. doi:10.1073/pnas.1018515108. PMC 3038746. PMID 21220319. 
  5. ^ Choe J, Kelker MS, Wilson IA (2005). "Crystal structure of human toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) ectodomain". Science 309 (5734): 581–5. doi:10.1126/science.1115253. PMID 15961631. 

Further reading[edit]

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.