TPSG1

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Tryptase gamma 1
Identifiers
Symbols TPSG1 ; PRSS31; TMT; trpA
External IDs OMIM609341 MGI1349391 HomoloGene74994 ChEMBL: 4955 GeneCards: TPSG1 Gene
EC number 3.4.21.59
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 25823 26945
Ensembl ENSG00000116176 ENSMUSG00000033200
UniProt Q9NRR2 E0CXD8
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_012467 NM_012034
RefSeq (protein) NP_036599 NP_036164
Location (UCSC) Chr 16:
1.27 – 1.28 Mb
Chr 17:
25.37 – 25.37 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Tryptase gamma, also known as serine protease 31 or transmembrane tryptase, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the TPSG1 gene.[1]

Function[edit]

Tryptases comprise a family of trypsin-like serine proteases, the peptidase family S1. Tryptases are enzymatically active only as heparin-stabilized tetramers, and they are resistant to all known endogenous proteinase inhibitors. Several tryptase genes are clustered on chromosome 16p13.3. There is uncertainty regarding the number of genes in this cluster. Currently four functional genes - alpha I, beta I, beta II and gamma I - have been identified. And beta I has an allelic variant named alpha II, beta II has an allelic variant beta III, also gamma I has an allelic variant gamma II. Beta tryptases appear to be the main isoenzymes expressed in mast cells; whereas in basophils, alpha-tryptases predominant. This gene differs from other members of the tryptase gene family in that it has C-terminal hydrophobic domain, which may serve as a membrane anchor. Tryptases have been implicated as mediators in the pathogenesis of asthma and other allergic and inflammatory disorders.[1]

References[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Caughey GH (2002). "New developments in the genetics and activation of mast cell proteases.". Mol. Immunol. 38 (16-18): 1353–7. doi:10.1016/S0161-5890(02)00087-1. PMID 12217407. 
  • Caughey GH, Raymond WW, Blount JL, et al. (2000). "Characterization of human gamma-tryptases, novel members of the chromosome 16p mast cell tryptase and prostasin gene families.". J. Immunol. 164 (12): 6566–75. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.164.12.6566. PMID 10843716. 
  • Wong GW, Foster PS, Yasuda S, et al. (2002). "Biochemical and functional characterization of human transmembrane tryptase (TMT)/tryptase gamma. TMT is an exocytosed mast cell protease that induces airway hyperresponsiveness in vivo via an interleukin-13/interleukin-4 receptor alpha/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 6-dependent pathway.". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (44): 41906–15. doi:10.1074/jbc.M205868200. PMID 12194977. 
  • Daniels RJ, Peden JF, Lloyd C, et al. (2001). "Sequence, structure and pathology of the fully annotated terminal 2 Mb of the short arm of human chromosome 16.". Hum. Mol. Genet. 10 (4): 339–52. doi:10.1093/hmg/10.4.339. PMID 11157797. 
  • Wong GW, Tang Y, Feyfant E, et al. (1999). "Identification of a new member of the tryptase family of mouse and human mast cell proteases which possesses a novel COOH-terminal hydrophobic extension.". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (43): 30784–93. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.43.30784. PMID 10521469. 
  • Xiang M, Gu Y, Zhao F, et al. (2010). "Mast cell tryptase promotes breast cancer migration and invasion.". Oncol. Rep. 23 (3): 615–9. doi:10.3892/or_00000676. PMID 20126998. 

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.